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Their Founders, Benefactors, Faculties, Officers, Hospitals, Alumni, Etc., 

with a Record of Achievement of Its Representatives 

in the "World of Medicine 





Dea.n of the Fa.culty Ne-w York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital 



Copyright, 1905 


New York :: Chicago 


and the 

This Work Is Dedicated 

No mere Words can Adequately Express the Affection 
and Loyalty nvhich e'very True Homoeopathist must feel 
for Hahnemann and His Co-ivorkers. If these Volumes 
of the History of Homoeopathy and its Institutions in 
America in the Least Degree do Honor to Our Master, 
then They have not been Written in Vain 


The homceopathic school of medicine was founded in Germany, but 
its growth has been most noteworthy in America. This has been due not 
to greater abihty on the part of Hahnemann's followers in this country, 
nor to greater loyalty and enthusiasm among the adherents of homoe- 
opathy here, but to liberal laws which have enabled the physicians of this 
school to establish colleges where the law of similia s-irnilibus curantur 
could be properly taught, and physicians graduated who had not been 
prejudiced against it by contact with the allopathic profession, whose chief 
aim was to imbue the mind of the students with a belief in its supposed 
fallacies. The same spirit of liberality that encouraged the building of 
colleges also opened the way for the founding of hospitals and clinics, 
wherein the superiority of the homoeopathic treatment has been established. 
To record the growth of these institutions in America and the labors of 
the men who established them under trying circumstances, often fighting 
their way through storms of opposition, rising above all difficulties, is the 
province of this work. 

Thirty years ago Dr. Carroll Dunham undertook the preparation of 
a history of homoeopathy, but ill health and an untimely death prevented 
its completion by his hand, and others took up the task he was obliged to 
relinquish. This history appeared in a supplemental volume of the tran- 
sactions of the World's Homoeopathic Convention held in Philadelphia 
during the centennial of 1876. The substantial growth of homoeopathy in 
America has been since that time. Then scarcely a homoeopathic college 
owned any property, and there Avere few well-equipped homoeopathic hos- 
pitals in the land. To be sure, some vigorous homceopathic societies ex- 
isted, and it is to their vigor and activity that we owe the chief part of 
our advancement. These societies have been the organized force of the 
school. They have furnished it with inspiration and have, at the same 
time, been its critics. They have acted as censors on colleges and facul- 
ties, and m many ways have been the parent of the vigorous homoeopathy 
of to-day. We owe much tO' those men who, early foreseeing the difficul- 
ties which were to beset the establishment of a new school of medicine, 


and recognizing the necessity of an organized force, were moved to estab- 
lish the first national medical society in the United States, the American 
institute of Homoeopathy. 

Like tribute may be paid to the genius of those who organized the 
state societies, which in time came to exercise a strong influence over 
state legislatures, as it is these bodies which govern medical practice in 
this country, and conserA'e the welfare of the whole school. The history 
of medical legislation as it relates to our school to-day is interesting, 
showing what was done by a small band of men who believed in their 
cause, and asked for nothing but justice against a powerful organization 
actuated by malice, hatred, and ofttimes by superstition. Were it not 
for the work done by our state societies most of the institutions that we 
have to-day would not be in existence. 

Another potent force in the building up of the homoeopathic school 
of medicine has been its literature as presented in its journals and text 
books. The same wisdom that foresaw the necessity of organization 
foresaw the necessity of an individual literature. Homoeopathic jour- 
nals were early established, not only carrying each month fresh encour- 
agement to the physicians of the school, but bringing much help in the 
way of new provings. thus widening their therapeutic field. At the 
same time these journals kept abreast of the best there was in the whole 
domain of medicine and surgery. Text books of 'homoeopathic thera- 
peutics were issued by the score within a comparatively short time after 
the establishment of the school in America. Thus it was that the homoeo- 
pathic physician became independent of his allopathic rival and enemy, 
and the increasing strength of his school g^ave him confidence in his 
system and confidence in himself. 

All this, however, was only the means to an end. The real strength 
of the entire system lay in the superiority of the homoeopathic principle 
over the empiricism of the then dominant school of practice. But no 
matter how great an advancement our system may ha^'e been over that 
already in practice, it could not by its truth alone have made headway 
against bigotry, wdiich is sometimes called conservatism, together with 
an animositv which is not scientific and which in this case reflects no 
credit on the self-styled regular school of medicine. 

It was no easy task that our predecessors set for themselves in es- 
tablishing a new school of medicine under these conditions, and what 
we are to-day. and what we will be in the future, we owe to the ability, 
energy and self-sacrificing cliaracter of those who fought the battle when 


it was raging hottest and who never swerved from the course they had 
laid out for themselves. It is to preserve the work of these men that 
this history has been written. 

This history of homoeopathy takes up events in their natural se- 
quence. After a resume of Hahnemann's life and the events attending 
the founding of the system in Europe, it brings us to America with the 
landing in New York of Hans Burch Gram and the planting of homoe- 
opathy in the metropolis. Of much greater importance, however, was 
the landing of Constantine Hering and his comrades, and the opening 
of the Allentown Academy, afterwards the college in Philadelphia. That 
was really the nucleus of the homceopathic school in America. From 
these two points the growth of homoeopathy in every state, city and 
territory, and the founding of societies, colleges and hospitals are taken 
up in convenient order. 

In preparing a comprehensive history of homoeopathy and its insti- 
tutions, it has been necessary to draw information from many and varied 
sources. The names of the collaborators are sufficient to guarantee the 
sincerity and thoroughness of the work. They are not only the repre- 
sentative men and women of the school, but the subjects upon which 
they have written have been those of which they were above all the most 
competent to treat, and their personal sympathy and interest has given 
to their papers a value which could not attach to the work of the ordinary 
writer of historical facts. Each contributor has done his work cheer- 
fully, and any words which might be set down here, no matter how 
fulsome in praise, would but poorly express the appreciation which the 
editor and publishers feel for their careful and faithful assistance. 

The great aim has been reliability, and no pains have been spared 
to make it such a work as will live in the annals of true historv. 


William Harvey King, M.D., LL.D. . . New York City 

Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M.D. . . . Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Willis Alonzo Dewey, M.D Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Pemberton Dudley, M.D., LL.D. . . . Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

George Theodore Shower, M.D. . . . Baltimore, ^Maryland 

Daniel A. MacLachlan, M. D. . . . Detroit, Michigan 

George Royal, M.D Des Moines, Iowa 

Charles Edgar Walton, M.D., LL.D. . Cincinnati, Ohio 

JiRAH Dewey Buck, M.D Cincinnati, Ohio 

James Polk Willard, M.D Denver, Colorado 

Andrew Leight Monroe, M.D Louisville, Kentucky 

William Davis Foster, M.D Kansas City, Missouri 

Howard Roy Chislett, M.D Chicago, Illinois 

LuciEN Claude McElwee, M.D Saint Louis, Missouri 

Allen Corson Cowperthwaite, M.D., Ph.D., LL.D. Chicago, Illinois 

John Blair Smith King, M.D Chicago, Illinois 

David Herrick Beckwith, M.D. . . . Cleveland, Ohio 

James Richey Horner, A.M., M.D. . . . Cleveland, Ohio 

Gaius J. Jones, M.D Cleveland, Ohio 

Wilbert B. Hinsdale, M.D Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Guernsey Penny Waring, M.D Evanston, Illinois 

M; Belle Brown, M.D New York City 

Annie S. Higbie, M.D New York City 

John Preston Sutherland, M.D. . . . Boston, Massachusetts 

James William Ward, M.D San Francisco, California 

Henry C. Allen, Chicago, Illinois 

Lewis Cass Aldrich Binghamton, New York 




The Subject Introduced — Discovery in Medical Science — Brief Allusion to the Founder 
— Homoeopathy in Germany — Bohemia — Austria — Russia — France — Italy — Amer- 
ica — Sweden — Great Britain — Spain — Belgium — Cuba 17 


The Beginnings of Flomoeopathy — Hahnemann, the Founder — His Birth and Educa- 
tion — His Trials and Triumphs — His Death — Brief Allusion to Some of the 
Provers, Disciples of the Founder 22 



Introductory Observations — Condition of Homoeopathy at the Time of Gram's Arrival 
in America — He Settles in New York — His Practice and Followers — Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Societies, State and Local — Hospitals and Charitable Institutions — 
The Pioneers of Homoeopathy in New York 44 



The Cholera Epidemic of 1832 — Hahnemann an Honorary Member of the New York 
Medical Society — The Pioneer Homoeopathic Medical Society — Reminiscences of 
Early Homoeopathic Practitioners — Curtis — Kirby — Vanderburgh^ — Paine — Dutcher 
— Wright — Ball — Freeman — Cook — Bowers — Harris — Palmer — McVickar — Joslin — 
Belcher — Stewart — Hallock — Quin — Wells — A Chapter of Reminiscences 76 



Outspreading of the Homoeopathic Doctrine from New York City into the Several 
Counties of the State — The Pioneers and Their Trials and Triumphs — Reminis- 
cences and Sketches 94 



Introductory Remarks — Primacy of Pennsylvania in Homceopalhic Institutions — Ho- 
moeopathic Medical Society of Pennsylvania — Other State and Local Societies — 
Allentown Academy — Recollections of Early Practitioners — Detwiller. the Pre- 
scriber — Wesselhoeft and Freytag, the Founders — Becker and Helfrich, the 
Preacher Physicians — Ihm, the Pioneer m Philadelphia — Hering, the Prover. Phil- 
osopher, Scientist and Founder — Brief Allusion to Other Early Practitioners — Lists 
of Pioneer Physicians — Homoeopathic Dispensaries iii 



Early Introduction of Hahnemann's System in the West and Southwest — Virginia 
Societies — Allentown Academy Bears Good Fruit — The Pioneer in Virginia a 
Layman — The Caspar! Brothers — Campos — Hardy — Hobson — Atw-ood — Hughes — 
Other Early Practitioners in the Old Dominion 162 




-Gradual Introduction of Homoeopathy in the West — Cope, the Pioneer of the New- 
System in Ohio— Beckwith's Recollections of Sturm — Pulte, the Pioneer and 
Founder of a Great School of Medical Learning — Cholera Plague of 1849 and 
Later Years — Homoeopathy attacked by the Old Enemy — Early Homoeopaths in 
Cincinnati and Cleveland — Attempts to Establish a Medical College — Eclectic Med- 
ical Listitute Establishes a Chair of Homoeopathy — Reminiscences of Early Prac- 
titioners 166 



Purpose of the Homoeopathic Society of Cincinnati — Hill of the Ecletlic Medical In- 
stitute of Cincinnati Converted to Plomoeopathy — Shepherd, Ijie Pioneer in Hamil- 
ton County — Reminiscences of Early Physicians — Pulte, the Founder, Scholar and 
Physician — The Western College of Homoeopathic Medicine 177 



Condition of Medicine in Louisiana in Martin's Time — The Southern Homceopathic 
Medical Association — Charity Homoeopathic Hospital — Dr. Joseph Martin, the 
Pioneer Homoeopath in Louisiana — Taft, the Second Practitioner — Reminiscences 
of Other Early Homoeopathic Practitioners 188 



The Maryland Homoeopathic State Medical Society — Other Societies — Felix R. Mc- 
Manus, the Pioneer — His Life and Experiences — Schmidt, the Prussian Convert 
— Haynel, the German, and Busch, the Saxon — Cyriax, Hardy and Geiger — List of 
Early Practitioners 194 



The First Prescriber of Homoeopathic Doses in Connecticut — Early Planting and Sub- 
sequent Growth of Homa-opathy in the State — Societies and Hospitals — The 
Taylors, Father and Son — New Milford First to Have a Homoeopathic Physician 
— The Tatts in Hartford — John Schue — Introduction of the New System in the 
Counties — Pioneers, Early Practitioners and Reminiscences — List of Old Practi- 
tioners 200 



How the Seed was First Sown in the Old Bay State — New York Furnishes the Pioneer 
—Gregg and Flagg, the Standard Bearers — Their Followers and Proselytes — The 
Homoeopathic Fraternity of ]\Iassachusetts — Its Organization and Membership — 
The Massachusetts Homceopathic Medical Society — Brief Allusion to the Homoeo- 
pathic Institutions, and the Pioneers of the Profession in the Several Counties of 
the Commonwealth 210 



Occupation of New Jersey by Homoeopaths from New York on the North and Phila- 
delphia on the West— The First Practitioner Converts from the Allopathic Ranks 
— Dr. Isaac Moreau Ward, the Pioneer — Early Society Organization — Pioneers of 
Homoeopathy in the Several Counties of New Jersey — Reminiscences of Prom- 
inent Early Practitioners 240 




Sowing the Seed of Homoeopatliy in the Old Green Mountain State — Baird, the Inde- 
pendent, Self-Educated and Successful Practitioner, the Pioneer — Brief Allusion 
to State, District and County Societies — How and by Whom Homoeopathy was 
Introduced in the Counties of Vermont 258 



Treatment of Gosewisch at the Hands of Delaware Allopaths — His Great Work_ for 
Homoeopathy — Harlan, the Second Homoeopathic Physician in the State — Quinby 
— Negendank — Swinney — Curtis — Lawton — Tantum '. 269 



Parlin, the Pioneer of Homoeopathy in Rhode Island — His Accomplishments and Polit- 
ical Misfortunes — Early Homoeopathic Practitioners in the Several Towns of the 
State — Reminiscences, Statistics and Biography 275 



A Hospitable Welcome Greets Homoeopathy in Kentucky — Bernstein, the Pioneer, 
Finds Warm Friends Among the Allopaths — Their Estimate of His Worth — Early 
Practitioners in Various Parts of the State — A Chapter of Statistics, Reminis- 
cences and Biography 282 



Dr. Moses Atwood, a Convert of Gregg's, the Pioneer of Homoeopathy in New Hamp- 
shire — The State Homoeopathic Medical Society — Early Practitioners in the Sev- 
eral Counties 289 



Dr. Isaac Coe, the Pioneer of Homceopathy in Indiana, was Hull's Converted Allopath 
— Outspreading of the Practice in the State — The State and Other Homoeopathic 
Medical Societies — Recollections of Early Practitioners — A Table of Converts.,. 295 



Early Homoeopathy in the Pine Tree State — Characteristics of the Early Practitioners 
— The State and Other Medical Societies — Sandicky, the Itinerant Homoeopath — 
His Converts and Followers — List of Early Practitioners 303 



Brief Allusion to the Hahnemann Monument — Ceremonies of the Unveiling — The 
Washington Convention — Homoeopathic Societies and Hospitals — Dr. John Piper, 
the First Homoeopathic Physician in the District of Columbia — Reminiscences and 
List of Early Practitioners 315 



Beginnings of Homoeopathy in Michigan — Early Practitioners all Converted Allopaths 
— Record of Medical Societies — Hall and Lamb, the Pioneers — Reminiscences and 
Lists of Early Practitioners 322 




This State not Highly Productive of Homoeopathic History— Gilbert and Schley, the 

Pioneers— Reminiscences of Other Early Practitioners 334 



The Pioneers of Homoeopathy in Wisconsin— The Conditions There Described by Dr. 
Chittenden— Wisconsin State Homoeopathic Medical Society— Recollections of the 
Pioneers and Their Early Experiences— List of Old Practitioners 337 



Homoeopathy Never Strong in Alabama— Dr. Monroe Describes Some Early Ex- 
periences — The State Medical Association — Ulrich and Schafer, the Pioneers — 
Later Accessions to the Homoeopathic Ranks — Reminiscences and Tables of Early 
Practitioners 342 



Early Homoeopathic Conditions in Illinois — Experiences of Dr. David Sheppard Smith, 
Allopath and Homoeopath— Zabina Eastman and the "Western Citizen "—Effects 
of the Chicago Fire of 1871 on Homoeopathy in that City — Homoeopathic Medical 
Societies and Hospitals — Reminiscences and Lists of Early Homoeopathic Prac- 
titioners 345 



Early Homoeopathy in Missouri — Subsequent Growth of the System — Dr. John Temple 
and His Works — Medical Societies and Hospitals — Reminiscences and Lists of 
Early Homoeopathic Practitioners 3^3 



Nashville a Center of Medical Education — Experiences of Drs. Harsh, Wheaton and 
Kellogg, Early Homoeopathic Practitioners in Tennessee — Homoeopathic Medical 
Society of Tennessee — Reminiscences and List of Early Practitioners in the State 369 



Introduction of Hahnemann's System in the Lone Star State — The Texas Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Association — Dr. Parker, the Pioneer — His Life and Works — Other 
Early Practitioners in Various Parts of the State 373 



Homoeopathy Finds Lodgment on the Pacific Slope in 1849 — Pioneers were both 
Physicians and Gold Hunters — The State Medical Society — Benjamin Ober, the 
Pioneer Homoeopath — Reminiscences and List of Practitioners Zll 



Trials of Dr. Beck, the First Homoeopathic Physician in Iowa — Subsequent Permanent 
Introduction and Development of the New System in the State — Iowa Medical 
Societies — Reminiscences and List of Early Practitioners 38S 




Relations of Civil and Homoeopathic History in Minnesota — Planting Hahnemann's 
System in the State — Societies and Hospitals— Reminiscences of Early Practi- 
tioners 389 



The Planting of Homoeopathy in Mississippi by Dr. Davis — His Early Experiences — 
Growth of Hahnemann's System of Medicine in the State — The State Medical 
Society — Reminiscences and List of Early Practitioners 395 



Homoeopathy Instrodnced in Omaha in 1862 — Wright, the Pioneer — Drs. Way and 
Hemingway in Nebraska City — The State Homoeopathic Medical Society — Gradual 
Growth of the System in Nebraska — Reminiscences of Early Practitioners 398 



A Brief Chapter of Reminiscences — Dr. Alfred Hughes and His Sister — List of Prac- 
titioners in the State 402 



Homoeopathy Introduced in the State by Dr. Freeman — Reminiscences and List of 

Other Early Practitioners in North Carolina i 405 



Late Planting and Rapid Growth of Homoeopathy in Colorado — Ingersol, the First 
Practitioner, and Marix, the Permanent Practitioner — State Medical Society — 
Homoeopathy in Montana begins in 1866 — Its Subsequent Growth — Meagre History 
on Florida- — Early Practitioners in all these States — The Florida Homoeopathic 
Medical Society — Reminiscences 407 



Dr. Leslie Jacob Coombs, the Pioneer Homoeopath in Oregon — Later Growth of the 
System in the State — Medical Societies and Hospitals in Kansas — Dr. John Hazard 
Henry, the First Homoeopath in South Carolina — Dr. John Doy, the Pioneer of 
. PIomcEopathy in Kansas — Societies and Hospitals — Reminiscences 412 



Dr. Isaiah White, the First Homteopath in Salt Lake City — Dr. John Bowman, 
Cheyenne — Dr. 11. J. Alorrison in Arizona — Dr. E. O. Plumbe in Dakota — Dr. 
D. G. Strong in Idaho — Lists of Early Practitioners 417 






HauxemaxXX Frontispiece 

Dr. Johann Ernst Staff ^9 

Dr. Gustav Wilhelm Gross 23 

Hahnemann's Birthplace in Meissen 24 

Dr. Carl 'Gottlob Franz 25 

Dr. Franz Hartmann 28 

Dr. Moritz Muller 30 

Dr. Carl Haubold 31 

Dr. Carl F. Trinks 32 

Dr. G. a. H. Muhlenbein 34 

Hahnemann's Home in Coethen 36 

Friedrich Rummel, M. D 37 

Dr. Georg Aug. Benj. Scpiweikert ■. 39 

Dr. Carl Georg Ch. Hartlaub 41 

Dr. Julius Schweikert ._ 42 

Hans Burgh Gram, M. D .' 46 

Main Entrance, Middletown State Hom. Hospital 51 

Main Building, Middletown State Hom. FIospital 53 

Metropolitan Hospital, Blackwell's Island 55 

Utica Homoeopathic Hospital 59 

M. O. Terry, Surg. Gen. S. N. Y 62 

John Franklin Gray, M. D 65 

A. Gerald Hull, A. M., M. D 69 

Dr. S. R. Kirby 71 

Federal Vanderburgh, M. D Si 

E. E. Snyder, M. D 83 

Walter C. Palmer, M. D 85 

J. A. McVickar, M. D 87 

B. F. Joslin, M. D 89 

Lewis Hallock, M. D 91 

P. P. Wells, M. D 92 

Horatio Robinson, M. D 96 

H. C. Hubbard, M. D 97 

Horace M. Paine, M. D 103 

Allentown Academy 115 

IMain Group of Buildings, PENNSYLV,^NIA Homoeopathic State Hospital for Insane. 118 

Children's Homoeopathic Hospital 120 

Hering Building, Medical and Surgical Dept 121 

Lippe Isolated Pavilion 122 

Sargent or Maternity Building 123 

HoMOEOP.\THic Hospital, Pittsburgh 124 

McClelland in the Operating Room, Pittsburgh Hom. Hosp 126 

willard in the operating room, pittsburgh hom. hosp 127 

Henry Detwiller, M. D > 129 

Samuel R. Dubs, M. D 131 

H. H. Hoffman, M. D 135 

J. C. Burgher, INI. D 137 

Hering's Lachesis Snake 141 

John Henry Floto, M. D 143 

Charles Neidhard, M. D 146 

James Kitchen, M. D 149 

Alvan E. Small, M. D 151 

Joseph Berens, M. D 152 

G. Reichhelm, M. D 153 

Benjamin Becker, M. D 155 

Obadiah C. Brickley, M. D 157 

John F. Cooper, M. D 158 

Ohio Hospital for Women and Children, Cincinnati 171 

James G. Hunt, M. D 173 

John Wheeler, M. D \ , 175 


Seven Old Fellows I77 

Alfred Shepherd, M. D 179 

William Owens, M. D 182 

Storm Rosa, M. D 183 

Prominent Cleveland Homoeopaths 184 

Wm. H. Holcombe, M. D 191 

Thomas Shearer, M. D 195 

Westboro Hom. Asylum for Insane 212A 

Milton Fuller, M. D 217'' 

Famous Patrons of Homoeopathy 220 

Alvin M. Gushing, M. D 224 

Geo. W. Swazey, M. D 227 

G. F. Matthes, M. D 229 

A. A. Klein, M. D 230 

Henry B. Clarke, M. D 231 

Elisha J. Jones, M. D 232 

Geo. Russell, M. D 233 

Geo. W. Richards, M. D 243 

Daniel R. Gardiner, M. D 246 

Bowman H. Shivers, M. D 247 

Jos. C. Boardman, M. D 250 

Samuel A. Jones, M. D 254 

Theodore Y. Kinne, M. D 255 

G. N. Brigham, M. D 260 

Geo. E. E. Sparhawk, M. D 262 

C. B. Currier, M. D 264 

Jos. R. Tantum, M. D.. 270 

Homoeopathic Hospital of Delaware 271 

Caleb Harlan, M. D 272 

Chas. H. Lawton, M. D : 273 

George B. Peck, M. D 277 

Wm. L. Breyfogle, M. D 285 

Joshua F. Whittle, M. D 290 

Oliver L. Bradford, M. D 291 

Oliver P. Baer, M. D 296 

George W. Bowen, M. D 299 

Wm. E. Payne, M. D 304 

Eliphalet Clark, M. D 306 

James H. Payne, M. D 309 

Nancy T. Williams, M. D 3" 

Hahnemann Monument — Presentation Ceremony 314 

Hahnemann Monument — Presentation by Dr. Walton • 316 

Ode to Hahnemann, by Dr. Wm. Tod Helmuth 3^6 

TuLLio S. VERDf, M. D 318 

Susan Ann Edson, M. D 319 

Jehu Brainerd, M. D 320 

W. Hanford White, M. D 323 

Edwin M. Hale, M. D 328 

Charles J. Hempel, M. D 332 

F. H. Orme, M. D 335 

Wm. L. Cleveland, M. D 336 

Chicago Homoeopathic Hospital 346 

T. C. Duncan, M. D 3SO 

F. F. DE Derky, M. D 353 

C. Ferd. Kuechler, M. D 355 

Leonard Pratt, M. D .- 359 

T. G. CoMSTocK, M. D 365 

Jabez P. Dake, M. D '. 371 

E. J. Eraser, M. D 378 

Frederick Hiller, M. D 379 

John Esten, M. D 381 

George W. Barnes, M. D 383 

Wm. H. Leonard, M. D 391 


Abell, D. T., 367. 
Abbott, Jehial, 233. 
Academy, Allentown, 114. 
Academy, North American, 114. 
Act to Protect Citizens from Quackerj', 2i7^- 
Adams Co. Homo. Med. Assn., 351. 
Adams County, Pa., Homo, in, 153. 
Adam, Dr., 41. 
Adams, Ira, g8. 
Adams, R. E. W., 174, 356. 
Alabama, Homo, in, 342. 
Alaska, Homo, in, 420. 
Albany City Homo. Hosp., 54. 
Albertson, J. A., 380. 
Albright, G., 343. 
Aldrich, Henry C, 392. 
Allen, John R., 371. 
Allen, Samuel Smith, loi. 
Allentown Academy, 114. 
Allentown Academy, Founders of, 117. 
Alley, W. W., 96. 
Anderson, Moses, 149. 
Angell, E. P., 375. 
Angell, Henry C, 225. 
Angell, James, 375. 
Angell, Richard, 190. ' 
Angell, Richard, 285. 
Angell, Richard, 343. 
Annin, Jonathan D., 243. 
Anthony, W. C, 357. 
Appleton, John W. M., 403. 
Archiv fur die Homoopathische Heilkunst, 

Arcoli, Dr., 164. 
Arizona, Homo, in, 419. 
Arizona State Homo. Med. Assn., 419. 
Arkansas, Homo, in, 422. 
Arkansas State Homo. Med. Assn., 422. 
Armstrong County, Pa., Homoeopathy in, 

Arnold, Rawdon, 413. 
Arthur, Asa A., 266. 
Asiatic Cholera, 172. 
Atwood, Aaron H., 163. 
Atwood, Aaron H., 292. 
Atwood, Moses, 290. 

Austin, James H., 204. 
Austin, John Hayden, 249. 
Ayers, E. Darwin, 422. 

Babcock, J., 357. 
Bachmeister, Theodore, 360. 
Baer, Oliver P., 298. 
Bagley, Alvan, 424. 
Bailey, Charles, 235. 
Baird, David H., 258. 
Baker, David, 99. 
Baker, Mary G., 235. 
Balch, Edward T., 382. 
Baldwin Place Home, 214. 
Ball, Alonzo S., 85. 
Baltimore Homo. Med. Soc, 195. 
Banks, W. H., 334. 
Bannister, Charles B., 340. 
Barker, G. W., 175. 
Barlow, Samuel B., 88. 
Barnes, George W., 180, 383. 
Barrows, George, 229. 
Barrows, Ira. 231, 276, 279. 
Barrows, J. H., 308. 
Bartlett, Abner, 361. 
Bauer, Adolph, 152, 177. 
Bayard, Edward, 91. 
Bayer, Charles, 151. 
Beakley, John Stoat, 381. 
Beardsley, Herman, 424. 
Beaumont, Eckhart L., 375. 
Beaumont, John H.. 359. 
Beaver County, Pa., Homo, in, 154. 
Beck, Dr., 385. 
Becker, Benj., 153, 156. 
Becker, Rev. Chris. J., 135. 
Beckwith, Ephraim C., 179. 
Beebe, Gaylord D., 354. ■ 
Beebe, Nelson D., 359. 
Beeman, J., 176. 
Belcher, George Elisha, 91. 
Belden, Charles D., 419. 
Belden, James G., 190, 343. 
Belgium, Homoeopathy in, 20. 
Bell, James B., 311. 
Bell, William C, 204. 


Bennett, Hollis K., 266. 

Bennington Co.. Homo, in, 266. 

Berens, Bernard, 149. 

Berens, Joseph, 148. 

Berks County, Pa., Homo, in, 153. 

Biegler, Augustus P., 94. 

Bigelow, Thomas, 264. 

Bigler, George W., 174. 

Birch, George B., 366. 

Birnstill. Joseph. 94, 234. 

Bishop, David F.. loi. 

Bishop. Herbert M.. 207. 

Bishop. Leverett, 100. 

Bishop, Robert S., 102. 

Bissell. Arthur T.. 179. 

Bitely. Eugene, 330, 331. 

Blackwood, B. W., 249. 

Blackwood, Thomas. 326. 

Blackwood, Thomas R.. 249. 

Blair County, Pa., Homo, in, 154. 

Blaisdell, J. M., 310. 

Blake. Edmund H.. 375. 

Blake, James H., 375. 

Blodgett, T. S., 264. 

Boardman, Joseph C., 249. 

Bolles. Richard M.. 89. 

Bosler, Jacob. 176. 

Boston, Early Physicians, 237. 

Bowen. Eleazer. 252. 

Bowen. George W.. 300. 

Bowers. Benj. F., 89. 

Bowie, Alonzo P., 154. 

Bowman, John R.. 417. 

Bradford Co., Pa.. Homo, in, 153. 

Bradford, Oliver Leech, 2t;j, 292. 

Bradford, Richmond. 308, 312. 

Bradley. E. W., 384. 

Brainerd, Jehu, 321. 

Bramon, Joaquin, 20. 

Bratt. James D.. 192. 

Breed. Simeon R., 361. 

Breyfogle, Charles W., 382. 

Brigham, Gershom N., 260. 

Briry, Milton S.. 312. 

Brooklyn Homo. Hosp., 53. 

Brooklyn Maternity Hosp., 55. 

Brooklyn Nursery and Infants' Hosp.. 55. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Early Homo. Practice in, 

Brooks, C. A., 237. 
Brooks. John B., 422. 
Brooks. Paschal P., 339. 
Broome County, N. Y., Homo. in. loi. 
Brown, Asa'W., 204. 
Brown, Henry R., 207. 
Brown. Joseph R., 375. 
Brown, L. W., 254. 
Brown, Titus L., 101. 
Browne, Faulcon, 406. 
Browne. Gardner S.. 202. 
Brownell. 11. T.. 202. 

Brownson, Dr., loi. 
Bruchhausen. Caspar, 95. 
Brugger, Ignatius, 156. 
Bryan, Thomas, 154. 
Bryant, Charles J., 380. 
Buddeke, Ivo W., zi^- 
Buffalo Homo. Hosp., 55. 59. 
Bugbee, Rev. Aurin, 234. 
Buih, George B., 366. 
Bulkeley, Wm. E., 205. 
Bull, John, 422. 
Bumstead, L. J., 400. 
Bunting, J. Crowley. 154. 
Burnham. N. G.. 298. 
Burnside. Aaron W.. 360. 
Burr, Charles H., 307. 
Burr, E. D., 330. 
Burr, W. A., 399. 
Burrett, Alex. H., 151. 
Burritt, Alex., 174. 
Burritt. Alex. H., 189. 
Burritt, Amatus R., 343. 
Burritt. Ely, 174. 
Busch, Lewis, 199. 
Bute, George Henry. 137. 
Butler, W. P.. 340. 
Byer, Rev. Father. 154. 
Byron. E. S., 343, 410. 

Caboche. Louis, 189. 
Caledonia Co. Homo. Med. Soc. 259. 
California. Homo, in, 2)17 ■ 
California State Homo. Med. Soc, 378. 
Cambria County, Pa., Homo, in, 154. 
Camp, Arthur A., 392. 
Campos. F. T., 163. 
Capen, Robert, 222. 
Carbon County, Pa., Homo. in. 154. 
Carels, Samuel, 249. 
Carley, D. H. W., 400. 
Carr, Marvin S., 355, 357- 
Cartier, Adolph, 191. 
Case, S. C, 400. 
Caspari, Edward, 150, 174, 286. 
Casselberry. Melville L.. 393. 403. 
Gate. Shadrach M., 2.2%. 
Gator. Harvey Hull, 96. 
Cator, Henry Hull, i},"/. 
Caulkins, Russell. 202. 
Cedar Valley Homo. Med. Soc. 386. 
Central Homo. Med. Assn.. 304. 
Central Homo. Med. Assn.. 386. 
Central Ills. Homo. Med. Assn., 349. 351. 
Central New York Homo. Med. Soc, 49. 
Central County, Pa., Homo, in, 154. 
Chamberlain, Charles H., 261. 
Champlin, H. C, 236. 
Channing, William. 74. 
Chapman. H. D.. 235. 
Charity Homo. Hosp.. 189. 


Chase, A. P., 360. 

Chase, Hiram L., 233. 

Chase, Ira Eaton. 236. 

Checver. Daniel A., 360. 

Chester County, Pa., Homo, in, 150. 

Chester, Crozer Home and Hosp. at, 125. 

Chicago Acad, of Homo. Phys. and Surgs., 

Chicago Acad, of Med., 350'. 
Chicago Bapt. Hosp.. 352. 
Chicago City Hosp.. 351. 
Chicago Homo. ^ied. Soc, 349. 
Chicago Paed. Soc, 350. 
Children's Homo. Hosp. of Phila., 119. 
Children's Hosp., 364. 
Children's Hosp. of Five Points House of 

.Ind.. 53. 
Cholera Epidemic. 76. 
Cholera Hosp. of Phila., 119. 
Cincinnati, Homo, in, 171. 
Cincinnati Hosp. for Women and Children. 

Cincinnati. Pioneer Homo, of, 171. 
Clapp. E. H.. 358. 
Clark, Eliphalet, 306. 312. 
Clark, Francis H., 222. 
Clark, Joseph K., 2^4. 
Clark, Luther, 218.^ 
Clarke, Henry B., 229. 
Clarke, John Lewis, 229. 
Clarke, Peleg, 2-j-j. 280. 
Clay, Geo. B. L.. 247. 
Cleckley, Francis V., 414. 
Clemens, Rev. Father, 389. 
Cleveland Homo. Hosp.. 169. 
Cleveland, Homo, in, 174. 
Cleveland. William L., 335. 
Clinton County, Pa., Homo, in, 154. 
Coe, DanieK 357. 
Coe, Isaac, 295. 
Cohen, Solomon W., 376. 
Colby, Isaac, 225. 
Cole, Harvey. 202. 
Collins State Homo. Hosp.. 52. 
Colorado, Homo. in. 407. 
Colorado State Homo. Med. Soc. 407. 
Columbia County. Pa., Homo, in, 154. 
Communipaw ]\Ied. Soc, 241. 
Comstock, Thomas G., 365. 
Connecticut, Homo, in, 200. 
Conn. State Homo. ^led. Soc, 200. 
Cook Co. Homo. Med. Soc. 349. 
Cook Co. Hosp., 352. 
Cook, George W., 88, 97. 
Cooley, George P., 204. 
Coombs, E. H.. 402. 
Coombs, Leslie J., 384, 412. 
Cooper. Isaac, 253. 
Corliss, C. T., 297. 
Cornell, George B., 252. 
Cortland County, N. Y., Homo, in, 97. 

Covert, Dr., loi. 

Cowles, E. W., 179, 328. 

Covvperthvi^aite, Allen C, 400. 

Cragin, John. 343. 

Craighead, James B., 369. 

Crane, William, 341. 

Crispell, Garrett D., 95. 

Cropper, Charles, 181. 

Cross, Edwin C, 392. 

Cross, L. E., 382. 

Cuba, Homoeopathy in, 20. 

Cumberland County. Homo, in, 150. 

Cummings, James M., 307. 

Curran, William, 366. 

Currie, Joseph C. 251, 

Currier, Chris. B., 262. 

Curtis, John Mitchell, 274. 

Curtis, Joseph Thomas, 78. 

Cuscaden, T. W., 181. 

Gushing, Alvin M., 224. 

Gushing, John J., 380. 

Custis, J. B. Gregg, 315. 

Cutler. William W., 218. 

Cyriax. E. C. Bernard, 199, 356. 


Daily, J. C. 422. 

Dake, Chauncey M., 98. 

Dake, Jabez P.. 370. 

Dake, Jabez W., 102. 

Dake, William C, 370. 

Dakota. Homo, in, 418. 

Dakota Homo. ]\Ied. Assn., 418. 

Danforth. Willis, 354, 360. 

Darby, Pa., Homo, in, 150. 

Dart, J. M., 417. 

Davies, John, 340. 355. 

Davis, Augustus F., 395. 

Davis, F. A. W., 173. 

Davis, J. H. H., 376. 

Davis, John W., 387. 

Davis, Rev. Dr., 233. 

DeDerky, Francis F.. 354. 

DeGersdorff, E. Bruno, 222. 

Delaware Co., N. Y., Homo, in, loi. 

Delaware Co., Pa., Homo, in, 150. 

Delaware, Homo. in. 269. 

DeMoor. Apostle of Homoeopathy, 20. 

Des Moines Homo. Clin. Soc, 386. 

Detwiller, Henry. 128. 

DeWolf. John J., 2'](>. 

Dickinson. Wilmot H., 386. 

Diederich, Peter. 415. 

Dillingham, Thomas M., 310. 

Dinsmore, J. B., 236. 

Dispensaries in New York, 102. 

Dispensaries in Pa., 157. 

District of Columbia, Homo, in, 313. 

Dodge, Lewis, 179, 326, 330. 

Dodge, Moses, 306. 

Dodge, Nathaniel, 386. 


Doran, Charles R., 370, 410. 
Dornberg, A. G.. 393. 
Douglas, James S., 338. 
Dow, Frank E., 265. 
Doy, John, 327, 414. 
Drake, Elijah H., 329. 
Dubs, Samuel R., 148. 
Duffield, Alfred M., 343. 
Duncan, Thomas C, 354. 
Dunham, Dr., 391. 
Duncombe, Charles S., 339. 
Dunn, McCann, 357. 
Dunnell, Henry Gale, 87. 
Dunwody, William E., 335. 
Dutcher, Benjamin C, 84. 

Eastern Dist. Homo. Med. Soc, 241. 
Eastern Ohio Homo. Med. Soc, 168. 
Eaton, Morton M., 354. 
Ebers, H., 365. 
Edie, John J., 415. 
Edmonds, W. A., 371. • 
Edson, Susan Ann, 321. 
Eels, Oliver J., 265. 
Egbert. William A., 420. 
Eggert, William A., 298. 
Ehrhart, William J., 399. 
Ehrmann, Benjamin, 173, 181. 
Ehrmann, Ernest J., 151, 301. 
Ehrmann, Francis, 150. 
Ehrmann, Frederick, 151. 
Ehrmann, Isedorich, 179. 
Eldridge, Isaac N.," 326, 331. 
EUiger, Dr. G., 149. 
Ellis, Erastus R., 330. 

Ellis, John, 326, 330. 

Ellis, Sarah M., 410. 

Ely, Elihu, loi. 

Ensign, Chas. W., 208. 

Erie Co., N. Y., Homo, in, 97. 

Erie Co., Pa., Homo, in, 154. 

Esrey, Wm. P., 152, 156. 

Essex Co. Homo. Med. Soc, 241. 

Essex Co., N. Y., Homo, in, 98. 

Esten, John, 381. 

Evans, Charles H., 418. 

Evans, J. W., 339- 

Everett, Ambrose S., 408. 

Fabiola Hospital, 380. 
Fairchild, Stephen, 255. 
Falk, Herman, 370. 
Falligant, Louis A., 335. 
Farley, Charles I., 393. 
Farmington, Homo, in, 310. 
Farnham. Llewellyn D., loi. 
Fayette Co., Pa., Homo, in, 154. 
Fee, John, 366. 

Fell, Ezra, 152. 
Fetterman, Wilford W., 419. 
Field, F. S., 97. 
Finster, Frederick, 330. 
Finster, Frederick, Sketch, c>3^. 
Fischer of Brunn, Dr., 43. 
Fisher, Charles E., 375. 
Fiske, Isaac, 229. 
Flagg, Josiah F., 215. 
Fleniken, Dr., 366. 
Florence Hospital, 58. 
Florida, Homo, in, 410. 
Florida State Homo. ]\Ied. Soc, 410. 
Floto, John H., 143, 224, 382. 
Folger, Robert B., 62. 
Foote, Charles C, 203. 
Foote, Elial Todd, 203. 
Fornies, Dr., 95. 
Foster, H. L., 360. 

Fourteenth Dist. Homo. Med. Soc, 350. 
Fowler, Samuel M., 410. 
Franklin Co., Homo, in, 266. 
Franklin, Edward C, 365, 387. 
Franz, Karl Gottlob, 39. 
Fraternity, Mass. Homo., 210. 
Frazer, Edwin J., 380. 

Frederick, Grand Duke of, invites Hahne- 
mann to Coethen, 35. 
Free Homo. Hosp., 364. • 
Freeland, James C, 237. 
Freeman, Alfred, 86. 
Freeman, William K., 405. 
Freligh, Martin, 95. 
Freytag, Eberhard. 134. 
Friederick, Dr., 376. 
Fuller, Milton, 217. 
Furgus Falls, State Hosp., 389. 

Gale, Amory, 281. 

Gale. Stephen M., 226, 235. 

Gallup, William, 233, 307. 

Gardiner, Daniel R., 246. 

Garrettson, Jesse. 174. 

Garrettson. Joseph. 174. 

Garrique, Richard, 279. 

Gatchell, Edwin A.. 406. 

Gatchell, Horatio P., 180, 406. 

Gause, Owen B.. 251, 414. 

Gause. Percival O. B.. 414. 

Geary. John F.. 380. 

Gee, Rodman S.. 339. 

Geiger, Rev. Jacob. 199. 

Geist. Chris. Fred.. 144, 227. 

Georgia, Flomo. in, 334. 

German Central Homceopathic Union, 35. 

Gifford, J. R.. 236. 

Gilbert, Edward Aug., 358. 

Gilbert, James B., 334. 

Gilbert, Samuel H., 341. 

Giles, Albert, 339. 


Gilman, John, 179. 

Gilman, Martin, 396. 

Glass, Robert, 189. 

Gohier, Marie AI. d'H. Marriage with 

Hahnemann, 2)1- 
Good Samaritan Hosp., 364. 
Goodrich, D. O., 329. 
Goodwin, D. M., 392. 
Goodwin, T. S., 310. 
Gorham, G. E., 418. 
Gosewisch, J. C., 271. 
Gourhea. J., 154. 

Gowanda State Homo. Hosp.. 52. 
Grace Homo. Hosp., 201. 
Grace •Homo. Med. Soc, 201. 
Grace Hospital, 325. 
Graham, David, 341. 
Grainger, John, 364. 
Gram, Hans Burch, life of, 60. 
Gram. Hans Burch, the Pioneer of Homo'y 

in America, 44. 
Graves. Samuel \V., 230. 
Gray, John F.. 67. 
Great Britain, Homoeopathy in, 20. 
Green, Daniel H., 280. 
Green, George S., 202. 
Green. Jonas, 145, 319. 
Green. W. E., 422. 
Greene, Nathaniel, 279, 281. 
Gregg, Samuel. 210. 
Gregg. Samuel, life of, 215. 
Griswold, W. N., 380. 
Gross. Gustav Wilhelm, 39. 
Grove, Charles E.. 424. 
Guernsey. Henry N.. 261. 
Guernsey. William F., 261. 
Guilbert, Edward A.. 387. 
Gulby. John B.. 360. 


Hadfield. J. H.. 422. 
Haeseler. Charles, 144. 
Hahnemann Acquires Great Wealth. 38. 
Hahnemann, at Dessau. 25. 
Hahnemann, at Georgenthal, 27. 
Hahnemann, at Gommern, 26. 
Hahnemann, at Hamburg. 28. 
Hahnemann, at Hermanstadt, 24. 
Hahnemann, at Konigshetter. 28. 
Hahnemann, at Leipsic, 23, 26. 
Hahnemann, at Molschleben, 28. 
Hahnemann, Birth. 23. 
Hahnemann Club. Terre Haute. 297. 
Hahnemann, Death of His Wife, 35. 
Hahnemann, Discoveries of, 18. 
Hahnemann. Early Life and Education, 23. 
Hahnemann. Family Misfortunes. 27. 
Hahnemann, Fiftieth Birthday, 35. 
Hahnemann, First Marriage, 25. 
Hahnemann. His Character. 18. 
Hahnemann. His Death, 38. 

Hahnemann, His Dogma, 18. 

Hahnemann, His New Principle, 28. 

Hahnemann, His Organon, 29. 

Hahnemann, Honorary Member of N. Y. 
Co. Med. Soc, "jy. 

Hahnemann Hosp., N. Y., 54. 

Hahnemann Hosp., Scranton, 128. 

Hahnemann, Lectures to His Disciples, 34. 

Hahnemann Med. Soc. of the Old Do- 
minion, 162. 

Hahnemann Monument, 315. 

Hahnemann, Persecution Renewed, 34. 

Hahnemann, Personal Characteristics, 36. 

Hahnemann, Poverty and Persecution, 29. 

Hahnemann, Relations with His Pupils, 40. 

Hahnemann, Removes to Dresden, 26. 

Hahnemann, Removes to Paris, 38. 

Hahnemann, Second Marriage, 37. 

Hahnemann, Summoned to Court, 34. 

Hahnemann, the Founder, 22. 

Hahnemannian Society, 112. 

Hale, Edwin M., 330. 

Hale, Edwin M., Sketch, 331. 

Hall, A., 95. 

Hall, E. Bentley, 252. 

Hall, S. S., 325- 

Hallock, Lewis, 91. 

Hamilton Co., Ohio, Homo, in, 177. 

Hammond, H. H.. 414. 

Hampden Homo. Hosp., 213. 

Hand, Stephen D., loi. 

Hardenstein, A. O. H., 396. 

Hardin Co. Soc. of Homo. Phys., 386. 

Hardy, James E., 199. 

Hardy, Thos. L, 163. 

Hargous Memo. Hahn. Hosp., 58. 

Harlan, Caleb, 271. 

Harlem Homo. Hosp. and Disp., 59. 

Harris, C. F., loi. 

Harris, Jerome, 236. 

Harris, John T.. 223, 230. 

Harris, Zina, 89. 

Harsh. Philip, 369. 

Hart. Charles N., 408. 

Hartford. Homo, in, 201. 

Hartmann, Franz, 40. 

Hasbrouck, Joseph, 256. 

Haseler, Henry, 400. 

Haslam, D. B., 393. 

Hastings, Charles, 329. 

Hatch. Philo L., 391. 

Hatfield, George T., 390. 

Hawley, Liverus B., loi. 

Hayward, Joseph Warren, 231. 

Hayward, M. P., 202. 

Haynel, Adolph F., 198. 

Haves. Dr.. loi. 

Hebber. W. W.. 235. 

Helfrich. John Henry. 136. 

Helfrich. Rev. Johannes, 136. 

Helmuth, William Tod, 366. 



Hemingway, Dr., 399. 

Henipel. Charles J., ^33- 

Henry. Jolm H., 343. 

Henry. John Hazard, 413. 

Hering. Constantine, 138. 

Hering, Constantine. a Latin Scholar, 139. 

Hering, Constantine, Becomes a Natural- 
ist, 139. 

Hering, Constantine, Birth and Early Life, 

Hering, Constantine, Converted to Homoe- 
opathy, 140. 

Hering, Constantine, Goes to Philadelphia, 

Hering, Constantine, His Death. 143. 

Hering, Constantine, Lands at Martha's 
Vineyard, 142. 

Hering. Constantine, Marriage, 142. 

Hering, Constantine, Offends the King. 141. 

Hering, Constantine, Practices in Para- 
maribo, 141. 

Hering, Constantine, Receives His Degree, 

Hering. Constantine, the Lachesis Snake, 

Hering, Constantine, the Three Fates, 139. 

Hering. Constantine. Visits Surinam, 140. 

Herkimer County. N. Y., Homo, in, 98. 

Higgins. Sylvester B., 406. 

Hill, Benj. L., 177. 

Hill, George, 179. 

Hill, Rev. Moses, 205. 

Hill, Rev. Mr., 310. 

Hill, Robert Louis. 387. 

Hiller, Frederick, 381, 423. 

Hines, Frank, 405. 

Hobson, Joseph V.. 163. 

Hoffendahl. Charles F., 94, 218. 

Holcombe, William H., 192. 

Holcombe. William H., 396. 

Holland, H. N., 300. 

Holt, Aaron P., 360. 

Holt, Captain, 366. 

Holt, Daniel. 202. 227. 

Home, J. Lewis Crozer, 125. 

Homo. Clin. Soc. of Md., 195. 

Homoeopathic Clin. Soc. of Rock Island, 

etc., 351. 
Homoeopathic Fraternity of Mass.. 210. 
HouKcopathic Hospital, Chicago, 351. 
HouKjeopathic Hosp. for Chil.. 214. 
Homoeopathic Hosp. of Essex Co., 242. 
Homo. Hosp. for Insane at Allentown, 

Pa., 118. 
Homoeopathic Hospital at Leipsic, 37. 
HomcEopathic Hosp., Minneapolis, 390. 
Homo. Hosp. of Phila., 119. 
Homfeopathic Hosp. and Ir. Sch., Kansas 

City, 364. 
Homoeopathic Hosp., Ward's Is!., 57. 
HouKjeopathic Med. Acad., 49. 

Homoeopathic Med. Assn. of Alabama, 342. 
Homoeopathic Med. Assn. of Wabash Val., 

Homoeopathic Med. Soc. of Camden, 241. 
Homoeopathic Med. Soc. of Del.. 269. 
Homo. Med. Soc. of Eastern Ohio, 168. 
Homoeopathic Med. Soc. of King Co., 424. 
Homoeopathic Med. Soc. of Mich., 324. 
Homoeopathic ]\Ied. Soc. of No. Md. and 

So. Mich.. 297. 
Homoeopathic Med. Soc. of Northern New 

York. 49. 
Homo. Med. Soc. of Ohio. 167. 
Homoeopathic Med. Soc. of Penna., 112. 
Homoeopathic Med. Soc. of Tennessee, 370. 
Homo. Med. and Surg. Hosp. of Pitts- 
burgh, 122. 
Homo. Med. and Surg. Hosp. of Reading, 

Homoeopathic Society of Central New 

York, 49. 
Homoeopathic Society of Northampton and 

Cos. Adj., 113. 
Homoeopathy in Alabama, 342. 
Homoeopathy in Alaska, 420. 
Homoeopathy in Arizona, 419. 
Homoeopathy in Arkansas, 422. 
Homoeopathy, Beginnings of, 17. 
Homtx^opathy iii California, 377. 
Homoeopathy in Colorado. 407. 
Homoeopathy in Connecticut. 200. 
Homoeopathy in the Dakotas. 418. 
Homoeopathy in Delaware. 269. 
Homoeopathy in District of Columbia, 315. 
Homoeopathy in European Countries, 18. 
Homoeopathy. First Use of the Name, 30. 
Homoeopathy in Florida, 410. 
Homoeopathy in Georgia, 334. 
Homoeopathy in Idaho, 420. 
Homoeopathy in Illinois, 345. 
Homoeopathy in Indiana, 295. 
Homoeopathy in Indian Ter., 424. 
Homoeopathy in Iowa, 385. 
Homoeopathy in Kansas, 414. 
Homoeopathy in Kentucky. 283. 
Homo, in Louisiana, 188. 
Homoeopathy in Maine. 303. 
Homo, in Maryland. 194. 
Homoeopathy in Massachusetts, 210. 
Homoeopathy in Michigan, 322'. 
Homoeopathy in Minnesota. 389. 
Homoeopathy in Mississippi, 395. 
Homoeopathy in Missouri, 363. 
Homoeopathy in Montana, 409. 
Homoeopathy in Nebraska, 398. 
Homoeopathy in Nevada, 423. 
Homoeopathy in New Hampshire, 289. 
Homoeopathy in New Jersey, 240. 
Homoeopathy in New Mexico, 425. 
Homoeopathy in New York, 44. 
Homoeopathy in North Carolina, 405. 


HdiiKtopathy in Oliio. i66. 
} lom(tO])atliv ill Oklalioma. 425. 
1 fomojopalliy in Oregon. 412. 
MomcEOpatliy in Fcnna., III. 
Honi(Cf)patli\' in Rhode Island, 275. 
HonKtopatliy in So. Carolina. 413. 
lionKeopathy in Tennessee. 369. 
HonKPopathy in Texas, 37^3. 
lionKropatliy in Utah, 417. 
lloiiKeopathy in Vermont, 258. 
Vlomctopathy in Virginia, 162. 
Homoeopathy in Washington. 424. 
Homoeopathy West of Allegheny ^Its., 154. 
Homoeopathy in West Virginia. 402. 
Homoeopathy in Wisconsin, t^^j. 
Homoeopathy in Wyoming. 417. 
Hoppin. Conrtland. 280. 
Hoppin. Washington. 2y~, 280. 
Hornbnrg. Chris. Gottlob. 39. 


of Md 


Albany City Homo.. 54. 
Brooklyn Homo., 53. 
Brooklyn Maternity. 55. 
Brooklyn Nursery and Inf'ts, 55. 
Buffalo Homo., 55. 59. ' 
Chicago Baptist, 352. 
Chicago City. 351. 
Chicago Jiomo.. 351. 
Children's of Boston, 214. 
Children's Five Points House 

Children's of Philadelphia, 119. 
Children's. St. Louis. 364. 
Cleveland Homo.. 169. 
Collin's State Homo.. 52. 
Cook Co.. 352. 
Fabiola of Oakland, 380. 
Florence. 58. 
Free Homo.. 364. 
Good Samaritan, 364. 
Good Samar. Dea., 57. 
Gowanda State Homo., 52. 
Grace. Detroit. 325. 
Grace of New Haven, 201. 
Hahnemann, Ladies' Aid Soc, 54. 
Hahnemann, N. Y., 54. 
Hahnemann at Scranton. 128. 
Hampden Homo.. 213. 
Hargon's Memo. Hahn.. 58. 
Harlem Homo.. 59. 
Homo, of Essex Co.. 242. 
Homo, of Phila.. 119. 
Isabella Helmuth, 57. 
J. Lewis Crozer. 125. 
Kansas City Homo.. 364. 
Kansas Surg.. 415. 
Laura Franklin Free. 57. 
Maryland Homo.. 195. 
Mass. Homo.. 213. 
Med.. Surg, and Matern.. of 




Memo, for Women and Chil.. 57. 

Metropolitan. 56. 

Middletown State Homo.. 51. 

Minneapolis Homo., 390. 

Mt. Vernon Homo., 59. 

National Homo., 317. 

Newburyport Homo., 214. 

New Orleans, 189. 

N. Y. Homo. Surg., 54, 57. 

N. Y. Homo, for Women and 

s, Ohio, 168. 
. Passaic Homo., 242. 
, Penna. Homo., 119. 
, Pittsburgh Homo.. 122. 
. Portland ^leth.. 413. 
, Rhode Island Homo., 276. 
. Rochester Homo., 57. 
. St. Luke's. 410. 
, St. Luke's of Phila.. 125. 
, St. Mary's Homo.. 242. 
. St. Paul Homo.. 390. 
. St. Vincent's. 169. 
, Syracuse Homo.. 59. 
, Toledo Prot.. 171. 
, Utica Homo.. 59. 
, Ward's Island, 57. 
, West Jersey, 242. 
, West Phila., 128. 
, Wichita Homo., 415. 
, Wm. McKinley Memo.* 242. 
. Wilmington Homo.. 270. 

for Women and Children, Ohio. 

Hospital. Med. and Surg, of Reading. 123. 

tal. Woman's Homo., St. Louis, 
tal. Woman's Southern of Phila., 
tal, Worcester Homo.. 214. 
tal. World's Fair Homo., 352. 
tal, Yonkers Homo., 59. 

Hotchkiss, Jesse Temple, 102. 

Houghton, Milo G., 263. 

Houghton, Thomas. 365. 

House of Good Samar. Dea., 57. 

Hoyt. Daniel O.. 174. 

Hubbard. Henry C, 97. 

Hubbard. Levi. 415. 

Hudson Co. Homo. ]Med. Soc, 242. 

Hudson River Homo. Med. Soc, 51. 

Huff, E., 286. 

Hughes, Alfred, 163, 402, 403. 

Hughes, Eliza C, 402. 

Hull. Amos Gerald, 72. 

Humphreys, Erastus, 100. 

Humphreys, Frederick. 100. 

Humphrey. Gideon, 144. 

Hunt, F. G., 344. 

Hunt, Henry Francis, 248. 

Hunt. James George. 173. i8r. 

Hunt. R. S.. 154. 

Hunt. Samuel P., 335. 

Hunter. Rev. Wm., 403. 



Hunter, Thomas C, 301. 
Hunter, W.. 154. 
Huntington, T. Romayn, 392. 
Hurlburt, Edwin T. M., 400. 
Huson, Richard, lOi. 
Hutawa, Charles, 367. 
Hutchinson, James B., 302. 
Hyde, W. A., 367. 

Idaho, Homo, in, 420. 

Ihm, Car], 137. 

Illinois, Homo, in, 34. 

Illinois State Homo. Med. Assn., 347. 

Illinois Val. Homo. Med. Soc, 349. 

Indiana County, Pa., Homo, in, 154. 

Indiana, Homo in., 295. 

Indiana Institute of Homo., 297. 

Indianapolis Homo. Inst., 297. 

Indian Territory, Homo, in, 424. 

Inevarity, Dr., 344. 

Ingalls. William, 219. 

Ingersol, Dr., 407. 

Ingerson, H. H., 383. 

Inglis, George, 154. 

Insane Asylum, Westboro, 212. 

Iowa, Homo, in, 385. 

Iowa Homo. Med. Assn., 386. 

Isabella Helmuth Hosp., 57. 

Isham. Henry, 206. 

Italy, Homoeopathy in, 18. 

Iverson, Rev. A. M., 341. 

Jackson, Mercy B., 222. 

Jackson, William F., 223. 

Jamaica, Homceopathy in, 20. 

James, Richard M., 387. 

Jeanes, Jacob, 144. 

Jefferson County, Pa., Homo, in., 154. 

Jeffords, George P., 308, 312. 

Jeffries, Charles, 327. 

Jewett, John R., z^y. 

Jewett, John R., Sketch, 331. 

J. Lewis Crozer Home and Hosp., 125. 

Johnson, Daniel A., 223. 

Johnson, James D., 202. 

Johnson, Perry E., 358. 

Johnston, James, 420. 

Jones, Elisha Utley, 230. 

Jones, Erasmus D., 98. 

Jones, Samuel Arthur, 253. 

Joslin, Benj. Fr., 90. 

Judkins, Charles W., 408. 


Xankakee and DesPlaines Val. Homo. Med. 

Assn., 350. 
Kansas City Homo. Hosp., 364. 

Kansas, Homo, in, 414. 
Kansas Homo. Med. Soc, 415. 
Kansas Surg. Hosp., 415. 
Keep, Lester, 205. 
Kellogg, Edward W., 202. 
Kellogg, George M., 369. 
Kentucky, Homo, in, 283. 
Kentucky State Homo. Aled. Soc, 283. 
Kimball, Daniel S., 97. 
Kings County, N. Y., Homo, in, 99. 
Kirby, Stephen Reynolds, 78. 
Kirkpatrick, Alex., 253. 
Kitchen, James, 147. 
Kittinger, Leonard, 273. 
Knapp, Franklin L., loi. 
Knapp, H.. 326. 
Knight, Elam C, 206. 
Knight, E. C, 236. 
Knorr, Louis, 335. 
Koers, J. H., 375. 
Koller, Baron Francis, 42. 
Kuchler, Johanna, First Wife of Hahne- 
mann, 25. 
Kuechler, Karl F., 356. 
Kiimmel. Ernest R., 339. 
Kyle, Dr., 179. 


Ladies' Aid Soc. of Hahn. Hosp., 54 

Lafon, Thomas, 244. 

Lamb, C. A., 325. 

LaMoille Co., Homo, in, 266. 

LaMunyon. Ira W^. 400. 

Lancaster county, Pa., Homo, in, 151. 

LaSalle Co.. Homo. Med. Soc, 351. 

Laura Franklin Free Hosp. for Children, 

Lawton, Charles H., 274. 
Lebanon County, Pa., Homo, in, 153. 
Leech, J. Stuart, 153. 
Leech, J. W., 179. 
Leipsic, Homoeopathic Hospital, 37. 
Leritz, Jacob, 147. 
Leon. Alexis, 190. 
Leonard, William H., 392. 
Lewis County, N. Y., Homo, in, 98. 
Lewis, Edwin W., lOi. 
Lewis, Emlin, 399. 
Lexington, Homo, in, 367. 
Lillie, Rev. James, 95. 
Lindsay. Albert, 223. 
Lingen, George, 147, 343. 
Linn Co., Homo. IMed. Soc, 386. 
Linnell, J. E.. 235. 
Lippe, Adolph, 153. 

Livingston County, N. Y., Homo. in. 98. 
Loguc. John D.. 374. 
Lord, Israel S. P., 357- 
Louisiana, Homo, in, 188. 
Lounsbury, George, 404. 



Lovejoy, Ezekiel, loo, 153. 

Ludlam, Reuben, 353. 

Lund, Dr. Hans Chris., 42. 

Lund, Oscar F., 252. 

Lux, Wilhelm, Veterinarian Homoeopa- 

thist, 41. 
Lyon, Irving M., 202. 
Lytle, Randal M., 370. 


Madison County, N. Y., Homo, in, 102. 

Maine, Homo, in, 303. 

Maine Homo. Med. Soc, 304. 

Mann, Thos. H., 279. 

Mansa, Edward, 150. 

Mansfield, Wm. Q., 415. 

Manter, N. H., 176. 

Marion Co. Homo. Med. Soc, 297. 

Marix, Martin M., 407, 415. 

Marsden, John H., 153. 

Marsh, Anna E. P., 408. 

Marsh, Horatio R., 421. 

Marston, Mortimer, 386. 

Martin, Joseph, 189. 

Marvin, S., 154. 

Maryland Homo. Hosp., 195. 

Maryland, Homo, in, 194. 

Maryland 'State Homo. Med. Soc. 194. 

Massachusetts, Early Physicians, 238. 

Massachusetts Homo. Hosp., 213. 

Massachusetts, Homo, in, 210. 

Massachusetts Homo. Med. Soc, 210. 

Materia Medica Pura, Presented to the 

World, 33. 
Maternity Hosp., Minneapolis, 390. 
Matlack, Charles F., 137. 
Matthes, Gustavus F., 229. 
May, Robert, 152. 
McAffee, Edwin M., 360. 
McCanless, W. W., 406. 
McCarthy, Lewis, 96. 
McCheeney, Alfred B., 354, 358. 
McClure, W. B., 402. 
McGeorge, Wallace, 253. 
Mclntire, Dr., 343. 
McKinley Memo. Hosp., 242. 
McManus, Felix R., 196. 
^McNeil, Daniel, 252. 
^IcVickar, John Aug., 90. 
Medical Investigation Club, 195. 
Medical Science Club of Chicago, 351. 
Medical Society, Baltimore Homo., 195. 
Medical Society, Caledonia Co., 259. 
Medical Society, Calif. State, 378. 
^ledical Society, Camden Homo., 241. 
Medical Society, Central Ills. Homo., 349. 
Medical Societj', Central N. Y., 49. 
Medical Society, Chicago Homo., 349. 
Medical Society, Clinical of Balto., 195. 
Ixledlcal Society, Colorado State, 407. 

Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 

Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 

and Cos. Adj., 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
!Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Societj^ 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
INIedical Society, 
Medical Society, 
IMedical Society, 
Medical Society, 
IMedical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
IMedical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 

Medical Society, 

shire, 289. 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
IMedical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Aledical Society, 
IMedical Society, 
^Medical Society, 
^ledical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
Medical Society, 
IMedical Society, 
Medical Societv. 

Communipaw, 241. 
Conn. State, 200. 
Cook Co. Homo., 349. 
County and Local in Pa., 

Delaware Homo., 269. 
Eastern Dist. Homo., 241. 
Eastern Ohio, 168. 
Essex Co. Homo., 241. 
Florida State, 410. 
Fourteenth Dist., 350. 
Grace of New Haven, 201. 
Hahnemannian, 112. 
Homo, of Alabama, 342. 

Homo, of Northampton 


Homo, of Penna., 112. 
Hudson Co. Homo., 242. 
Hudson River Homo., 51. 
Illinois State Homo., 347. 
Illinois Valley, 349. 
Indiana Institute, 297. 
Kansas Homo., 415. 
Kentucky State, 283. 
La Salle Co. Homo., 351. 
Maine Homo., 304. 
Maryland State, 194. 
Mass. Homo., 210. 
Medico-Chirurgical, 50. 
IMichigan Homo., 324. 
IMilitary Tract, 349. 
Miss. State Homo., 395. 
Nebraska State, 398. 
New Hampshire, 289. 
New Haven, 201. 
New Jersey State, 241. 
N. Y. Homo., 48, 82. 
Northern Ills. Homo., 349. 
N. Ind. and S. Mich., 297. 

Northern Indiana Inst, 

Northern New Hamp- 

Northern New York, 49. 
N. W. Ills. Homo., 351. 
Ohio Homo., 167. 
Old Dominion, 162. 
Oregon State. 412. 
Pacific of Cal., 379. 
Rhode Island Homo., 276. 
Rockford Homo., 351. 
Southern, 188. 
Southern Tier, 50. 
Tennessee Homo., 370. 
Terre Haute. 297. 
Topeka Homo., 415. 
Vermont Homo., 258. 
Washington Homo., 317. 
Washington State, 424. 
Wayne Co. Homo., 297. 
Western Dist. N. J., 241. 



Medical Society, Western Kentucky, 284. 
Medical Society, Western N. Y., 50. 
Medical Society. West Va., 163. 
Medical Society, Wisconsin State, 338. 
Medical Society, Women's of Chicago, 351. 
Med., Surg, and Matern. Hosp., 121. 
Medico-Chirurgical Society of Central New 

York. 50. 
Melrose, James. 358. 

Memorial Hosp. for Women and Chil., 57. 
Mercer County, Pa., Homo, in, 154. 
Mercer, William M., 375. 
Merrill, John, 312. 
Merrill. S. A., 387. 
]\Ierriman, Charles L., 328. 
Metropolitan Hosp. on Blackwell's Isl., 56. 
Michigan, Homo, in, 322. 
Middleton, John D., 404. 
Middleton, R. S., 244. 
Middletown State Homo. Hosp., 51. 
Military Tract Homo. Med. Soc, 349. 
Miller, Adam, 173. 
Miller, Adam, 354, 359. 
Miller, A., 408. 
Miller, A. C, 403. 
Miller, John J., 419. 
Minneapolis Homo. Hosp.. 390. 
Minneapolis Matem. Hosp., 390. 
Minnesota, Homo, in, 389. 
Minnesota State Homo. Inst., 390. 
Minter, Samuel, 190. ^ 
Mississippi, Homo, in, 395. 
Missouri Homoeopathic Inst., 364. 
Missouri, Homo, in, 363. 
Missouri Inst, of Homo., 364. 
Moffat, Reuben Curtis,. 102. 
IMoffit, Elizabeth, 364. 
Montana, Homo, in, 409. 
Monument to Hahnemann, 315. 
Moore, G. T., 154. 
Moore, John D., 244. 
Moore, J. Murray, 381. 
Morgan, John C, 358. 
Morgan, J. H., 372. 
Morgan, Louis A., loi. 
Morgan, W. L., 402. 
Morrill, Alpheus, 175. 
Morris, M., 415. 
Morrison, H. J., 419. 
Morse, Nathan R., 225. 
Morton, Lucien H., 203. 
Mosher, John, 325. 
Mosher, John, Biog., 331. 
Mount Vernon Homo. Hosp., 59. 
Muhlenbein, Dr. Geo. A. H., 42. 
Mulford, Charles W., 255. 
Mi.iller, Moritz Wilhelm, 42. 
Munger, Erastus A., 100. 
iMunsey, Barton, 405. 
Murphy, William, 287. 
Murrell, William J., 343. 


National Homo. Hosp., 317. 

Nebraska, Homo, in, 398. 

Nebraska State Homo. Med. Soc, 398. 

Negendank. August, 272. 

Neidhard. Charles, 147. 

Nevada, Homo, in, 423. 

Newburyport Homo. Hosp., 214. 

Newell, William H.. 252. 

New Hampshire, Homo, in, 289. 

New Hampshire Homo. Med. Soc, 289. 

New Haven, Homo, in, 202. 

New Haven Homo. Med. Soc, 201. 

New Jersey. Homo, in, 240. 

New Jersey State Homo. Med. Soc, 241. 

New Mexico, Homo, in, 425. 

New Orleans, Homo, in, 189. 

New Orleans, Pharmacies, 192. 

Newton, Charles, 253. 

New York City, Early Homos., 99. 

New York Homo. Hosp. for Women and 

Chil., 54. 
New York, Homoeopathy in, 44. 
New York Homoeopathic Medical Society, 

New York Homo. Society, 82. 
New York Homo. Surg. Hosp., 54, 57. 
New York State Sch. for Tr. Nurses, 55. 
Niagara County, N. Y., Homo. in. loi. 
Nichols, Lemuel B., 234. 
Nichols, Z. B., 390. 
North American Acad, of the Homo. 

Healing Art, 114. 
North Carolina, Homo, in, 405. 
Northeastern Iowa Homo. Med. Soc, 386. 
Northern 111. Homo. Med. Assn.. 349. 
Northern Indiana Homo. Inst., 297. 
Northern N. H. Homo. Med. Soc, 289. 
North Mo. Val. Homo. Med. Soc, 386. 
Northrup, Daniel W., 202. 
Northwestern Ills. Homo. Med. Soc, 351. 
Novelle, Orleans, Soc. Hahn,, 188. 


Oakland Homo. Hosp. and Disp. Assn., 

Ober, Benjamin, 377. 
Ober, Levi E., 340, 357. 
Ockford, George M., 253. 
O'Dell, Charles M., 329- 
Oehme, Ferdinand, 222. 
Ohio Homo. Hosps., 168. 
Ohio, Homo, in, 166. 
Ohio, Homo. Med. Soc, 167. 
Ohio Hosp. for Women and Chil., 170. 
Oklahoma, Homo, in, 425. 
Okie, Abraham H., 275. 
Old Dominion, Hahn. Med. Soc, 162. 
Olds, E. R, 326. 



Olipliant, D. S., 191. 

Orange County, N. Y., Homo, in, 102. 

Orange Co., Vt.. Homo, in, 267. 

Orcutt. Hiram C, 259. 

Ordway, L. S., 422. 

Oregon, Homo. in. 412. , 

Oregon State Homo. Med. Soc, 412. 

Organon. It.s Appearance, 29. 

Orleans County, N. Y., Homo, in, 102. 

Ornie. Francis H., 334. 

Osborne. James H., 204. 

Osgood, David, 221. 

Owens, William. t8i. 

Pacific Homo. Med. Soc, 379. 
Pahl, H. F., 376. 
Paine, Henry i)elavan, 84. 
Paine, Horace M., 102. 
Paine, Joseph P., 223. 
Palmer, Walter C, 89. 
Parker, Henry C, Z7i- 
Parkhurst, Charles B., 259. 
Parlin, Louis, 275. 
Parsons, Ephraim, 358. 
Parsons, George R., 375. 
Parsons, William H., 415. 
Passaic Homo. Hosp., 242. 
Patton, J. H., 164. 
Paulson, Dr., 380. 
Payne, John, 307. 
Payne, William E., 305. 
Peabody, Adams, 387. 
Peabody, Ira W., loi. 
Peacock, Thomas, 247. 
Pearce, Henry, 340. " 
Pearson, Clement, 386. 
Peck, William, 174. 
Pelton, Harrison S.. 420. 
Pelton, Sylvester, 101. 
Penniman, William. 392. 
Penna. Homo. Hosp. for Chil., 119. 
Pennsylvania, Homo, in, iii. 
Pennsylvania, Old Practitioners in, 160. 
Perkins, Robert S., 163. 
Perrine, George W.. 339. 
Perrine, James K., 420. 
Perry, J. D., 325. 
Peterson, James, 290. 
PfeifTer, Geo. S. F., 147, 249. 
Pfonts, John S.. 339. 413. 
Pharmacies in New York State, 102. 
Pharmacies in Ohio. 185. 
Philadelphia, List of Old Homo. Practi- 
tioners, 159. 
Phillips, Albert W.. 2aS. 
Pike, A. J., 261. 
Piper, John, 317. 
Pitney, Aaron, 345. 
Pittsburgh, Homo, in, 153. 

Plumbe, E. O., 418. 

Polk Co. Homo. Med. Soc, 386. 

Pollock, Alex., 360. 

Pomeroy, Thomas F., Sketch, 331. 

Pond, L W., 154. 

Pope, Gustavus W., 319. 

Porter, David C, 154. 

Porter, Isaac G., 202. 

Porter, Maria W., 387. 

Porter, William W., 357. 

Portland Meth. Hosp., 413. 

Potter, E., 356. 

Powers, David C. 330. 

Practitioners in New York, Early, 104. 

Practitioners in Penna., 160. 

Practitioners in Phila., 159. 

Pratt, Leonard, 153, 358. 

Pratt, S. Milton, 415. 

Prentice, Nathan Fay, 359. 

Pretsch, Dr., 154. 

Price, Dr., 174. 

Price, E. H., 372. 

Provers' Union, 38. 

Provers' Union and Mat. Med. Club, 351. 

Pulsifer, Moses R., 310. 

Pulsifer, Nathan G. H., 310. 

Pulte, Joseph H., 152, 171. 

Pyburn, George, 408. 


Quin. James M., 92. 
Quinby, Watson Fell, iji. 


Raue, Charles G., 230. 

Ravold, Jacques, 366. 

Raymond, Jonas C, 383. 

Rea, Albert, 312. 

Reading Homo. Hosp., 123. 

Reed, Maro Mch., 358. 

Reichhelm, GustaVus, 154. 

Reid, Fidelia R. H., 340. 

Reinhold, C. G., 150. 

Reisner. J. C., 153. 

Rensselaer County, N. Y., Homo, in, 97. 

Rend, William R.. 382. 

Rhees, Morgan John, 245. 

Rheiwinkle, F. H., 177. 

Rhode Island Homo. Hosp., 276. 

Rhode Island, Homo, in, 275. 

Rhode Island Homo. Med. Soc, 276. 

Rich, Jane A., 266. 

Richards, George W., 244. 

Richmond, B. W., 175. 

Richter, F. L.. 418. 

Richter, Moritz, 380. 

Ring, Hamilton, 180. 

Rivera, D., 376. 

Roberts, Francis A., 308. 

Roberts, Jacob, 308. 



Robinson, Henry D., 255. 
Robinson, Horatio, 95. 
Robinson, Lucy, 400. 
Robinson, Samuel A., 154. 
Roche, Manning B., 228. 
Rochester Homo. Hosp., 57. 
Rockford Homo. Med. Soc, 351. 
Rock River Inst, of Homo., 350. 
Rockwell, R. W., 205. 
Rodman, Wm. W., 206. 
Rogers, Smith, 329. 
Romig, George M., 135. 
Romig, John, 135. 
Romig, William H., 135. 
Rosa, Lemuel K., 183. 
Rosa, Storm, 182. 
Rosenstein, L G., 283. 
Rossman, Robert, 98. 
Routh, G. E., zy^. 
Royer, Dr., 375. 
Rueckert, Ernst Ferd., 40. 
Runner, Reuben C., 367. 
Russell, George, 232. 
Rutherford, C. E., 301. 
Rutland Co., Homo, in, 267. 
Rutter, J. C, 154. 

Saal, Gerhard, 176. 
Sabine, L., 325. 
St. Luke's Homo. Hosp., 125. 
St. Luke's Hosp., 410. 
St. Mary's Homo. Hosp., Passaic, 242. 
St. Paul Homo. Hosp., 390. 
St. Vincent's Hosp., 169. 
Sanborn, Beniah, 263. 
Sanborn, J. M., 263. 
Sanborn, John, 264. 
Sandicky, Dr., 305. 
Sanford, Charles E., 204. 
Sanford, Edward, 235. 
San Francisco Co. Soc. of Homo. Practi- 
tioners, 380. 
San Francisco Surg, and Gynec. Inst., 380. 
Saunders, Chas. F., 278. 
Savage, A. M., 102. 
Sawin, Isaac W., 281. 
Sawyer, Alfred I., Sketch, 332. 
Sawyer, Bcnj. E., 236. 
Saxenburger, F., 399. 
Saynisch, Lewis, 149. 
Schafer, Dr., 343. 
Scheurer, P., 143. 
Schlagel, Dr., 174. 
Schley, James M., 334. 
Schmidt, Jacob, 144, 198. 
Schmoelc, William, 144. 
Schue, John, 202. 

Schuyler County, N. Y., Homo, in, loi. 
Scott Co, Homo. INIed. Soc, 386. 
Scott, Dr.. 154. 

Scott, M. L., 407. 

Searles, Samuel, 154. 

Sears, R. H., Reminiscences, 301. 

Seidlitz, George M., 387. 

Sel fridge, J. M., 382. 

Shackford, Rufus, 307. 

Shawnee Co. Homo. Med. Soc, 415. 

Shearer, Thomas, 414. 

Sheffield, Henry, 369. 

Shepherd, Alfred, 177. 

Shepherd, David, 175. 

Sheppard, Wm. R., 254. 

Sherman, John H., 237. 

Shipman, George E., 353, 355. 

Shivers, Bowman H., 247. 

Sieze, Emanuel, 94. 

Similia Similibus Curantur, Principle of, 

Sisson, Edward R., 229. 
Sisson, William H. H., 399. 
Sioux City Homo. Med. Assn., 386. 
Skeels, Alfred P., 393. 
Skiff, Charles H., 202. 
Skiff. Chas. W., 203. 
Skiff, Paul C, 203. 
Slye. Lawton C, 340. 
Small, Alvan E., 150. 
Smith, David S., 345. 
Smith, D. S., 357. 
Smith, Eugene, 422. 
Smith, F. S., 154. 
Smith, John Elisha, 400. 
Snow, Robert A., 179. 
Societe Hahn. De La N. Orleans, 188. 
Society of Homo. Pract., 380. 
Society of Homo. Phys. of Iowa, 386. 
Sook, Henry L., 176. 
South Carolina, Homo, in, 413. 
Southern Cal. State Asy. for Insane and 

I neb., 380. 
Southern Homo. Med. Assn., 188. 
Southern Kan. Homo. Med. Assn., 415. 
Southern Tier Homo. Med. Soc, 50. 
Spain, Homoeopathy in, 20. 
Sparhawk, George E. F., 262. 
Sparhawk, Samuel H., 263. 
Spaulding, Dr., 99, 364. 
Spencer, Nathan, 98. 
Sperry, Dr., 390. 
Spooner, John P., 216. 
Spranger, F. X., 154. 
Springer, C. F., 375. 
Stapf, Johann Ernst, 38. 
Starr, Edward W., 335. 
Starrett, Simon P., 393. 
State Asylum for Insane, Mo., 364. 
State Homo. Med. Soc. of Miss., 395. 
Stearns, Daniel Edward. T},. 
Stegemann, Dr., 42. 
Steinestel, J. D., 365. 
Stevens, Charles A., 98. 


Stevens, Grenville S., 277. 

Stevens, Porter, 383. 

Stewart, David G., 300. 

Stewart, Jerry W., 415. 

Stewart, Walter, 91, 396. 

Stone, Henry E., 205. 

Storke, Eugene F., 408. 

Stout, Henry Rice, 410. 

Stratton, C. W., 236. 

Streeter, George D., ^j'jd, 399. 

Sturdevant, Thomas, 254. 

Sturm, William, 171. 

Suffolk County, N. Y., Homo, in, 102. . 

Swain, Marcus, 340. 

Swan, Daniel, 216. 

Swazey, George W., 226. 

Sweden, Homoeopathy in, 19. 

Swinney, John G., 273. 

Syracuse and Utica Com. of Homo. Phys. 

Syracuse Homo. Hosp., 59. 


Tacoma Homo. Acad, of Med., 424. 
Taft, Cincinnatus A., 201. 
Taft, Gustavus M., 201. 
Tantum, Joseph R., 274. 
Taplin, T. C, 259. 
Tarbell, John Adams, 219. 
Taxil, L. V. M., 189. 
Taylor, Charles, 201. 
Taylor, Charles W., 234. 
Taylor, Dr. George, 201. 
Taylor, John, 92. 
Taylor, Oliver B., 204. 
Temple, John, 363. 
Temple, Peter, 367. 
Tennessee, Homo, in, 369. 
Terre Haute Homo. Med. Soc, 297. 
Texas, Homo, in, 2)1})- 
Texas Homo. Med. Assn., 2,^2,- 
Tifft, John, 176. 

Tioga County, Pa.. Homo, in, 149. 
Thayer, David, 221. 
Thayer, S. B., 327. 
Thayer, S. B., Biog., 331. 
The Dakotas, Homo, in, 418. 
Thomas, Wm. Way, 273. 
Thompson, Greenfield, 310. 
Thorp, John H., loi. 
Thorne, Joshua, 366. 
Thorne, L., 406. 
Todd, W. S., Sr., loi. 
Toledo Protestant Hosp., 171. 
Tomlinson, Rev. Mr., 222. 
Topeka Homo. Med. Soc, 415. 
Tracy, L. M., 96, 338. 
Train, Horace Dwight, 223. 
Trinks, Dr. C. F., 41. 
Troyer, Moses, 355. 

Tucker, S. Giles, 202. 
Tyson, Dr., 367. 


Ulrich, Dr., 343. 
Utah, Homo, in, 417. 
Utah Homo. Med. Assn., 417. 
Utica Homo. Hosp., 59. 

Vail, Ira, 364. 
Vail, J., 190. 

Van Beuren, Louis Folk, 78. 
Van Buren, L. H., 295. 
Vanderburgh, Federal, 79. 
Van Deusen, H. A., 237. 
Van Deusen, James M., 261. 
Van Dusen, A., 327. 
Vastine, Thomas J., 364. 
Veith, Prof. S., 41. 
Venango County, Pa., Homo, in, 154. 
\"erdi. Giro S., 321. 
Verdi, Tullio S., 320. 
Vermont, Homo, in, 258. ' 
Vermont Homo. Med. Soc, 258. 
Vinal, L. G., 255. 
Virginia, Homo, in, 162. 
Virginia, Old Phys. of, 164. 
Voak, John Emory, 357. 
von Gottschalk, Wm., 281. 


Wager, Sanford, 265. 

Waggoner, Calvin C., 388. 

Wahlenberg, Dr. George, Introduces 

Hom'y in Sweden, 19. 
Wakeman, John A., 360. 
Walkenbarth, Dr., 366. 
Walker, Amos, 326. 
Walker, Charles, 222. 
Walker, George S., 2^6. 
Walker, L., 400. 
Walthall, Dr., 164. 
Walther, Edward, 388, 391. 
Ward, Isaac M., 242. 
Ward, Walter, 245. 
Ward's Island Homo. Hosp., 57. 
Warner, Nash Hull, 97. 
Washington Co., Pa., Homo, in, 154. 
Washington, D. C, Homo, in, 315. 
Washington Homo. Med. Soc, 317. 
Washington, Homo, in, 424. 
Washington Medical and Surgical Club, 

Washington State Homo. Med. Soc, 424. 
W'auke, Dr.. 152. 
Way, Jacob H., 399. 
Wayne Co. Homo. Med. Soc, 297. 
Wayne County, Pa., Homo, in, 154. 



Weber, Charles S., 392. 

Webster, Elias, 179. 

Webster, H. D. L., 422. 

Webster, William, 179. 

Wedelstaedt, H., 390. 

Weisicker, Dr., 383. 

Weld. Chris. M., 219. 

Wellman, Washington I., loi. 

Wells, Phineas P., 93. 

Werder, Max J., 154. 

Werder, Maximilian, 382. 

Westboro Asylum for Insane, 212. 

West, Edwin, 154. 

West Jersey Homo. Hosp., 242. 

West Phila. Homo. Hosp. and Disp., 128 

West Virginia, Homo, in, 402. 

West Virginia Homo. Med. Soc, 163. 

Wesselhoeft, Robert, 134, 233. 

Wesselhoeft, William, 132, 218. 

Western Dist. N. J. Homo. Med. Soc, 241. 

Western Ky. Homo. Med. Soc., 284. 

Western New York Homo. Med. Soc. 50. 

Wheat, John N., 392. 

Wheaton, P. M.. 327, 369. 

Wheeler. John, 174. 

White. Isaiah, 417. 

White. Wm. H., 329. 

Whitehead, Coburn, 149. 

Whitfield, N. C, 418. 

Whitman, Joshua A., 413. 

Whitman, Marcus, 412. 

Whittier, Daniel B., 237. 

Whittle, Joshua F., 290. 

Wichita Homo. Hosp., 415. 

Wicstling, Dr., 154. 

Wigand, Henry, 179. 

Wilcox. George D., 281. 

Wild, Charles, 216. 

Wilder, Daniel, 229. 

Wilkinson, Ross M., 246. 

Williams, Chas. D.. 179. 

Williams, George W., 376. 

Williams, John A., 370. 

Williams, Nancy T., 310. 

Williams, Savina L., 387. 

Williamson, Walter, 150. 

Williamson, Walter M., 340. 

Wilmington Homo. Hosp., 270. 

Wilmington Med. Club, 270. 

Wilsey, Ferd. Little, 63. 

Wilson, Abraham Duryea, 70. 

Wilson, G. Herrick, 206. 

Wilson, Pusey. 247. 

Windham Co., Homo, in, 267. 

Winslow, Caroline B., 321. ■ 

Vv^isconsin, Homo, in, 337. 

Wisconsin Institute of Homo., 338. 

Wisconsin State Homo. Med. Soc, 338. 

Wislicenus, W. E., 40. 

Witherill, A. A., loi. 

Witherill. Edwin C, 173. 

Wolf, Dr. Paul, 41. 

Woman's Homo. Hosp., St. Louis, 364. 

Women's Homo. Med. Soc. of Chicago. 351. 

Woman's Infirmary Assn. of Wash. Hts., 

Woman's So. Homo. Hosp. of Phila., 125. 
Wood, John Gage, 225. 
Wood, Orlando S., 399. 
Woodbury Co., Homo. Med. Soc, 386. 
Woodruff, Francis, 329. 
Woodruff, William L., 419. 
Woodvine, Denton G., 234. 
Woodward. Edward P., 204. 
Worcester Homo. Hosp., 214. 
Worcester, Samuel, 265. 
World's Fair Homo. Emerg. Hosp., 352. 
Wright, A. J., 422. 
Wright, A. S., 382. 
Wright, Augustus S., 297, 398. 
Wright, Clark, 84. 
Wright. Nathaniel Van W., 424. 
Wyoming, Homo, in, 417. 

Yonkers Homo. Hosp., 59. 
Youlin, John J., 251. 

History of Homoeopathy 




The Subject Introduced — Discovery in IMedical Science — Brief Allusion to the Founder — 
Homoeopathy in Germany — Bohemia — Austria — Russia — France — Italy — America — 
Sweden — Great Britain^Spain — Belgium — Cuba. 

The discovery of glaring and inexctisable inconsistencies in the practice 
and administration of medicine during the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century led to the promulgation of a safer method of cure than the world 
had before known. It is said that evolution and development were the talis- 
manic watchwords of the nineteenth century, during which were made the 
greatest strides in advancement in the arts and sciences that the world had 
known in all history, and that among the thousands of remarkable discov- 
eries which marked that century most of them dated within the last half 
thereof. This may be true, and if it is homoeopathy is to be credited to the 
advances in medical science of the preceding century, and to have attained 
its greatest degree of development and perfection during the last fifty years. 
Homa-opathy at the beginning of the twentieth century rests on the solid 
fundamental principle established by its founder more than a hundred years 
ago, and from that beginning has advanced in every conceivable direction, 
keeping even step with the grand march of progress in every branch of 
science throughout all subsequent time. 

It was not that Hahnemann was raised up for his special mission in life ; 
he was born and raised and trained as were others of his time ; in childhood 
and youth endowed with mental qualities as were those with whom he asso- 
ciated, not more gifted than they, perhaps, but, unlike them, was possessed 
of a studious mind, an inquiring nature, and he loved the companionship of 
his books more than the pleasures of idle hours, and far more than he loved 
his father's workshop, v/here he was sought to be kept with the brushes and 
paints and porcelain wares until he was skilled in the art of his father. But 
whatever the environment of his youth, his early advantages in education 
and his ultimate determination to enter tipon the life of a physician, Hahne- 
mann was in many respects a remarkable man, and what he did was only the 
right employment of the talents with which he had been endowed by nature 
and directed by circumstances. 

It has been said with much truth that the early history of homoeopathy 
in Germany was only the history of Hahnemann's life in that country, the 


story of which is told by Bradford in these pages, as it has been told by hun- 
dreds of other commentators. " It is easy to show," Ptihlitian says of Hahne- 
mann, " that when he advanced his new doctrine he not only made opposi- 
tion to the spirit of that time, but that he necessarily paid a tribute to the 
latter by plantmg the roots of the new system into the old soil. We know 
from his biography that he withdrew in disgust from the old shallow mode 
of practice and devoted iiimself for some time to the study of chemistry." 

To appreciate the worth of Hahnemann's character one must also know 
something of the condition of medicine in his time, but a thorough study of 
this subject leads into a limitless field, dangerous and uncertain even to 
the cautious logician of the twentieth century, for the greatest achievements 
in this particular branch of science are credited to the last fifty years. This 
is true not only of the homoeopathic school, but as well of the so-called (by 
themselves) regular school. 

But the opponents of the doctrine propounded by Hahnemann, and im- 
proved upon and elaborated by his more modern followers, never have 
regarded homcEopathy in the light of advanced medical science, and with 
the truth before them of the enlightened age in which they live, still charac- 
terize the principles of siniilia similihus ciirantiir as one of the fallacies of 
a former era ; but they practice it, at times consult its " dogmatic " theories, 
and liaving intelligently investigated and compared it with the teachings 
under which they themselves were schooled, they are frequently led to accept 
its truths and employ them in practice. It is a fact that in America to-day 
just about one-sixth part of the medical practitioners employing the agencies 
of cure taught exclusively in homoeopathic schools are graduates of- allo- 
pathic colleges, and that notwithstanding the fact that of the hundred schools 
of medical instruction in America onlv one-fifth of them are distinctly homoe- 
opathic in teaching. 

Hahnemann propounded his startling dogma in Germany in 1790, after 
which the new school passed through many wonderful and prolonged tests, 
trials and opposition before it was recognized and tolerated in other countries. 
But the seed had been sown in fertile German soil, grew there and flour- 
ished, and eventually spread out its branches into other lands. According 
to Altschul, the new doctrine was introduced in Bohemia in 1817, and in 
the next year Veith, the great nestor, had his attention directed to it by 
Krastiansky. the famous army surgeon. In Austria it found lodgment in 
1819, with Gossncr practicing in Oberhollabrun and Mussek in Seafeld. but 
in the same year Emperor Francis I ordered that " Dr. Hahnemann's homoe- 
opathic method of cure should be generally and strictly forbidden;" but the 
prohibition was only temporary. In Russia the system was first introduced 
by laymen as early as 1823, and soon afterward Dr. Adams, the friend of 
Hahnemann, began practice in St. Petersburg. France caught the infection 
in 1830. when the new doctrine found there its first expounder in Count des 
Guidi, a doctor of medicine, doctor of science, and inspector of the Uni- 
versity at Lyons, who had occasion to consult de Romani, a homoeopathic 
physician of great reputation in Naples. 

In writing of the introduction of homoeopathy into Italy, Dadea, M.D. 
of Turin, says the seed was sown in the soil of Naples by the Austrians 
who entered that citv in March, 1821, "to deprive its noble inhabitants of 
the liberty they had gained bv the revolution of the same year. The general 
in command of the army of occupation, Baron Francis Koller, a devoted 



friend of homaopathy, presented to the Royal Academy of Naples a copy 
of Hahnemann's Organon and Materia Medica, inviting them to make use 
of it for the benefit of conscience and humanity." 

Gram carried the new system on his voyage to America in 1825, when 
he set foot on the soil of New York, then, as now, the first city in the land, 
and he the first exponent of the doctrine, a scholar, teacher, and in every 
respect a gentleman, but not well calculated to combat the prejudices of 
those who made war on his principles. This was the home-coming of Gram, 
but the tidings he bore found no warm welcome on this side of the Atlantic. 
Further than this it does not become this chapter to treat of homceopathy in 

Dr. Johann Ernst Stapf. 

America, that being the principal subject of the greater work of which these 
comments arc only introductory. 

The honor of having introduced homoeopathy in Sweden is accorded to 
Dr. George Wahlenberg, a professor in the University of Upsala, whose 
duties required him to lecture on the subjects of botany and pharmacia and 
organica, and who in order to qualify himself for his work felt bound to 
study the few homoeopathic books then extant; and having studied them, 
he became convinced of their rational truth, although he himself never prac- 
ticed the new system. This honor fell to Leidbeck and Souden. whose first 
proselyte was Sonderberg, the eminent botanist and ornithologist, who had 
settled in the little ancient town of Sigtuna. 

Kerr, :M.D. of Cheltenham, in his historical narrative savs that although 
Hahnemann published his Organon of Medicine as far back' as 1810, it was 


not until 1826 that professional notice of homoeopathy was taken in Great 
Britain, when at a meeting of the Medical Society of London in that year 
the subject was introduced, inquired into, voted upon, and " dropped ;" a 
most natural result when the condition of the medical profession in the 
United Kingdom at that time is considered. In the next year, however, 
there settled in London Frederic F. Quin, physician and one of the suite of 
Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. Quin had studied homoeopathy in Ger- 
many, practiced it in Naples, and had the honor of introducing it in England. 
But Quin, on account of his presumption in practicing in England without 
license from that august body, the censors of the Royal College of Physicians, 
was brought to bar by them, threatened with penalties, but not giving heed 
to these admonitions was left severely alone to pursue his own pleasure in 
undisturbed peace. Later on, however, homoeopathy came under the ban 
of persecution in Great Britain and was subjected to a series of bitter attacks, 
but withstood them all and emerged from the contest stronger and better 
than ever before. 

" In 1829 there came to Madrid," says the narrative of the homoeopathic 
society of the Spanish capital city, " a royal commission sent by the King 
of Naples to attend the marriage of Donna Maria Christina with Don Ferdi- 
nand VII, to which commission Dr. Horatiis, a practitioner of homoeopathy,, 
was attached as physician. But as his stay in Spain was short he left no 
notable results of the reformed medicine which he practiced." Of more 
importance were the services rendered by a layman, Zuarte, a merchant of 
Cadiz, who, when travelling for his health, made the acquaintance of Necker, 
and became an enthusiast on the subject of homoeopathic treatment. Zuarte 
was the friend of Senor Vilalba of the diplomatic corps, and they traveled 
together to Coethen to visit Hahnemann and consult with him concerning 
the illness of the former. Following the founder's advice, he went to Lyons 
and was cured, and in the gratitude of his heart he bought copies of Hahne- 
mann's works and distributed them among the physicians of Andalusia; and 
he sent to Leipsic, at his own expense, a medical student to receive the 
instructions of the most famous German homoeopaths of the time. Thus the 
homoeopathic doctrine first became known in Spain in 1829 and 1830, and 
was first practiced -in the Andalusian provinces of that country. 

Belgium in the center of Western Europe has for centuries excited the 
covetousness of her powerful neighbors — Holland on the north ; the German 
empire 011 the east ; France on the west and southwest, and England on the 
west and separated from her by the North Sea. During the last five cen- 
turies Belgium has been occupied in turn by France, Spain and Germany, 
and not until 1830 was she separated from Holland to establish an inde- 
pendent government. About 1829 homoeopathy made its appearance in the 
country, when DeMoor of Alost, titular surgeon of the civil hospital, made 
himself the apostle of the new system. About two years afterward Varlez 
and Carlier adopted homoeopathic practice in Brussels, and in 1837 thev,. 
with the assistance of Brixhe, Dugniolle, Van Meerbur, Dunemberg and 
others founded the Belgian Homaopathic Society. 

Homoeopathy was introduced into Havana about 1842 by Francisco de 
P. Escopet, who came from Spain at that time. The earliest practitioner 
of the school in Santiago de Cuba was Joaquin Bramon, who came from 
Barcelona in Spain in 1845 and continued in practice until 1847. I" Jamaica 


"homoeopathy was practically unknown until after 1870, and then its advocates 
were for a time suppressed by the civil authorities. 

Such, then, is a mere outline of the introduction of homoeopathy in 
various European countries and some of their western possessions. It is 
not the province of this work to treat in detail the history of homoeopathy 
in other countries than America, but only to trace in a general way the 
gradual outspreading of the system from its original home in Germany to 
other foreign principalities and ultimately into America ; and whatever is 
written in these introductory pages is only to lay the foundation of the ex- 
haustive narrative which begins with the story of Hahnemann's life and his 
subsequent achievements as told by Bradford. 



The Beginnings of Homoeopathy — Hahnemann, the Founder — His Birth and Education — 
His Trials and Triumphs — His Death — Brief Allusion to Some of the Provers, 
Disciples of the Founder. 

By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

The principle of similia similibus curantur is as old as the history of 
medicine. The fact that a substance capable of producing a certain series 
of symptoms will also remove like symptoms when produced by some other 
cause, was known to the ancient fathers of medicine. But like many another 
truth, although cures resulted occasionally and were noted by medical writers, 
no effort ever was made to understand and make practical iise of this law of 
nature until Hahnemann, a German chemist and physician, whose attention 
was by chance called to it, began by personal experimentation to test its truth. 
After much effort, through trials, through trouble and ridicule, harassed 
by poverty, ostracised by his fellows, he steadily pursued his way, destined 
to triumph in the end and to lay his burden down, having passed by many 
years the usual span of life, in the most brilliant of the cities built by men, 
rich, respected, and honored, recognized as the founder and the master of 
a great medical system whose practitioners were established in many coun- 
tries. And it was no idle utterance that fell frrrally from his Itps — " Hon 
inutilis vixi " — I have not lived in vain. 

It has been said that genius consists in a capacity for taking infinite 
pains. It is equally true that the exercise of that faculty is not entirely at 
the option of the individual. There is a force within man that impels him 
to labor at an appointed task, at the picture, the book, the nation's cause, or 
humanity's. The artist is unhappy away from his canvas where every touch 
is a means to the fulfilment of a definite purpose, and he must continue to 
lay tint upon tint and color beside color until the glorious conception of the 
perfect picture is fixed upon the canvas to delight future generations of 
man. The author must write on regardless of his surroundings ; he can not 
help himself ; his tale must be told. The general must direct his army piti- 
lessly onward over rough ways, where dead bodies are, past burning homes, 
onward to victory or death ; it is his destiny and he must fulfill it. The reformer 
must walk steadily, with unheeding ears, and with eyes fixed upon a future 
beyond the ken of his fellows ; he must bear the jeers of the world^s idlers, 
pressing onward to the end, be it stake or laurel crown. Each by the impell- 
ing power within him is driven to accomplish his destiny. It is only at cer- 
tain periods in the world's history that such a man is born, kindling in his 
heart from childhood the sacred fire. The results of these rare birth-gifts 
to the world mark epochs in its history, and by them mankind is advanced 
a step toward the fulfilment of the Creator's end. Such a man was Hahne- 
mann, the story of whose remarkable life and medical system is about to 
be told. 



Samuel Christian Frederick Hahnemann was born on the night of April 
lo, 1755, at Meissen, Saxony, the son of a porcelain painter. It is related 
that the father gave his son when the latter was five years old lessons in 
thinking, devoting a certain time each day to that instruction. The good 
father during these hours would advise the boy to prove all things and to 
hold fast to that which was good. Early in life he was placed in the village 
school, and it was a habit of his boyhood to wander over the beautiful hills 

of Meissen. He loved to study the plants and ^ 

made an herbarium ; he was fond of natural ■ ■ * ] 

history. So apt v/as he that when twelve years 
old the good Master Miiller intrusted to him to 
teach the rudiments of Greek to the other 
pupils. About this time the frugal father 
wished to take him from school and, after the 
way of German fathers, set him to work, but 
Magister Miiller, the principal, entreated the 
father and ofifered to remit the tuition, upon 
which the bright, studious lad was allowed to 
remain at his books. At sixteen he entered 
the Meissen private school. Several times the 
father took his son from school only to be per- 
suaded to allow him to return. Once he ap- 
prenticed him to a grocer at Leipsic, but the 
lad ran away and returned home, where his 
mother concealed him for several days until 
the father's heart was softened. It is also re- 
lated that the father objected to the waste of 
lighting fluid needed for midnight study, upon 
which the son fashioned a rude clay lamp and hid himself with his books at 
night in a retired nook in the rambling old Eck-house where he lived. 

There was a wonderful native force within the boy impelling him to 
study, to store his mind with useful knowledge, and that despite paternal 
frowns and other difficulties. He had to learn — it was destiny — and the 
father at last began to realize that there was something in this country-bred 
lad of twenty years ; this eccentric son, who already knew somewhat of Latin, 
Greek, Hebrew, history, and physics, and whom nothing in the way of oppo- 
sition could deter from knowing, and that he ouglit no longer attempt to 
curb. And so when Samuel was twenty years old, in 1775, and when the 
Easter beils were linging, Hahnemann, the student, received from his father 
about twenty dollars, with permission to journev to Leipsic, the university 
town, and win his way m his own manner. He began student life in Leipsic 
by attending lectures during the day and devoting the nights to translations 
from the English into German, and he also taught German and French to 
a rich young Greek. A generous citizen of ]\Ieissen had presented him with 
free tickets to the medical lectures, but his literary occupations were such as 
to prevent him from attending them regularly ; but he studied hard and 
saved his money that he might sooner go to the more advantageous schools 
of V^ienna. Soon after he went to Leipsic he was defrauded of his savings, 
and for nine months was obliged to live on a little more than sixty-eight 
florins, and then to seek a self-supporting position. But the way was pro- 
vided in the person of Dr. \'on Ouarin, who was physician to ^laria Theresa 

Dr. Gustay Wilhelm Gross. 



and Emperor Joseph. He assisted this young Saxon scholar, who thus spoke 
■of his benefactor many years afterwards : ''' He respected, loved and in- 
structed me as if I had been the lirst of his pupils, and even more than this, 
and he did it all without expecting any compensation from me. To him I 
am indebted for my calling as a physician. I had his friendship and I may 
almost say his love, and I was the only one of my age whom he took with 
him to visit his private patients." 

Von Ouarin secured for Hahnemann the position of private physician 
and librarian to the Baron von Bruckenthal, who was governor of Sieben- 
burgen and lived in the city of Hermanstadt. For a year and nine months 
he remained in the delightful seclusion of Von Bruckenthal's great library, 
filled with priceless books and manuscripts. He catalogued his collections 

ljrtlliirmanii9 (Oclmtt^liaiis in ilUififii. 
Hahnemann's Birthplace in Meissen. 

of rare coins and also the books, and arranged them. And he studied them. 
He was always studying, making ready for the future that as yet he dreamed 
not of, and was impelled always by an unknown inward force to gain new 
and varied knowledge. When Hahnemann left Hermanstadt he was master 
of Greek, Latin, English, Hebrew, Italian, Syriac, Arabic, Spanish, German, 
and had besides a little knowledge of Chaldaic ; and then he was only twenty- 
four years of age. 

This is the man who has been called " that ignorant German fanatic ! " 
He bade the good baron farewell in the spring of 1779, and went to the Uni- 
versity of Erlangen to take his degree as doctor of medicine, chosing Erlan- 
gen because the fees were less than at \'ienna. At this place on August 10, 
1779, he successfully defended his thesis, and received his diploma. From 
the time of graduation in August until some time in the year 1780, it is 


probable that Hahnemann travelled about in the towns of Lower Hungary. 
In the summer of 1780 a home-longing overcame him and he returned to 
Saxony, locating in the little town of Hetstadt in a copper mining country, 
where he found little to do but study the mining. He remained there nine 
months, going thence in the springtime of 1781 to Dessau, where he first 
turned his attention to chemistry, of which he afterwards became one of the 
most able exponents and experimentalists of the time. Here also he gained 
much knowledge of practical mining and smelting, which he afterwards 
utilized in writing upon those subjects ; and, as he so quaintly said : " I 
filled the dormer windows of my mind." 

In Dessau Hahnemann met Johanna Henrietta Leopoldine Kuchler, 
■daughter of apothecary Kuchler, who became his life companion. Thev were 

Dr. Carl Gottlob Franz. 

Tiiarried in Dessau, December i, 1782. He was twenty-seven and she nine- 
teen years old. He had a short time previous taken the post of parish doctor 
at Gommern, a small town not far from Magdeburg. They went there and 
he at once began regularly to practice his profession. Hahnemann said that 
there had previously been no physician at this place, and that the inhabitants 
had no desire for any such person. Here he remained two years and nine 
months. While there he made some important translations and published 
his first original book " On the Treatment of Old Sores and Ulcers." In 
this work he gave the results of his experience in Transylvania, and said 
that the patients probably would have done quite as well without him. And 
in writing of his treatment of a case of caries of the metatarsal bone he said : 


" I scrapeci the carious bone clean out and removed all the dead part, dressed 
it with alcohol and watched the result " (not a bad method of treatment for 
the surgery of the present day, and that was in 1784). The matter of hygiene 
was mentioned in his book, although at that time it was very little under- 
stood. Even then the master was teaching in advance of his time. 

He now began, as he says, to taste the delights of home ; he was con- 
tented ; his books and his official position supported him ; but the rude and 
barbarous medical methods of the day disturbed his logical and educated 
mind, which was trained to expect definite results ; and he disliked to give 
compounds of whose effects on patients he was ignorant. He could not 
accept the loose ways and methods of the existing medical schools. In the 
celebrated letter to Hufeland, the " Nestor of German medicine," on the 
" Necessity of a Regeneration in Medicine," published some time afterward, 
Hahnemann fully explained his feelings at that period of his life, and his 
reasons for giving up the old practice of medicine hampered by dogmas of 
doubt. He resigned his position at Gommern in the autumn of 1784 and 
entirely gave up practice that (in his own words) " I might no longer incur 
the risk of doing injury, and I engaged exclusively in chemistry and in liter- 
ary occupations." His mind was now reaching out toward his ideal. As he 
once said to Hufeland. lie could not understand a God who had not provided 
some certain method of contemplating diseases from their own aspect and 
of curing them with certainty. " But why has this method not been dis- 
covered during the twenty-five or thirty centuries in which men have called 
themselves physicians ? Because it is too near us, and too easy ; because to 
attain it there is no need of brilliant sophisms or seducing hypotheses." Im- 
pelled by a something within him to seek, Hahnemann gave up the old prac- 
tice of medicine and reduced himself and familv to comparative poverty for 
conscience sake, and in the fulfillment of the immutable law in his nature 
that he was powerless to overcome. From Gommern he removed to brilliant 
Dresden, then the home of the arts and the sciences, and devoted his time 
to translations and the study of chemistry. He also studied medical juris- • 
prudence with Dr. Wagner, the town physician or health officer, who became* 
his friend and gave him charge of the hospitals of the town for a year. xA.t 
this time Hahnemann was well known in Germany as a scholarly translator 
of scientific books, and a daring and successful experimentalist in chemistry. 
He was received with warm welcome by the distinguished scholars who re- 
sided in Dresden. Adelung, who had made a compilation in five volumes of 
the history of all the known languages and dialects (" Mithridates ") and 
who was perhaps the foremost philologist in the world ; Dasdorf. the libra- 
rian of the great Electoral library — himself a ripe scholar ; Blumenbach, 
the naturalist; and Laviosier, the ill-fated chemist, a victim of the reign of 
terror. Such was the company Hahnemann enjoyed, a scholar in a scholarly 
atmosphere, and in the companionship of men of wisdom. This life con- 
tinued four pleasant years. Up to this time all the translations of scientific- 
works and the original books he had written were of such a nature as to 
render him more fit for the groat discoveries he was soon destined to make. 

In Septeml)er. 1789. Hahnemann removed to Leipsic and continued his 
literary work. liefore this it is probable that he had no idea that he was 
to be a medical reformer. There is nothing in his writings to indicate such 
a thought. He was simply a learned physician and chemist, too honest to 
bleed and purge and dose his fellow men. and vaguely sc-eking in his own- 


mind for some more reasonable and safe method of cure. Soon after his 
arrival at Leipsic and while he was translating from the English the materia 
medica of the great Scotch physician, William Cullen, he was led by certain 
statements in the book to make some original experiments upon himself re- 
garding the effects of Peruvian bark. As a result he added a footnote to the 
second volume of his translationXjn which he said : " I took by way of 
experiment, twice a day, four drachms of good China. My feet, finger tips^ 
&c., at first became cold ; I grew languid and drowsy ; then my heart began 
to palpitate, and my pulse grew hard and small ; intolerable anxiety, trembling 
(but without cold rigor), prostration throughout all my limbs; then pulsation 
in my head, redness of my cheeks, thirst, and — in short — all these symptoms 
which are ordinarily characteristic of Intermittent Fever, made their appear- 
ance, one after another, yet without the peculiar chilly rigor. This paroxysm 
lasted two or three hours each time, and recurred, if I repeated the dose, not 
otherwise. I discontinued it and was in good health." This discovery led to 
experiment; analysis led to synthesis. J 

Hahnemann passed six years in noting the effects of different drugs and 
poisons on healthy persons and in studying old volumes of recorded experi- 
ments in materia medica. His family was pressed into the service and friends 
also assisted him. Each was tried in various doses and in every possible 
variety of circumstance, that the real effect might be clearly understood. All 
the time he could spare from his translations was devoted to these provings 
and to chemical research. 

He now had several children and was so poor that the whole family 
lived in a single room, while the father pursued his work in one corner, sep- 
arated from the others only by a curtain. It was his custom to sit up every 
other night translating in order to gain m.ore time for his experiments. In 
1 79 1 poverty compelled him to go to the little village of Stotteritz, where he 
could live still more cheaply. While there he helped in the work of the 
house, wore the garments and the heavy wooden clogs of the poor German, 
and even kneaded the bread with his own hands. Sickness befell his family. 
He had lost faith in medicine. Of this period he writes : " Where shall I 
look for aid, sure aid? sighed the disconsolate father on hearing the moaning 
of his dear, inexpressibly sick children. The darkness of the night and the 
dreariness of the desert all around me ; no prospect of relief for my oppressed 
paternal heart." Yet always he had in mind the determination to continue his 
experiments, to elaborate the new law that he had begun to make practicable. 

Previous to this time Hahnemann had no opportunity of testing on the 
sick the result of the drug-provings on the healthy, but now it came. A 
certain influential man, Herr Klockingbring, had by ridicule been rendered 
violently insane, and his wife, having heard of Hahnemann, was induced to 
request him to attend her husbandr Through her influence the Duke of 
Gotha gave up to Hahnemann for the experiment a wing in his old hunting 
castle at Georgenthal at the foot of the' Thuringian mountains, nine miles 
from his own capital of Gotha. He caused it to be properlv arranged for 
the reception of the maniac and his keepers. He was taken with the madness 
in the winter of 1791-92. It probably was in the spring of 1792 that Hahne- 
mann's attention was .first called to the case, and during that summer he 
went to Georgenthal. It was a case of acute mania and Klockingbring was 
very violent, requiring several keepers. Hahnemann says that for "two weeks 
he watched him without giving hmi any medicine. It 'was the fashion then 


to treat insane persons with great severity, chaining, beating and placing 
them in dark dungeons. Hahnemann did not approve of this and treated 
his distinguished patient with great gentleness. It has been claimed that 
Hahnemann was in advance of the celebrated alienist Pinel in this plan of 
treating the insane. It was during this same year of 1792 that Pinel first 
unchained the maniacs in the hospital of Bicetre at Paris. In 1793 Klock- 
ingbring returned to Hanover completely cured. 

Hahnemann left Georgenthal in May, 1793, going thence to Molschle- 
bcn, a smiall village near Gotha. From letters written at this time by him 
to a patient, and which have been published, we are able to determine his 
whereabouts very correctly. He went from Molschleben to Pyrmont, and from 

Dr. Franz Hartmann. 

there in 1796 to Wolfenbuttel, and thence to Konigslutter, where he remained 
imtil 1799, when he went to Hamburg. The life at Konigslutter is mem- 
orable because while living there he published, in 1796, in " The Journal for 
Practicing Physicians," edited by his friend Hufeland, and which was the most 
important medical journal of that time, his celebrated essay on a "New Prin- 
ciple for Ascertaining the Curative Powers of Drugs." In this he gave 
to the world for the first time his principle — sttnilia similibns curantur, explain- 
ing how he had experimented and the result. It was only after six years of 
constant trial and study that he shared his wonderful secret with the medical 

During the last year of the life at Konigslutter an epidemic of scarlet 
fever occurred, and Hahnemann put his new found knowledge to the proof. 


and declared that belladonna, inasmuch as it would produce a similar drug 
condition, would cure scarlet fever — and it did; and because he first tested 
the cure on the sick and did not reveal its name until he was sure of its 
effect, his enemies even to the present day, have accused him of dealing in 
secret remedies and nostrums.* 

But in prescribing with his own medicines for these patients he had 
offended against the law, and the jealous apothecaries of Konigslutter hounded 
him forth to fresh wanderings. In the autumn of 1799 he packed all his 
goods and his family into a large wagon, and with heavy heart left the town 
where life had begun to present some sunshine, and started on the road to 
Hamburg. On the journey over a precipitous part of the way the wagon 
was overturned ; the driver was thrown from his seat ; Hahnemann himseli 
was injured; a daughter's leg was broken; an infant son Ernst was so hurt 
that he soon died, and his property was damaged by falling into a stream. 
At the nearest village of Muhlhausen he was obliged to remain six weeks at. 
considerable expense. 

He settled after this at Altona and did not go to Hamburg until 1800. 
It was in this year that Fleischer, the Leipsic publisher, gave to Hahnemann 
to translate an English book containing medical prescriptions. He trans- 
lated the text into good German, but added an original preface in which he 
so ridiculed and satirized and belittled the compound prescriptions of the 
great lights of the English n:edical world that it put an end to his employ- 
ment by that publisher. His only further translation was the Von Haller 
Materia Medica fiom the Latin, which was published in 1806. At this 
period he wrote several essays for Hufeland's journal. In 1802 he went 
from Hamburg to Mollen in the duchy of Lauenburg, and from there jour- 
neyed to Eilenburg in beloved Saxony. He was not allowed to remain there, 
however, as the health officer ordered him away. From thence he went to- 
^lachern, a village four miles from Leipsic, where poverty again distressed 
him. It is related that after toiling all day at translating (at the Haller 
Materia Medica) he often assisted his wife to wash the family clothing at 
night, and as they could not purchase soap they employed raw potatoes in- 
stead. The portion of bread allowed to each was so small that he w^as accus- 
tomed to weigh it out in equal proportion. From Machern he went to Wit- 
tenburg. departing soon after for Dessau, where he lived for two years. 

Hahnemann left Hamburg about the beginning of 1802. He could not 
have remained long in one place. He was poor and persecuted, driven from 
town to town. He passed about two years at Dessau and, according to a 
letter written by him, he was in June, 1805, domiciled at Torgau, where he 
remained until 181 1, when he went to Leipsic. As his essays in the medical 
journals only brought him into condemnation he afterwards published his 
articles in the "General German Gazette of Literature and Science." 

Hahnemann's first collection of provings — " Fragmenta de Viribus " — was- 
published in Latin w^hile he was at Torgau, in 1805. Five years later the 
first edition of the Organon appeared. In this he gave to the world a careful 
explanation of his new medical discoveries and beliefs. It contained every- 
thing relating to the new medical method and in it he for the first time men- 

'■^This was the only occasion on which Hahnemann ever withheld the 
name and purpose of any medicament employed by him. 



tioned the name Homoeopathy. The work appeared in 1810, from the press 
of his friend and patient, Arnold. The book consists of an introduction and 
the Organon itself. The introduction is entitled " Review of the medication, 
allopathy and palliative treatment that have prevailed to the present time in 
the old school of medicme," and comprises the first one hundred pages of 
the Organon. 

Hahnemann here presents the curious 
story of the efforts of mankind to conquer 
disease. He writes : " But ever since that 
time (soon after Hippocrates, therefore for 
J^t^ll^ ' 2,500 years) men have occupied themselves 

^^^H^ with the treatment of the ever-increasing 

/ ^^^ ' multiplicity of diseases, who, led astray by 

" - '• * their vanity, sought by reasoning and guess- 

ing to excogitate the mode of furnishing 
this aid. Innumerable and dissimilar ideas 
respecting the nature of diseases and their 
remedies sprang from so many dissimilar 
brains, and the theoretical views these gave 
rise fo, they called (structures) systems, 
each of which was at variance with the rest 
and self-contradictory. Each of these subtle 
expositions at first threw the readers into 
stupefied amazeriient at the incomprehen- 
sible wisdom contained in it, and attracted 
to the system monger a number of fol- 
lowers, who re-echoed his unnatural soph- 
istry, to none of whom, however, was it 
of the slightest use in enabling them to 
cure better, until a new system, often diranetrically opposed to the first, thrust 
that aside, and in its turn gained a short-lived renown. None of them was in 
consonance with nature and experience ; they were mere theoretical webs 
constructed by cunning mtellects out of pretended consequences which could 
not be made use of in practice, in the treatment at the sick-bed, on account of 
their excessive subtlety and repugnance to nature and only served for empty 

Xi' Simultaneously, but quite independent of all these theories, there sprung 
up a mode of treatment with mixtures of unknown medicinal substances, 
against forms of disease arbitrarily set up, and directed towards some ma- 
terial object, completely at variance with nature and experience, hence, as 
may be supposed, with a bad result — such is old medicine. Allopathy, as it 
is termedj 

" Wiuiout disparaging the services which many physicians have rendered 
to the sciences auxiliary to medicine, to natural philosophy and chemistry, 
to natural history in its various branches, and to that of man in particular, 
anthropology, physiology and anatomy, &c.,0. shall occupy myself here with 
the practical part of medicine only, with the healing art itself, in order to 
show how it is that diseases have hitherto been imperfectly treated. I speak 
merely of the medical art as hitherto practiced, whicl;i^_presuming on its 
antiquity, imagines itself to possess a scientific character.^/ 

Hahnemann then discusses various medical methods, blood letting, evac- 

Dr. Moritz Miiller. 


iiant, stimulating, &c. He says again : " The presumed character of the 
affection, they regarded as the cause of the disease, and hence they directed 
their pretended casual treatment against spasm, inflammation (plethora), fever, 
general and partial debility, mucus, putridity, obstructions, &c., which they 
thought to remove by means of their antispasmodic, antiphlogistic, tonic, 
stimulant, antiseptic, dissolvent, resolvent, derivative, evacuant, atUtagonistic 
remedies, (of which they only possessed a superficial knowledge). 

^]jjut all semblance of appropriate treatment of diseases was completely 
lost, by a practice, introduced in the earliest times, and even made into a rule: 
1 mean the mixture, in a prescription, of various medicinal substances, whose 
real action was, almost without an exception, unknown, and which without 
any one exception, invariably differed so much among each other. One 


'M'^'^ (r^i^^^ 




m -^"'^H 


# ' -^ 


Hry ^M^^^^M 

r ■ "> 

Dr. Carl Haubold. 

medicine (the. sphere of whose medicinal eft'ects was unknown) was placed 
forem.ost, as the principal remedy (basis), and was designed to subdue what 
the physician deemed the chief character of the disease; to this was added 
some other drug (equally unknown as regards the sphere of its medicinal 
action) for the removal of some particular accessory symptom, or to strengthen 
the action of the first (adjuvans) ; and besides these, yet another (likewise 
unknown as to the sphere of its medicinal powers) a pretended corrective 
remedy (corrigens) ; these were all mixed together (boiled, infused) — and 
along with them, some medicinal syrup, or distilled medicinal water, also 
with different properties, would be included in the formula, and it was sup- 
posed that each of the ingredients of this mixture would perform, in the 


diseased body, the part allotted to it by the prescriber's imagination, without 
suffering itself to be disturbed or led astray by the other things mixed up 
along with it; which, however, could not in reason be expected." ^ 

Pie then goes more fully into the absurdity of medicinal mixtures and 
cites from medical writers to show that such a plan is ridiculous. Again he 
says : " It was high time for the wise and benevolent Creator and Preserver 
of mankind to put a stop to this abomination, to command a cessation of these 
tortures, and to reveal a healing art the very opposite of this, which should 
not waste the vital juices and powers by emetics, perennial scourings out of 
the bowels, warm baths, diaphoretics, or salivation ; nor shed the life's blood, 
nor torment and weaken with painful appliances ; nor, in place of curing pa- 

Uv. Carl 1'". I'rinks. 

tients suffering from diseases, render them incurable by the addition of vnew, 
chronic, medicinal maladies, by means of the long continued use of wrong, 
powerful medicines of unknown properties ; nor yoke the horse behind the 
cart, by giving strong palliatives, according to the old favorite axiom, con- 
traria contrariis curantiir; nor in short, in place of lending the patient aid, 
to guide him in the way to death, as is done by the merciless routine practi- 
tioner, but which on the contrary should spare the patient's strength as much 
as possible, and should rapidly and mildly effect an unalloyed and perma- 
nent cure, by means of the smallest doses of simple medicines well considered, 
and selected according to their proved effects, by the only therapeutic law 
conformable to nature, similia simUibiis curanhtr. 

"It was high^time Pie should permit the discovery of howioeopathy. 


'" Bv observation, reflection, and experiment, I discovered that in oppo- 
sition to the old allopathic method, the true, the proper, the best mode of 
treatment, is contained in the maxim : To effect a mild, rapid, certain, and 
permanent cure, choose, in every case of disease, a medicine which can itself 
produce an affection similar to that sought to be cured. 

" Hitherto no one has ever lmii:;lit this homoeopathic method of cure, no 
one has practiced it. But if the truth is only to be found in this method, as 
I can prove it to be, we might expect that, even though it remained unper- 
ceived for thousands of years, distinct traces of it w^ould be discovered in 
every age. And such is the fact." 

Hahnemann devoted about sixty pages to quotations from the writings 
of old physicians from Hippocrates to Sydenham, describing cures effected 
according to the doctrine of similars. Each cure is plainly stated with a 
reference in each case to the medical writer responsible for the statement. 
The book itself is devoted to instructions in practical homoeopathy. Hahne- 
mann never claimed to discover the law of similia, but he did claim that he 
was the first person to make any practical demonstration of that law. 

It is needless to say that the propositions advanced in the Organon 
brought down upon the head of the reformer an avalanche of abuse. He 
had raised his hand against the traditions of years and he was attacked by 
the medical journals of the day. Books and pamphlets were fulminated 
against him. The reviews were so virulent that even the better of Hahne- 
mann's enemies condemned them. He v/as called a charlatan, a quack, an 
ignoramus. In 1811 his son published a refutation, which it is believed Hahne- 
mann himself wrote. All this storm of abuse he answered in no other way. 
He gave his answer in a better way, in 181 1, when he presented to the w^orld 
the first volume of " Materia Medica Pura." 

But the grand impulse was strong within him. He felt that he must 
find a wider platform from which to shout his glad tidings to sick and suf- 
fering hinnanity, and in the year 181 1 he transferred his "Lares and Pe- 
nates "" to his old jiome in Leipsic, the place he had first entered as an enthu- 
siastic and scholarly lad of twenty. Since then — Vienna, Hermanstadt, Er- 
langen, Dessau, Gommern, Dresden, Georgenthal, the wander-years, and after- 
w"ards Tcrgau, with its literary results. Trials, malevolence, privation, and 
false accusation, all had followed him like furies, and yet, impelled by a 
strange force, the genius of right and justice, he had ever and steadily gone 
on towards the future of whose brightness even yet he did not know. 

That Hahnemann ever planned any means of promulgating a new med- 
ical system for his own personal advantage, as his enemies ever asserted, 
anyone conversant with his character must utterly discredit. He was all 
through his long life the victim of circumstance, or, as some of his followers 
claim, of a " Providence " that fashioned every event and from the seemingly 
tangled threads in his web of life wrought the perfect picture ; and every 
bitter trial of his life was but bringing better equipment for the glorious end. 

It now became impressed upon Hahnem.ann's mind that he must teach 
this doctrine of medicine publicly to men ; and he went to Leipsic and began 
to lecture on the principles of homoeopathy. In December, 181 1, he inserted 
a notice of his " Aledical Institute " in a journal of the city. But before he 
was permitted to lecture he was compelled to defend a thesis before the fac- 
ulty of medicine. This he did on June 26. 1812. Its title was " A Disserta- 
tion on the Helleborism of the Ancients," and it was such a marvel of erudi- 



tion that no one attempted to dispute it. In its pages containing quotations 
from the Hebrew, Latin, Greek, Arabic, Italian. French, English and Ger- 
man there was evidence of profound knowledge. It seemed an echo from 
the great libraries of Hermanstadt and Dresden. 

Hahnemann now began lecturing Wednesday and Saturday afternoons 
from 2 to 3 o'clock." The lectures were continued semi-annually during his 
■entire stay at Leipsic, and soon attracted hearers from the medical and law 
students and the younger of the Leipsic physicians. The fame of his learn- 
ing and a desire to see the man who taught such medical " heresies " attracted 
many to him. Soon from the audiences he gathered a circle of young men 
under his direction who began to make provings on themselves. The result 
was the *' Materia Medica Pura. " These faithful disciples lived near Hahne- 
mann's house and were almost constantly with him. Each had his duty to 

perform, and Hahnemann, after collect- 
ing the symptoms, verified them, sub- 
jecting them to the finest scrutiny and 
with the most scrupulous exactitude an- 
cdyzed them. The plants were collected, 
the ]ireparations according to the for- 
mula of the master were made, and 
results noted. They who sat at the feet 
of the teacher afterwards carried the 
rew doctrine into many places. Fortu- 
nately, the story has been told by some 
among the number so that it is known 
how the reformer lived at this time. He 
was fully occupied with his lectures and 
the reception of patients at his home. 
He did not visit them at their houses. 
l);n'l\ with his wife and daughters he 
walked 'in one of the public gardens of 
tl^e city. After the day's labor he was 
accustomed to sit among his students in 
the evening, and with the mug of "ghose" 
at his side and the long German pipe in 
his hand, he would tell his disciples of 
the curious actions and ways of the older physicians at the sick bed, or relate 
circumstances of his former life • and then he would become lost to the sur- 
roundings, his pipe would go out, and one of liis daughters would at once be 
called to relight it. 

But persecution came. The students were accustomed to prescribe for 
patients and Hahnemann's reception room was thronged daily ; both master 
and student gave medicine. This practice was contrary to the law of that 
time, and the apothecaries whose privileges w^ere supposed to be encroached 
upon appealed to the courts against Hahnemann, and he was cited to appear. 
He did so, and also addressed a letter to the authorities in which he argued 
that he did not give compound prescriptions but only simple remedies in such 
minute doses, and of whose pre])aration the apothecaries knew nothing, that 
they could not put up these medicines ; that their exclusive right was only 
to make up compound prescriptions and that homoeopathy did not compound 

1>. C. A. 11. Alulilenbein. 


or dispense. He was soon notified that he would be fined twenty thalers for 
every dispensation afterwards. 

In 1820 a celebrated s^eneral, Prince von Schwartzenberg, who had been 
a leader of the allied armies against Napoleon, applied to Hahnemann for 
treatment, asking that he attend him at Vienna. Hahnemann replied that if 
he wished his services he must come to Leipsic as he was too busy to go to 
Vienna. So desirous was the prince to consult Hahnemann that he came to 
Leipsic and established himself in a suburb of the city. His case was incur- 
able, and he died about six months afterwards, of apoplexy. His death was 
the cause of renewed attacks on Hahnemann, and the legal persecutions, that 
during the treatment had been prevented bv the Saxon government on account 
■of his illustrious patient, were resumed with redoubled vigor. Hahnemann's 
students were arrested, fined, and even imprisoned. He himself was so per- 
secuted that he must either give up practice or resume his journeying in 
quest of another abiding place. Of a truth it may be said : 

"His life was like a battle or a march, 

And like the wind's blast, never resting, homeless. 
He stormed across the war-convulsed earth." 

Xot far from Leipsic was one of the many little principalities of which 
at that time Germany was composed. It was the duchy of Anhalt-Coethen. 
One of its notables, the Grand Duke Frederick, had heard of Hahnemann's 
wonderful cures and was, besides, a lover of justice. He offered an asylum 
to the persecuted old teacher, appointed him his privy physician with the title 
of Hofrath, and by edict gave him permission to dispense and prescribe within 
the limits of his kmgdom. Early in May, 1821, Hahnemann shook the dust 
of inhospitable Leipsic from his feet and with his faithful students accom- 
panying him on the road set out for Coethen. 

It was a delightful place, nestled in the valley of a small river, and in 
its quiet the master passed fifteen years of his eventful life. In a summer- 
house at th.e end of a paved garden he studied and Avrote and meditated, for- 
mulating, completing and perfecting his life work. His " Chronic Diseases " 
was written at Coethen, the last four editions of Organon, and the last two 
editions of " Materia Medica Pura." 

The year 1829 was memorable because on August 10 Hahnemann cele- 
brated the fiftieth anniversary of his graduation at Eriangen. His disciples 
came to him, bringing gifts. The old savant's portrait was done in oil and 
his bust v/as modelled. Stapf, his favorite pupil, had collected the fugitive 
essays he had written, and brought the first copy from the printer as his 
token. Albrecht, the Dresden friend and after-time biographer, delivered a 
poem in his praise. Rummel presented the honorary diploma from his alma 
mater. The scholarly Aluhlenbein made a Latin oration, giving a sketch of 
his life and labors. The good duke and duchess remembered their beloved 
physician. Afterwards there was a grand dinner. The disciples came from 
all parts of the country, and those who could not come sent letters of amity. 
This occasion resulted, in the formation of the German Central Homoeopathic 

Soon afterward, however, a great sorrow came, and the wings of ashen 
^ray were unfolded over the good housewife. For years she had devoted her- 
self to the cares of life that her husband might be free to pursue his studies. 
At the time of her illness Hahnemann also was ill, but he kept himself at her 



bedside and comforted her. After her death their daughters continued tO' 
care for the household, and there was Httle real change in its domestic life. 

The cholera year of 1832 came, and although Hahnemann never had 
seen a case of that character his knowledge of the effects of medicines upon 
the system enabled him to suggest the remedies that would be found useful. 
His opinion proved correct, because it was founded upon a law. Now the 
years passed peacefully and happily ; the wanderer at last had a home. Homoe- 
opathy was known and men of ability, physicians and laymen, journeyed 
to the little village to hear the old sage talk and to learn more of the new 
and rational method of healing. Coethen became the schoolhouse of homce- 
opathv, from whence went willing disciples to carry the teachings to all parts 
of the world. 

Hahnemann always was a very industrious man ; he never was idle. He 
proved about ninety medicines on himself; he wrote about seventy original 
w^orks on chemistrv and medicine, some of them in several volumes ; he trans- 

Hahnemann's Home in Coethen. 

lated fifteen large medical and scientific works from the English, six from the 
French, one from the Italian, and one from the Latin. These translations 
were not alone on medicine, but on chemistry, agriculture and general Hter- 
ature. Among them was " History of the Lives of Abelard and Heloise." 
which was considered a remarkable' work from a literary standpoint. Besides 
this was the labor of attending to a very large practice, a great part of which 
was by letter. He was not only a physician, reformer and chemist, but he 
was an accomplished classical scholar and critic, well versed in astronomy 
and meteorology, and especially fond of geography. In the days at Coethen' 
he was at seventy-five years interesting himself in the habits of spiders, still 
studying chemistVy, and keeping himself by letter en rapport with his fol- 
lowers in different parts of the world. 

In stature Hahnemann was a small man. inclined to stoutness; his car- 
riage was upright and his walk dignified ; his step was firm and all his motions- 
active ; his forehead was very higli, arched, and bore the impress of thought. 
In early life he wore a queue; later on he became bald on the top of his head^ 


and long locks of curling white hair fell over each temple. His eye was 
particularly piercing and brilliant, as though a great soul looked out defiantly 
upon the noisy world. He seldom smiled ; life had been too real for much 
laughter, yet he enjoyed the pleasure of others, In early life he wore small 
■clothes, knee breeches and shoes with buckles, and later on the long trousers ; 
his coat was dark. In his home life a gaily figured dressing gown with long 
skirts, wadded slippers and always a black velvet cap on his head, completed 
his attire. In Paris it was said that he wore his hair in curl papers at night. 
In food he was abstemious ; he vvas fond of sweets and preferred a sort 
of sunple cake to bread. His vegetables were cabbage, new beans and spin- 
ach. He usually took a nap after eating. Daily he took exercise in the open 
air, and worked until late at night. His usual companion was a little pet 
"dog that lay near his chair. Hahnemann had eleven children. 

Friedrich Runime!, M. D. 

In January, 1833, a fond wish of the great teacher was realized. A 
homoeopathic hospital was formally opened at Leipsic. He visited it later 
on and had the satisfaction of knowing that there w^as at least one institution 
pledged to a fair trial of his doctrines. There were differences afterward 
between the physicians and himself, but he continued his interest in the hos- 
pital as long as he remained in Germany. 

In 1835 this old man who had for some time thought that according to 
the law of nature he might finish his pilgrimage at anv time, renewed his 
lease upon life. He married a French lady of thirty-five vears, one Marie 
]Melanie d'Hervilly Gohier, daughter of a painter who had been adopted by 


a prominent Frenchman. She had heard of Hahnemann, and on visiting him 
they were mutually attracted. He made a will giving his children most o£ 
his property, and on January 28, 1835, he married ; and on the first day of 
Whitsuntide of the same year he departed from Coethen with his bride. His 
children and grandchildren dined with them at Halle, and the doctor and his 
wife went on to Pans. Madame Hahnemann was a woman of ability, an 
artist and poetess, and she soon became also a physician. She was of good, 
family and the life became a gay and busy one. They lived in style in a 
fashionable part of the city. Soon Hahnemann, though it was supposed that 
he intended to rest from his labors at Paris, was engaged in a larger and 
more exacting practice than he ever before had, and contrary to the old 
custom he now made visits, driving about in his carriage after the manner 
of other city physicians. His clientage constantly increased, and although 
he had given away most of his property on leaving Germany, it is said that 
during the eight years of his life in Paris he earned 4,000,000 francs. The 
French Homoeopathic Society honored him by making him their honorary 
president, and his every birthday was made the occasion of a festival in his 
honor. Many distinguished strangers called on and recognized him as the 
founder of a new and successful school of medicine. His home life was 
happy; he enjoyed the opera and public receptions, but he did no more liter- 
ary work. 

Death came at last to take away the great man, and calmly, trustingly, 
uncomplainingly, although at the last he suffered much, he passed away early 
in the morning of Sunday, July 2, 1843, gently whispering " I have not lived 
in vam." 

Previous to 181 1, the year in which Hahnemann established his school 
in Leipsic, none but himself had practiced his system. But now with the 
students from the university attending his lectures and becoming one by one 
convinced of the truth of homoeopathy, they also began to practice quietly. 
The first of them to embrace homoeopathy was Johann Ernst Stapf. who 
studied the new system as early as 181 1, and in 1812 practiced with onlv the 
remedies mentioned in the first volume of " Materia Medica Pura." Hart- 
mann says that in 1814 Stapf was no longer living in Leipsic, but came occa- 
sionally from Naumburg, where he was established, to visit his old friends. 
He was the first pupil of Hahnemann and was very near and dear to him. 

From '1812 to 1821 the lectures by Hahnemann were delivered semi- 
annually on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons. These were attended by 
both students and physicians. During this time Hahnemann was at work on 
his "Materia Medica Pura."- The first volume had been published in 181 1; 
the second and third were issued in 1816-17; the fourth in 1818; the fifth in 
1819, and the sixth m 1821. This consisted of a record of the symptoms 
resulting from various medicinal substances that had been proven upon them- 
selves by a number of the young men who were attending Hahnemann's 
lectures. These men had organized themselves into a Provers' Union, subject 
to the control and advice of the master. The members were Stapf. Gross, 
Hornburg, Franz, Wislicenus, Teuthorn, Herrmann. Reuckert, Langham- 
mcr and Hartmann ; and by means of this devoted band homoeopathv was 
introduced from the medical family of Hahnemann in Leipsic into the differ- 
ent parts of Germany. 

Johann Ernst Stapf was born September g. 1788. at Naumburg. He 
was educated in the Nobility school of Naumburg and Leipzig Universitv- 



He began to investigate as early as 1811 and was practicing homoeopathy at 
Nainnburg as early as 1814. He was one of the stalwarts of German homce- 

Gnstav Wilhelm Gross, born at Kaltenborn near Juterbogk, September 
6, 1794, went to Leipsic in 1814 and there became acquainted with Hahnemann 
and his followers. He remained in Leipsic until 18 17, when, after taking his 
degree, January 6, 1817, he established himself in practice as a homoeopathic 
physician at Juterbogk, a small village between Leipsic and Berlin, near the 
Saxon frontier. Like the others he was exposed to much obloquy, but became 
one of- the most eminent of the German practitioners. 

Christian Gottlob Hornburg, born at Chemnitz October 18. 1793, went 
to Leipsic to study theology in 1813. He attended Hahnemann's lectures on 


Dr. Georg Aug. Benj. Scliueikert. 

homoeopathy and decided to study medicine. He was one of those who prac- 
ticed homoeopathy in Leipsic and became involved in the trials and fines that 
overwhelmed the students of Hahnemann in 1819. It is said that his case 
of medicines was taken from him by the authorities in November, 1819, and 
was burned with considerable public formality in the Paulina (St. Paul's) 
cemetery. His early death is said to have been due to bitter persecution by 
.the relentless enemies of homoeopathy. 

Karl Gottlob Franz, born at Plauen. May 8, 1795. went to Leipsic in 
1814 and soon became assistant to Hahnemann. He remained in Leipsic 
until 1825 and then went to \'ienna as physician to a lady of noble family, 
who wished homoeopathic treatment. 


W. E. Wislicenus introduced homoeopathy into Eisenach in the duchy of 
Weimar, at an early date. He had been of the Leipsic coterie. It is said 
that in 1821 he made trials of homoeopathy in the Garrison hospital at Berlin, 
which was under control of the military surgeons. The results were favorable 
to homoeopathy. The hospital doctors took away the journal in which he 
had recorded the results of his experiments, to read, but in spite of his earnest 
■entreaties for its return they would not bring it back. 

Ernst Ferdinand Rueckert was born near Herrnhut, March 3, 1795. 
He went to Leipsic m 1812, and v/as one of the first of Hahnemann's pupils. 
From 1816 to 1817 he visited the Medico-Chirurgical Academy at Dresden. 
He first settled at Grimma, but soon went to Mutchen and soon after again 
changed location, going to Bernstadt in 1819. He practiced homoeopathy in 
a number of other localities in Germany and was instrumental in spreading 
i the new doctrine. 

\ A distinguished follower of Hahnemann was Franz Hartmann, who was 

\ born in Delitsch May 18, 1796, and who joined the disciples of the new 
\ medical faith in 1814. After passing certain examinations and after some 
persecution, he finally (1821) located at Zschopau as a practicing physician. 
Although he covered vip his homoeopathic practice to a certain extent the 
variations in his m.ethods and the brilliant cures he made caused remark and 
tended to spread the new doctrine, . Frederick Flahnemann had also practiced 
for a time in an erratic way in Wolkenstein, a neighboring town, and homoe- 
opathv was not unknown in that vicinity. Hartmann removed to Leipsic in 

Previous to the opening of the Medical Institute by Hahnemann in Leipsic 
in 1812, the storv of homoeopathy is embraced in the life of its founder. 
F'rom 1812 to 1821 many enthusiastic students were being educated to become 
future missionaries in disseminating the principles of the new school. Medi- 
cines were being proven, and faith in their efficacy was made strbnger by ill- 
founded and wanton persecution both of Hahnemann and his pupils. When 
in 1821 the master gladly accepted the peaceful home at Coethen a new epoch 
was begun in the history of homoeopathy. Previous to this Hahnemann had 
exercised more or less control over his students, but now they were located 
ia different towns and began to act independently. It was not long before 
there were homoeopathic practitioners in many localities in Germany and 
other countries. Hahnemann from Coethen advised his followers and many 
physicians journeyed there to visit and learn from him. 

In 1821 Dr. Stapf established at Leipsic a jounxal devoted to homoeopathy. 
It was an octavo, issued three times a year, and was called " x\rchiv fur die 
homoopathische Heilkunst " (Archives for Homoeopathic Healing). This 
was the first magazine ever published in the interest of homoeopathy. On the 
reverse of the title of each number is a quotation from Romeo and Juliet that 
seems to prove that Shakespeare must have heard of the principle of similia : 

"Tut. man, one fire burns out another's burning; 
One pain is lessened by another's anguish, 
Turn giddy and be holp by backward turning: 

\ .One desperate grief cures with another's languish. 

I Take thou some new infection to the eye, 

And the rank poison of the old will die." 

The provers and the disciples wrote for this journal and it soon became 
}^ an established power for the promotion of the new doctrine. 



At this period, aljout 1821, ( iross was practiciiii^ homoeopathy at Juterbogk. 
Moritz Miiller and Carl Haubold were settled at Leipsic, where the veterinary 
surgeon, Wilhelm L.ux, also was located. He had employed homoeopathy in 
his practice since 1820, and to him the doctrine of isopathy is due. He argued 
that every contagious disease carried in its own contagium the means of its 
cure, and therefore as a remedy for anthrax he diluted up to the thirtieth 
potency a drop of the blood from an animal afflicted with anthrax. He pre- 
pared in the same way other pathological products and took for a motto 
acqualia acqualibiis instead of similia similibns. In 1833 ^''^ published a small 
pamphlet entitled " Isopathy of Contagia," and in 1837 another called " Zooiasis 
or Homaopathy in its Application to the Diseases of Animals." The 
opinions of Lvix have had a decided efifect upon homoeopathic practice. 

Dr. Carl Georg Ch. Hartlaub. 

In 1821 Drs. C. F. Trinks and Paul Wolf were located at Dresden. As 
early as 18 19 one Dr. Gossner was practicing homoeopathy in Oberhollabrun 
in Lower Austria, and Dr. Mussek in Seefeld, a neighboring town. In 
Prague Dr. Marenzeller, military staff surgeon, and attending physician to 
the Archduke John, was interested in homoeopathy. 

In Vienna Professor S. Veith, as early as 181 7, had become interested in 
the system through the army surgeon Krastiansky in Klattau. He and his 
brother, who was a pastor of St. Stephen's, practiced homoeopathy for vears 
in Vienna. 

In 1823 Dr. Adam located in St. Petersburg, Russia. He. had met 
Hahnemaiui in Germany and became a convert to his teaching. Within two 



vears Dr. Stegeniann introduced homoeopathy into the provinces of the 
Eastern sea. At Dorpat he induced the cHnical professor, Sahmen, to experi- 
ment with homcDeopathic remedies, and in 1825 he pubHshed a work on the 
subject. In 1827 M. Marcus at Moscow expressed a leaning toward homce- 
opathv. A convert of the time was Dr. Bigel, physician to the wife of th» 
Grand Duke Constantine in Warsaw. He had accompanied the duke to 
Dresden and during a fierce medical controversy that was raging was led to 
study Hahnemann's Organon. He became convinced of the truths contained 
therein, and in 1825 published his "Justification of the New Curative Method 
of Dr. Hahnemann named Homoeopathy." In 1829 he treated homoeopath- 
icallv the inmates of a hospital in Warsaw for the children of soldiers. In 
fact ]v introduced homoeopathy into Warsaw. 

In 1 82 1 Baron Francis Roller . an 
Austrian, had carried the Organon to 
Naples and where a translation had 
been made under the auspices of the 
Royal Academy. In 1822 he had called 
to him Dr. George Necker, who had 
been a student of Hahnemann and who 
was the first physician to practice 
homncnpathy in Italy. In May, 1823, 
lie opened a homoeopathic dispensary 
for the poor in his own house in Naples. 
It was not long before Drs. Francisco 
Romani, Giuseppe Mauro and Cosmo 
Maria de Horatiis became converts. 

In 1821 Dr. Hans Christian Lund, 
a medical practitioner of Copenhagen, 
then fifty-six years old, adopted homoe- 
opathy and introduced it in Denmark. 
He translated into Danish many books 
and pamphlets on the subject, and in 
1833 published a weekly paper. It is 
claimed that Lund was the means of 
inducing Hans Burch Gram to investi- 
gate the teachings of homoeopath} . 
In 1822 Dr. George A. H. Muhlenbein, an eminent practitioner of medi- 
cine in the duchy of Brunswick, became acquainted with the principles of 
homaopathy by reading the "Materia Medica Pura," and he soon adopted it in 
his practice that extended over the whole of Northern Germany. He was 
born Octo1)er 24, 1764, at Konigslutter, and died at Schoeningcn Januarv 8, 


Moritz Wilhelm Miiller, one of the bright lights of the allopathic pro- 
fession in Germany, became a convert to homoeopathy in 1819. Hartmann 
thus mentions bis conversion : " I remember very well that time in the year 
1819 when Miiller sent his amanuensis to me with the request to lend him 
for a short time my copy of the Organon to read through. Shaking my head. 
I handed it to him with the remark that so celebrated a star of the first mag- 
nitude in the allopathic firmanent would hardly accept homoeopathy with firm 
faith. Rut as we are sometimes deceived in this life it was so in this case." 
Miiller became one of the most aggressive of the homoeopathists and was for 

Dr. Julius Scliwcikert. 

lllS'lOm' ( )!•■ HOMG^OPATin' Vi 

nmnv years a prominent factor in the advancement of hom(e*i])ath\- in (jer- 
nian\-. llis home was m Leipsic. 

Dr. Fischer of Brunn used homoeopathic remedies before 1825 in Eiben- 
shutz, Saar and Rossitz, in Moravia. In Brunn he had two ^Hes, Steigen- 
tisch, a merchant, and Albrecht, a government official. The former had gone 
through a course of surgery and had performed medical service in the army. 
He treated chronic cases and had many adherents, chiefly among the higher 
classes. Albrecht was a correspondent of Hahnemann and devoted himself 
to the preparation of homceopathic remedies. He also was successful as a 
practitioner. He was not a physician but was closely identified with the his- 
tory of homo-opathy. In 185 1 he published a biographical sketch of Hahne- 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Introductory Observations — Condition of Homoeopathy at the Time of Gram's Arrival 
in America — He Settles in New York — His Practice and Followers — Homoeopathic 
Medical Societies, State and Local — Hospitals and Charitable Institutions — The 
Pioneers of Homoeopathy in New York. 

At the end of the first quarter of the nineteenth century homceopathy in 
Europe was in a satisfactory condition, increasing in popularity, and its exem- 
plars were daily performing good works. Hahnemann at Coethen was busy 
with his pen, his fertile brain evolving and sending forth into the world new- 
principles for the guidance of his followers, encouraging them with sugges- 
tion and advice ; and he was contented, his mind at peace with itself, and 
he' with the world, and his personal comfort was equally assured. His 
Organon had passed its third German edition, was translated into French and 
his " Materia Medica Pura " in six volumes had been issued in its second edi- 
tion. The school of medicine he had founded was then planted and firmly rooted 
in nearly all the stronger European countries, but as yet the English speaking 
people had not shown an inclination to accept the doctrine, or even to investi- 
gate it, but had brushed it aside as a worthless invention put before a credu- 
lous public for purposes of personal gain. 

Such were the conditions with reference to the homoeopathic school of 
medicine at the time of which we write, about the year 1825, when the whole 
number of its practitioners probably numbered less than an hundred men, and 
they equipped with not more than the limited knowledge acquired from the 
study of such works as then were published on the subject. But out of this 
comparative darkness there came a man of education and refinement, if not 
of strong determination of character, and to him fell the lot of bearing the 
gospel of homcieopathy across the Atlantic ocean to free America. There was 
no unusual circumstance attending the voyage of Gram to America, nor did 
he come for the especial purpose of proclaiming a new doctrine in medicine 
to the people. Indeed, his purpose appears to have been quite to the contrary, 
for then he possessed a competency, and his return to the land of his birth 
was in the nature of a home-coming with its attending enjoyments in a wide 
circle of friendships, which were his both then and afterward throughout the 
period of his interesting life. 

In the course of time Gram came to the city of New York, to visit with 
relatives, and there was nothing then that indicated an inclination to take up 
the practice of medicine until reverses of fortune compelled him to resume that 
avocation as a means of livelihood ; and thus by force of circumstances — 
necessity is a hard master — Hans Burch Gram became the pioneer of hon.oe- 
opathy in America. Had misfortune overtaken him in Maine, where he hrst 
landed, the pleasant distinction would have been accorded to the Pine Tree 
rather than the Empire state. 


Gram stood alone in the practice of medicine according to the law of simi- 
lars less than two years, and within the next ten years nine were gathered 
together in tJie name of homoeopathy and organized themselves into that which, 
they called the New York Homoeopathic Society, of which Gray was the 
honored head, while its membership included the entire coterie of Hahne- 
mannians — Strong, Baxter, Vanderburgh, Seymour, Lohse, Hull, Wilsey, Pat- 
terson, Strong, Butler and Bock, physicians and believers but not all active 
in the practice of medicine at that time. 

Seven years later, 1841, the New York Homoeopathic Physicians Society 
was organized in the city and admitted only medical practitioners to the benefit 
of membership ; but its life was short and it passed out of existence in the 
course of six or seven years. Just a little later New York city and the com- 
monwealth was chiefly instrumental in organizing the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy, the national society, whose province was then, as now, to safe- 
guard the homoeopathic profession and practice against the wiles and schemes- 
of those who would bring its principles and practice into ridicule and disre- 
pute. The purpose of the institute was and is perfectly honorable ; its prin- 
ciples are securely based in established truth, and its functions always have 
been administered so as to elevate the profession and hold between it and all- 
unworthy methods an impassable barrier. 

Even before the organization of the institute the gospel of the school it 
fostered and maintainecl had spread out into remote parts of the state, and 
through its instrumentality societies were organized, many of them to continue 
in life and usefulness to the present time, and a few to fall by the wavside 
and pass into history in the ephemera of homoeopathy. In the state in 1852- 
three hundred and one homoeopathic nractitioners were at work, and five years 
later the number had increased to four hundred and fifty-three. In 1870 the 
number was seven hundred and twenty-seven ; in 1880. nine hundred and 
sixty-eight: in 1899 twelve hundred and three, and in .1904 twelve hundred and 
six — more than a full regiment of professional soldiers, including manv offi- 
cers, and in the ranks about one-sixth of the whole are those who abandoned 
the allopathic and allied hosts to combat the ills of life under the standard 
set up by Hahnemann something more than a centurv ago. 

The old homoeopathic profession in New York did something more thaiT 
organize societies for mutual benefit and protection ; something more tharr 
merely work out the salvation and conversion of hundreds of medical practi- 
tioners who were dissatisfied with the jharsh and arbitrary requirements of 
the allopathic school, and something more than recruit its ranks with dis- 
sentients from the eclectic school. The homoeopathic profession through well 
directed effort made early and careful provision for the thorough education 
of its representatives in the world of medicine, in the establishment of boards- 
of examination to exercise censorship of the qualifications of practitioners 
and others who aspired to the homoeopathic ranks. And as soon as the school 
had become well grounded in the state an earnest effort was made to estab- 
lish an institution of medical instruction. In this respect, however. Pennsvl- 
vania preceded New York by several years, and through the endeavors of 
Hering, Wesselhoeft, Detwiller and others, founded ,\llentown Academy, the 
first institution of its kind in the world, and which ended its career after about 
six years of indifferent success. It was followed in 1848 by the Homoeopathic 
Medical College of Pennsylvania, with a seat of operation in Philadelphia. 
However, in 1846 a petition was presented to the legislature of New Yorlc 



praying for an act of incorporation of a homoeopathic medical college to be 
located at Auburn, but the application was not favored by the legislative com- 
mittee and the enterprise was compelled to be abandoned. It was not that 
the legislature itself opposed the proposition to charter the college, but the 
influence of the allopathic profession was strong enough to sway the legisla- 
tive mind and accomplish the defeat of the measure. The effort was renewed 
in 1853 under the influence of the state homoeopathic medical society, and 
while more material progress was made at that time the project was again 
abandoned, although provision was made in another way for the education 
of those who sought to practice homoeopathic medicine. The first perma- 
nent school of homoeopathic medical instruction in this state was founded in 

i860, and from that time has been an 
active factor in the history of the pro- 
fession not only in New York, but 
throughout America. 

Such is a mere glance at homoeop- 
athy in the state since Gram's advent 
into its history in 1825. The retro- 
spect has been brief, and little attention 
has been given to the lives and works 
of the pioneers or those who followed 
him in the profession, that branch of 
the subject being reserved for detailed 
mention in later pages. 

In the early history of homoeop- 
athy in the state its votaries were fre- 
quently subjected to indignity and in- 
sult at the hands of their inconsiderate 
brethren of the allopathic school, and 
as the right to license physicians was 
vested in that school through its socie- 
ties and officers, the latter were never 
slow in showing proper appreciation 
of duty by refusing homoeopathic ap- 
plicants license to practice, and if any 
attempted so to do without the re- 
quired authority, the offenders were 
promptly brought to bar under 
charges of malpractice or any other " trumped-up " complaints that would 
best serve ihe ]iur]x)se of the dominant school and keep the homoeopath out 
of the professional field. 

As a matter of fact the first practitioners of homoeopathy in New York 
city were subjected to persecution as well as prosecution by the opposing 
school but the first open act of mean hostility was displayed in 1843, when 
Drs. Hull and Wells applied for membership in the Kings County Medical 
Society. The applications had been made in due form, all the requirements 
had been complied with, their qualifications were unquestioned, for they were 
thoroughly educated phvsicians, but thev were rejected because they were 
houKcopatlis, and for no other reason. Wells accepted his rejection, but Hull, 
of more determined character, brought the matter into court, and after the 
suit had been dragged along through sixteen years of tedious routine, it was 

Hans Burch Gram, M. D. 


finally decided in his favor. Then the society with much condescension offered 
him a seat in its councils, but with his characteristic determination he coldly 
declined the honor. 

These incidents of persecution and petty annoyance of homceopathic 
practitioners by the narrow partisans of allopathy are only a few of the hun- 
dreds of similar proceedings indulged in ; and while they served the purpose 
of a temporary expedient, they accomplished no good results for their own 
profession, and only served to draw more closely together those who were the 
victims of their venomous attacks, and at the same time aroused public sen- 
timent in sympathy with the persecuted school. 

As the law stood in 1844 all physicians not members of the county so- 
ciety, or who had not the diploma of an incorporated medical college, were 
presumed to be practicing without license, and therefore liable to prosecu- 
tion and punishment ; and under the provisions of the law then on the statute 
books the allopaths enjoyed a rich harvest* of persecution by refusing mem- 
bership to homoeopathic applicants and then prosecuting them for unlawfully 
practicing medicine. This period of oppression continued until along about 
1855, when the legislature first showed a disposition to recognize the right of 
the homoeopath to live and move and have his being. During the next year 
an act passed the senate to authorize the incorporation of homoeopathic so- 
cieties, but for some reason the bill "hung fire" in the lower house and failed 
to pass. In the next year, however, the act was revived, passed both branches 
of the legislature, and was approved by the governor, April 13. 1857. 

This act always has been referred to as that "legalizing" homoeopathy 
in the state of New York, which is a misnomer, and presupposes at some 
time in the history of homoeopathy in the state that its practice was illegal, 
which never was the case. However this may have been, the legalizing act 
was secured largely through the influence of the Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety of Northern New York. Since that time the state has given reasonably 
fair treatment to the claims of the homoeopathic school, although no favors 
ever have been asked, and under the laws now in force the regents of the 
university have supervision of the regulations and requirements of admission 
to practice medicine ; and under established provisions homoeopathy stands on 
just the same footing as the allopathic school, with an equal standard of 
efficiency and proficiency in its disciples. 

But notwithstanding the so-called legalizing act of 1857, homoeopathy 
was frequentlv afterward the target for allopathic shafts, and the spirit of 
venom and malice was not at any time more strikingly shown than just be- 
fore and during the war of 1861-1865. In treating of the incidents of this 
period free use is made of the writings of contemporary historians. Says one 
of them: In 1861 Dr. T. D. Stow endeavored to procure a surgeoncy in a 
regiment of volunteers. He made application in due form and fvilfilled all 
the requirements of the law, but was rejected because he was a homoeopath. 

At the beginning of the war the homoeopaths made strenuous efforts to 
he admitted as army surgeons and to the army hospitals ; many of the men 
in the regiments preferred homoeopathic treatment, but were denied it. Much 
was published at the time on the subject, and detailed accounts are to be found 
"in the "Transactions" of the New York State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

This society took a decided stand for the introduction of homoeopathy in 
tlie army, claiming it as a right, but that right was challenged and refused 
b}' the allopathic authorities who were in power. But the most conspicuous 


attempt to crush homceopathy, and which excited the indignation of the entire 
country, was the contemptible action of Van Arman, an official of the pensions 
department, who made the wonderful discovery in 1870 that Dr. Spooner, a 
homoeopathic physician at Oneida, New York, was also pension surgeon and 
examiner; and for this offense against the allopathic sense of fitness Spooner 
was deposed. But homceopathy refused to submit tamely to this gratuitous 
insult and promptly applied itself at the doors of the proper authorities in 
Washington, and with such vigor and energy that the over-hasty official was 
given an opportunity to resign. Soon afterward both houses of congress 
passed an act providing that all appointments to medical service under the 
government should be open to all graduates of legally chartered institutions, 
W'ithout reference to preferred theories of treatment. 


The first gathering of physicians for the purpose of forming a homoe- 
opathic medical society in New York state was held at the common council 
room in the city hall in Albany, ]\Iay 15, 1850. The organization then per- 
fected was called Academy of ]\Iedicine of the State of New York. At the- 
first annual meeting held in Albany, February 19, 1851, the name was changed 
to Homoeopathic Medical Societv of the State of New York. It was com- 
posed of individual members and was not a representative body. The meet- 
ing was called to order by Dr. John F. Gray of New York city. Dr. D. Chase 
of Palmyra was. chosen president, and Dr. H. D. Paine of Albany, secretary. 
The following regular officers were then elected : President, J. M. Ward, 
Albany ; vice-presidents, D. Chase, Palmyra, R. S. Bryan, Troy, A. S. Ball,. 
New York ; secretary, H. D. Paine, Albany. The society held annual meet- 
ings at different places until 1859. after which for two years there were no 
meetings. A general feeling existed among the homoeopathic physicians of 
the state that a new society should be organized as a thoroughly representa- 
tive bod)% consisting of delegates from the various county and other societies 
in the state, and pursuant to a call by the members of the Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal Society of Oneida County, a meeting was held at Albany, February 28, 
1861, composed mostly of such delegates. Dr. H. D. Paine, who was still 
secretary of the old society, called the meeting to order. Dr. L. B. Wells 
was chosen chairman, and H. M. Smith and H. M. Paine, secretaries. The 
following officers were then elected : President, A. E. Potter, Oswego ; vice- 
presidents, S. A. Cook, Troy, A. R. Wright, Buffalo, C. Ormes, Panama ; 
secretary, H. M. Paine, Clinton ; treasurer, J. W. Cox, Albany ; censors, from 
eight districts, Drs. T. Franklin Smith, H. Beaklev, W. S. Searle, B. F. Cor- 
nell, W. H. Watson, J. R. White, C. W. Boyce and A. S. Couch. An act of 
incorporation was procured April 17, 1862, and at a meeting held in Albany, 
May 6, 1862, it w-as decided to proceed as if the society had not before existed. 
At this meeting the following officers were ' elected : President, Jacob Beak- 
ley. New York ; vice-presidents, A. R. Wright, Buffalo, F. A. Munger, Wa- 
terville, W. S. Searle, Troy; secretary, H. M. Paine, Clinton; treasurer, L. B. 
Wells, Utica. This society is still in active existence, and meets annually 
in February at Albany, and semi-annually in various cities in September. 
Members in 1903, 494. It lias published transactions, addresses, etc., from the 
time of organization. The volumes from 1863 (Vol. I.) have been issued at 
the expense of the state. Yo\s. I to XI are large octavo of from 200 to i.2CK> 
pages. From 1874 the volumes have been bound in iiaper. The series of 


transactions were largely compiled by Dr. H. M. Paine, who has been called 
the '•Homoeopathic Organizer." They are rich in history, biography and sta- 
tistics of the growth of American homoeopathy. The fiftieth anniversary ol 
the society was celebrated in Brooklyn, October 3-5, 1900. 

The Homoeopathic Society of Central New York, a branch of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Ilomoeopath}', had its origin in an informal meeting held in- 
Syracuse, September 13, 1849. ^^^ the purpose of promoting the interests of 
homoeopathy. Dr. A. L. Kellogg of Bridgewater was appointed chairman,, 
and Dr. Augustus Pool of Oswego, secretary. The following committee of 
correspondence Was appointed to perfect a plan of organization: S. W. Stew- 
art and Fred Humphreys of Utica, and E. A. Munger of Waterville. This 
committee called a meeting at the National hotel in Utica, January 16, 1850, 
at which time the society was regularly organized and the following officers 
were chosen : President, A. L. Kellogg, Bridgewater ; vice-president, L. B. 
Wells, Pompey ; corresponding secretary, Fred Humphreys, Utica : record- 
ing secretary, E. A. Munger, Waterville : censors, S. W. Stewart, F. Hum- 
phreys, H. R. Foote, Leveritt Bishop, J. C. Raymond, yiet semi-annually and 
annually in January. The society was continued but a few years. The "^lin- 
utes" were published in 1850. The society made an exhaustive proving of 
the apis mellific?.. which was published in pamphlet form. 

The Central New York Homoeopathic Medical Society was the out- 
growth of a convention of homoeopathic physicians of the counties of Broome,. 
Cayuga, Cortland, Jefferson, Madison, Ontario, Oneida, Onondaga, Oswego,. 
Seneca and Wayne, held at Syracuse May i, 1866. Officers elected: Presi- 
dent, Lyman Clary, Syracuse ; vice-president, E. A. Potter, Oswego ; secre- 
tary, E. R. Heath, Palmyra. It is still in active existence. At first it met 
quarterly in September, December and March, the annual meeting being irr 
June. It still meets in Rochester and Syracuse, but the annual meeting is 
held in September in the latter city. Members in 1903, 40. Transactions 
have been published irregularly. 

The Flomoeopathic Medical Academy of the State of New York, includes 
in its membership physicians of Yates, Ontario and Steuben and neighboring 
counties. It was organized at Penn Yan, January i, 1853, under the law of 
1848. First officers: President, Geo. W. Malin. Jerusalem: vice-president, 
Richard Huson, Dundee: secretary, Samuel K. Huson, Dundee: treasurer, O. 
W. Noble, Penn Yan. The academy met quarterlv in April, July and Octo-- 
ber at different places. The annual meeting was held in January. 

The Homoeopathic Medical Societv of Northern New York was organ- 
ized at Fort Ann, Washington county, October 16, 1852. Seven homoeopathic 
physicians residing in \\'ashington and Saratoga counties had formed an as- 
sociation called the Homoeopathic Medical Society of the Counties of A\'ashing- 
ton and Saratoga, of which the society here considered is the outgrowth. The 
follow^ing officers were chosen at that meeting : President, B. F. Cornell, 
Mcreau Station ; vice-president, E. B. Cole, Easton : secretarv, S. G. Perkins, 
Waterford : treasurer, W. G. Walcott, Whitehall : censors, Z. Clements, Vic- 
tory Mills, D. J. Easton, Saratoea Springs, W. G. Walcott, Whitehall. Met 
semi-annually. Migratorv. Additions from the counties of Rensselaer. 
Schenectady and Warren greatlv enlarged the society, and it was decided to 
call it the Homoeopathic ^ledical Society of Northern New York. It was in- 
corporated in 1857. To this society belongs the honor of orip-inating the 
movement to secure legal rights for the homoeopathic societies of New York 


state. At a meeting in 1856 a committee was appointed to memorialize the leg- 
islature to that effect, and a bill was passed April 13, 1857. In July, 1859, ^ 
committee of correspondence was appointed to urge the organization of county 
medical societies and to elect delegates to the meeting of the state society. A 
circular was to have been issued, but in the meantime the Oneida County 
Homoeopathic Society had issued such a document without knowledge of the 
action of the northern society. Although the Oneida county members took 
the active part at a meeting of the state society on February 10, 1863, due 
credit was given to the initiative work of the northern society. It met an- 
nually in January, and was discontinued some years ago. 

The Southern Tier Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized at El- 
mira. January 20. 1874. First ofificers : President, Henry Sayles, Elmira; 
A'ice-president, W. S. Purdy, Corning ; secretary and treasurer, W. J. Bryan, 
Corning; incorporated April 16, 1878; published for a short time a journal 
"The Regular- Physician," Dr. A. P. Hollett, editor; no transactions; stilly 
existent. The annual meeting is held at Corning in January ; quarterly meet- 
ings in April, July and October in different places. Members in 1903, 21. 

The Western New York Homoeopathic Society was organized at Water- 
loo, Seneca county, in 1845, '^"d meetings were provided to be held at the call 
of the secretary. The first officers were C. D. Williams of Geneva, president; 
H. H. Cator of Syracuse, vice-president ; A. Chiids of Waterloo, secretary. 
The society published its proceedings in 1852, at which time, and indeed from 
the year of its organization, it occupied a position of prominence in homoe- 
opathic medical circles in Western New York and enjoyed the honor of hav- 
ing taken the first steps toward the establishment of a homoeopathic medi- 
cal college in New York state. The undertaking failed of success, however, 
but the amJjition of its promoters is worthy of commendation and special men- 
tion. The society became decadent in the course of a few years, but was re-~ 
vived at a meeting held in Buffalo, February 28, 1852, and then took the name 
of "Flomoeopathic Association of Western New York and Branch of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Homoeopathy." The first officers after the reorganization 
were A. W. Grav, president ; I. J. ]\leacham, D. A. Baldwin, C. C. Crossfield, 
L. N. Kenyon, f . C. Schell, S. Z. Haven, F. Ehrman, W. H. Bell, A. Chiids 
and C. Parker, vice-presidents ; J. L. Gage, secretary ; J. F. Baker, treasurer. 
The society continued in existence only a few years after the reorganization, 
but during its brief career was an instrument of much good in the homoe- 
opathic profession in Western New York. 

The Western New York Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized 
at the Tifft house, Buffalo, April 10, 1885. First officers: President, L. M. 
Kenyon, Buffalo; vice-presidents, J. F. Baker, Batavia, W. B. Gifford, At- 
tica ; recording secretary, jos. T. Cook, Buffalo ; treasurer, E. P. Hussev, Buf- 
falo ; censors, \'\. R. Wright, V. D. ( )rmes, S. W. Hurd, J. D. Zwetsch.' A. M. 
Curtis. Quarterly meetings are held in dift'erent places in July, October and 
January. The annual meeting is held in April in Buffalo and Rochester, 
alternately. Members in it)03, \(yo. The society celebrated its first anniver- 
sarv with a banquet on Hahnemann's birthda>', in union with the Monroe 
County Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

The INTedico-Chirurgical Society of Central New York was organized in 
1896, and is not incorporated. It m.eets annually in Syracuse in June, and 
semi-annually in different ])laces in December. Membership in 1903, y2. 



The Hudson River Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized at 
Poughkeepsie in 1874. 

The count}' medical societies of the state, with year of organization, are 
as follows: Albany county, January, i860; Allegheny, July 10, 1883; 
Broome, 1863; Cayuga, February 16, i860; Chautauqua and Cattaraugas, 
1863; Chenuing. including Steuben and Schuyler, February 5, 1861 ; Chenango, 
September 27, 1871 ; Columbia and Greene, October i, 1861 ; Dutchess, No- 
vember 27, 1861 ; Erie, December 14, 1859; Kings, November 12, 1857; Liv- 
ingston, December i, 1857; Madison, January 4, 1865; Monroe, January 2, 
1866; Montgomery (including Fulton), February 4, 1869; New York, Aug- 
ust 13, 1857; Niagara and Orleans, October 3, 1871 ; Oneida. October 20, 
1857; Onondaga, 1862; Ontario and Yates, 1862; Orange, February 28, 1852; 
Oswego, January 23, 1S61 ; Otsego, June 20. i860; Queens, June, 1873; 
Rensselaer, June 9, 1859; Saratoga, 1863: Schuyler, 1850; Seneca, Septem- 
ber 26, 1872; Steuben, May 25, 1867; St. Lawrence, October 4, 1871 ; Tioga, 

-Mam Entrance ]\Iiddleto\vn State liomceopathic Hospital. 

July 29, 1870; Tompkins. Cortland -and Tioga, September 25, 1874; Ulster, 
May 10, 1865; Washington and Warren, October 16, 1852; Wayne, February 
9, 1864; Westchester, February i, 1865. 

In the establishment of institutions of charitable and benevolent charac- 
ter homoeopathy secured an early foothold and worked with commendable 
zeal until the school became well represented in all the larger municipalities 
of the state ; but among the several early endeavors at founding institutions 
that which led to the ultimate establishment of a state hospital for insane 
patients is of first importance. 


This institution was originally founded in pursuance of an act of the 
legislature passed April 28, 1870, establishing at Middletown, in Orange 
county, ^ a state lunatic asylum for "the care and treatment of the insane and 
the inebriate upon the principles of medicine known as homoeopathic." The 
movement, however, which led to the ultimate establishment of the hospital 
had its inception in the address of John Stanton Gould before the State Homoe- 


opathic Medical Society at its session in Albany in February, 1866. The sub- 
ject of the orator's discourse was "The Relation of Insanity to Bodily Dis- 
ease," and in the course of his remarks attention was called to the necessity 
of a riiCW state asylum for lunatics in the southern tier counties of the state, 
and claimed as a matter of justice that when organized the institution should 
be placed under the homoeopathic school of medicine. 

This seems to have been the crystallizing point of the earnest desire of 
the homoeopathic profession throughout the state, for at the next meeting 
of the state society in February, 1867, a resolution was offered by Dr. Paine 
of Albany to the effect that "Whereas, a bill authorizing the erection of a new 
lunatic asylum is now pending before the legislature," therefore a committee 
should be appointed to prepare a memorial asking "for such action as shall 
place said institution under the care of the homoeopathic school." 

But notwithstanding the laudable efforts of the advocates of the enter- 
prise and their apparent zeal for its consummation, nothing was accomplished 
until some years afterward. In the meantime, however, Dr. Hilon Doty had 
come forward with a proposition to turn over his private asylum, "Margaretts- 
ville Retreat for the Insane," to a board of trustees or managers of an incor- 
porated institution under homoeopathic control, and while an act of incorpora- 
tion was secured in 1869 through the influence of the state medical society, 
nothing was done until December of that year, when Dr. George E. Foote of 
Middletown presented to the homoeopathic profession a plan to establish an 
insane asylum, founded by subscription and endowment, and organized as a 
close corporation. This proposition met Avith favor, and sufficient subscrip- 
tions were received to insure success, but it soon became necessary to give 
the institution a more public character and to enlist state support. Accord- 
ingly, it was planned to make it a state asylum ; the time was deemed ripe 
for such a movement, and the governor in his last message had pointed out 
the need of better and more accommodations for the insane charges upon 
the public bounty. The friends of the movement were quick to see their 
opportunity and threw themselves earnestly into the work, leaving no stone- 
unturned until their desires were gratified in the passage of an act, April 28, 
1870, establishing a state lunatic asylum at Middletown under homoeopathic 
management. It was not the first homoeopathic asylum in the world, as has 
been asserted, but was the first of its kind in America under purely homoe- 
opathic management. It was formally opened for patients. April 20, 1874. 
The name was changed in conformity to the provisions of an act of the legis- 
lature, and then became known as Middletown State Homoeopathic Hospital. 

The Gowanda State Homoeopathic Hospital had its ince|)tion in a reso- 
lution of the board of supervisors of Erie county, passed in t888 in pursuance 
of an act of the legislature authorizing the erection and maintenance of a 
county homoeopathic insane asylum. Under the original authorization the 
necessary preliminary steps were taken, but after a few years the question 
of state ownership and support was discussed with much earnestness, with 
result in 1894 of such action on the part of the state as vested the ownership 
of the institution and its property in the commonwealth, and created what 
then was known as the Collins State Homoeopathic Hospital. 

This result, however, was not accomplished without determined action on 
the part of the homoeopathic profession ?nd particularly of its state and 
Western New York medical societies. The first trustees, now designated' 
as managers, comprised Dr. William Tod Hclmuth. president; Fred J. Black- 


man, secretary; and Dr. Asa S. Couch. This board was continued until 1897, 
when it was increased to seven members, constituted as follows : William 
Tod Helmuth of New York city, president ; Dr. Asa S. Couch, of Fredonia, 
secretary; Fred J. Blackman of Gowanda, treasurer; Dr. Sidney F. Wilcox 
•of New York city ; G. W. Seymour of Westfield ; F. D. Ormes of Jamestown ; 
and Dr. E. H. Walcott of Rochester. In 1899, by an act of the legislature, 
the name was changed to Gowanda State Homoeopathic Hospital. The insti- 
tution was opened for patients August i, 1898. The present managers are 
Dr. Eugene H. Porter of New York city, Fred J. Blackman of Gowanda, 
Frank W. Crandall of Westfield,. Edwin H. Walcott of Rochester, and Erwin 
C. Fisher of Gowanda. Superintendent, Dr. D. H. Arthur. 

The Brooklyn Homoeopathic Hospital resulted from the enlargement and 
modification of the old Brooklyn Homoeopathic Dispensary, which was in- 
corporated in December, 1852, and opened for patients in January of the fol- 
lowing year. This splendid charity was founded by Edward Dunham, father 
■of Dr. Carroll Dunham, and was organized with seven trustees. In 1871 a 

Main Building IMiddletown State Homoeopathic Hospital. 

special act of the legislature changed the name to the Brooklyn Homoeopathic 
Hospital, and authorized its trustees to buy, sell, lease or encumber real 
estate for the purposes of the corporation in estabhshing and maintaining the 
hospital. At the time the state appropriated $10,000 for the hospital, and 
a charity ball held at the Academy of Music in Brooklyn netted the trustees 
.$3,000 more. In December, 1871, the trustees purchased the premises and 
building formerly the property of the Brooklyn Orphan Asylum, made sev- 
eral important alterations, and formally opened it as their own hospital home 
on February 13, 1873; but such additions have been made in later years that 
the building bears little resemblance to its original self. The nurses' school 
in connection with the hospital was opened in 1878. In 1901 the hospital and 
property passed under the ownership of the citv of New York. 

The Children's Hospital of the Five Points House of Industr}^ was estab- 
lished under that name in 1886, yet its history dates to the year 1861, when 
old Dr. Joslin, of honored memory, was asked to give homoeopathic treatment 
to the sick children of the old house of industry. The hospital was the natural 


and gradual outgrowth of the older institution and the building for its occu- 
pancy was erected in 1886, the corrier stone being laid in August of that year, 
while the formal opening was held in April, 1887. Since Dr. Joslin's time this 
institution has been conducted under homcEopathic management. 

The Woman's Infirmary Association of Washington Heights was organ- 
ized mainly thrdugh the efforts of the late Dr. J. W. Mitchell. It was incor- 
porated in October, 1863, opened May 19, 1864, and in 1868 was removed from 
its former location to the comer of Sixth avenue and West Forty-eighth 
street. In 1869 this charity was merged in the woman's department of Hahne- 
mann Hospital. 

The Albany City Homoeopathic Hospital was incorporated April 9, 1868, 
as the Albany Homoeopathic Dispensary, although a previous organization 
had been in existence since 1867. A new incorporation was effected October 
30, 1872, at which time the institution took its present name. The first meet- 
ing of trustees was held November 6, 1872. The dispensary and hospital 
occupied the same building and were under the same management, although 
in a sense distinct organizations, but in May, 1875, they were imited by act 
of the legislature under the name of Albany City Hospital and Dispensary. 
The institution always has been under homoeopathic control, and is supported 
bv citv appropriations, individual contributions and revenues derived from 
private patients. 

Hahnemann Hospital, New Y''ork city, is one of the noblest institutions 
of homoeopath}^ in America, and also is one of the most extensive of its kind 
in the world. The original hospital association was formed September 7, 
1869, and on the evening of December 14 following a large meeting was held 
in the Union League Club theatre to inaugurate a movement to establish a 
homoeopathic hospital in the city. Dr. John F. Gray, one of the oldest and 
best representatives of his school in the city, was chairman of the meeting, 
and under his inspiration much enthusiasm was shown in the proceedings, and 
the movement w'hich before had been one of discussion only at once took 
more definite form. A building was secured at 307 East Fifty-fifth street, 
and a hospital capable of accommodating fifteen patients was opened in Jan- 
uary, 1870, there being one ward for men and one for women. Dr. F. Seeger 
was the first medical director. 

The Ladies' Aid Society of the Hahnemann Hospital was organized in 
December, 1869, and at once took measures to raise funds for the hospital. 
The state, through the legislature, gave material aid to the association in the 
way of property rights to the value of from $70,000 to $80,000, and also gave 
through the charity appropriation bill $20,000 ; the city of New York appro- 
priated $10,000. In 1871 the trustees of the New York Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College dispensary held a meeting to establish in connection with the col- 
lege a surgical hospital for clinical purposes. In this project, too, the ladies 
became interested and undertook to raise funds for a building by a fair held 
in the spring of 1872, from which enterprise they realized the net sum of $35>- 
000. With this fund the trustees purchased the property at 26 Gramercr 
park, but owing to opposition from adjoining owners the site was abandoned 
for another at Thirty-seventh street and Lexington avenue. 

At this time there existed in New York three distinct hospital organiza- 
tions, all under the patronage of homoeopathv and its' friends. These were the 
Hahnemann Hospital, the New York Homoeopathic Surijical Hospital and 
the New Y'ork Homoeopathic Hospital for Women and Children. After con- 



siderablc discussion these institutions were mer.qed and consolidated under 
one organization in pursuance of an act of tlie legislature passed March 20, 
1875. ^'1^ "<-'^\' corporation at once set vigorously about the task of provid- 
ing a hospital liome ; the ladies association held another fair, and presented 
the trustees the neat sum of $25,000; the sum of $3,000 was acquired from 
other sources, and $15,000 was alread\- in the treasury; the city gave the 
land at Fourth avenue and 67th and 68th streets, and on that site the erec- 
tion of a hospital was begun, the corner stone being laid ( )ctober 25, 1876. 
The hospital was formally opened October 31, 1878, and since that time has 
been one of the most useful charities of the cit\. 

The Brooklyn Maternity Hospital was organized under charter of lan- 
uary 24, 1871, as the Brooklyn Homoeopathic Lying-in Asvlum, and its ob- 
ject was to furnish patients exclusive honKeopathic treatment and care dur- 
ing confinement. In March, 1873. a children's nursery was established in 
connection with the hospital, and in October of the same year a training school 

.Metroi)()liian Hospital, Blackwell's Island. 

for nurses was organized, being tlie first school for the exclusive and thor- 
ough training of nurses in this coimtry. It was then known as the New York 
State School for Training Nurses. In 1873 '^'1*-' nanK' of the hospital was 
changed from Brooklyn Homceopathic Lying-in Asvlum to Brooklyn Mater- 
nity Hospital, as since and now known. 

The Brooklyn Nursery and Infant's Hospital was incorporated and organ- 
ized August 7, 1871, as the Flatbush Industrial School and Nurserv. The 
present name was adopted Februarv 15. 1872. The institution is managed 
under houKieopathic supervision, and is supported by city appropriations and 
donations from private sources. 

The rUiftalo Homceopathic Hospital dates its historv from the year 1872, 
when a])plication was made to the trustees of the Buffalo General Hospital 
for a ward to be set a])art for such patients as preferred homoeopathic treat- 
ment ; and while it was proposed from the outset that the expense of the 
separate ward should bo borne b>- friends and j^atrons of homoeopathy, the 


application was refused on the ground that the charter of the institution pro- 
hibited practice there of any other than representatives of the allopathic 
school. This refusal may have been justifiable under the strict construction 
of the terms of the charter, but it had the effect to stimulate action on the 
part of friends of homoeopathy in the matter of establishing in the city a hos- 
pital which should be entirely imder homoeopathic control. For that purpose 
an organization was perfected in August, 1872, in pursuance of an act of 
incorporation passed June 25 previously. Lands were at once secured, funds 
Avere raised, and in October of the same year the first homoeopathic hospital 
in Buffalo was formally opened. After two years the original property was 
sold and a new and more desirable site was secured. The nurses' home and 
nurses' school were established in 1887. The hospital with its auxiliary build- 
ings and associations is one of the most praiseworthy charitable institutions of 
the city, and in the public estimation occupies a position of importance. It 
has been the beneficiary of several notable donations, and the entertainments 
in its behalf have always attracted the favor of the substantial element of the 

The Metroi:iolitan Hospital on Blackwell's Island dates its history from 
the year 1894, and is the outgrowth of the older institution known in history 
as the New York Charity Hospital on Ward's Island. The latter institution 
was the result of a movement which originated as far back as 1857, when 
the homoeopathic profession in New York was making an earnest and honest 
endeavor to introduce its treatment in some of the great charities of the city. 
The efforts then made were well directed but the petition presented to the 
authorities seems to have fallen into the hands of the old allopathic enemy, 
as the majority report of a select committee declared "that it would be both 
imwise and inexpedient to change the medical government of Bellevue Hos- 
pital, or place any portion of it in charge of a board of homoeopathic practi- 
tioners for the purpose of experimenting with that system of practice upon 
its inmates." The minority member of the same committee also made a re- 
port, but liis declarations availed nothing against those of the majority. 
Allhough the adverse report of the commissioners had not a disheartening ef- 
fect upon the hopes of the homoeopathic profession and its friends in the city, 
there was no further well organized attempt to introduce homoeopathy into 
the public charitable institutions until the winter of 1874-5, when the sub- 
ject of homoeopathic success in general was being discussed in one of the 
leading clubs by several men of prominence in professional and official circles. 
A narrative of the events of the occasion are not deemed important here, but 
the consensus of opinion inclined to the belief that the homoeopathic profes- 
sion was entitled to representation in the great charitable institutions of the 
city ; and out of the opinions then well voiced there grew a petition which was 
so strongly reinforced with names of representative men that the commis- 
sioners of charities could not turn a deaf ear to its presentations, for it asked 
only the recognition of a right, and not a favor. The county homoeopathic 
society also took an active part in the movement, and as its result, on August 
7. T875. the commissioners agreed that a part of the old inebriate asylum 
on \\'ard's Island should be set apart for a hospital to be under the charge 
of homoeopathic physicians, subject to such rules as the charities department 
might establish. A homoeopathic medical board was created and held its first 
meeting September 4, 1875, at the residence of Dr. W. H. White, electing 
at that time these officers : Dr. Egbert Guernsey, president ; W. Hanford 

JIIS'I()RV OF IK ).M(T:0]\\TTIY 57 

White, vice-president ; A. K. Hills, secretary. Dr. Selden H. Talcott was 
appointed chief-of-staff of the new hospital, and the first house staff comprised 
Drs. Duncan, Macfarlan, Madden, Sullivan and Nichols. On September 21 
the New York State Homoeopathic Medical Society visited the hospital, and 
on October 15 the institution was formally opened for the reception of patients. 

On March 26, 1894, the Homceopathic Hospital on Ward's Island ceased 
to exist, and on that date the patients from the homoeopathic hospital were 
transferred to Blackwell's Island, where the Metropolitan Hospital was estab- 
hshed. Like its predecessor, it is under the care of the board of charities, but 
is in charge of homoeopathic practitioners, and one of the most useful aux- 
iliaries of the medical colleges of the greater city. 

The New York Homoeopathic Surgical Hospital was one of the three 
institutions that eventually merged to form the Hahnemann Hospital. It 
Avas opened at Fifty-fourth street and Broadway under the auspices of the 
Ladies' Aid Society, June 4, 1875; the first patient was received June 18, 1875. 

The Memorial Hospital for Women and Children was incorporated and 
organized in 1883 as the Brooklyn Women's Homoeopathic Hospital and Dis- 
pensary, but later on the name was changed to that which heads this brief 
sketch. This is one of the splendid charities for which the city of Brooklyn 
is famous. It is supported by private contributions, private patients, and the 
earnings of the nurses' departlnent. The institution in all its departments is 
managed by women alone. 

The Isabella Helmuth HosjMtal for the care and treatment of chronic 
invalids was founded in New York city in 1889. 

The Laura Franklin Free Hospital for Children, for several years one 
of the notable charities of New York city, was founded largely through the 
personal influence of the late Dr. Timothy Field Allen, the great homoe- 
opathic organizer and builder up of institutions. The hospital, however, was 
built by Mr. and Mrs. Franklin Delano as a memorial of their daughter. It 
was opened under homoeopathic- supervision, November 9. 1886. and is located 
on One Hundred and Eleventh street between Fifth and Madison avenues. 

The House of the Good Samaritan Deaconesses at Thirty-eighth street 
and Seventh avenue. New York city, an institution of the ^Methodist Episcopal 
church, and under homoeopathic medical supervision, was opened January 3, 
1887. as an adjunct of the western dispensary. In 1889 it was united with 
Hahnemann Hospital. 

The Rochester Homoeopathic Hospital, one of the best institutions of its 
character in the state, is the outgrowth of a meeting of the Monroe County 
Homoeopathic Medical Society held at Rochester in the spring of 1886. At 
that time the desirability of establishing a homceopathic hospital was discussed, 
and a committee was appointed to select a site for a hospital building and 
arrange for its erection. The members of the committee were Drs. Sumner, 
Adams, Ruell, Wolcott, Carr. Fowler, Dayfoot, Spencer and Lee. However, 
nothing definite was accomplished until May of the next year, when thirteen 
interested persons were incorporated as trustees of the Rochester Homoeopathic 
Hospital. The first meeting of the board was held December 4, 1888. A lot 
was soon afterward secured, buildings were erected and on the opening of the 
institution, September 18, 1889, visitors were greeted with a view of four 
splendid buildings — hospital, nurses house, dispensary and laundry. The 
nurse's school was opened December i, 1889. In 1890 donations were re- 
ceived from Don Alnnzo Watson and ^Ir. and Mrs. Hiram Siblev. amounting 


in the aggregate to the sum of $30,000, which enabled the hospital corporation 
to free itself of debt. In 1892 the trustees secured additional lands, a desir- 
able tract of eight acres, and at once set about the erection of a series of mod- 
ern hospital buildings, adopting- the then new but now popular cottage plan 
of construction. The work was completed and the new buildings opened No- 
vember 21, 1894, and comprised a series of comfortable structures known re-' 
spectively as the administration building, Watson pavilion, Sibley pavilion, 
Watson surgical pavilion, Hollister building. Brothers cottage, the morgue, 
and the kitchen building. The department of bacteriology was established in 
1896, and the new maternity ward was built in 1899. Thus the trustees of 
the Rochester Homoeopathic Hospital have become possessed of one of the 
most complete institutions of its kind in the country, and one in which the 
people of Rochester feel pardonable pride. It is indeed the popular hospital 
of the city, and its corporation has at various times been made the recipient 
of generous benefactions. 

The Florence Hospital of New York city was established and incorporated 
in 1889, and was opened for patients in the following year. It was founded 
largely through the influence of the late Dr. William Tod Helmuth and the 
generosity of other friends of homoeopathy in the city. 

The Hargous Memorial Hahnemann Hospital of Rochester dates its his- 
torv from the year 1888, when certain homoeopathic physicians of the city 
became satisfied that the practice of medicine as approved by the majority of 
members of the Monroe County HomcEopathic Medical Society was not in 
accord with the strict teachings of Hahnemann, and they therefore withdrew 
their membership in that organization and formed the Rochester Hahneman- 
nian Society and issued a circular advocating the founding of a hospital agree- 
able to the strict principles laid down by the founder— Hahnemann — in the 
Organon. The physicians most directly connected with the move- 
ment and who were chiefly instrumental in founding the hospital were Drs. 
Biegler, Schmitt, Johnson, Rrownell. Carr, Grant, Hoard. Hermance and Nor- 
man. Several meetings were held, which were attended bv both physicians 
and laymen, an'cl resulted in the organization of a hospital board. An incor- 
poration was efifected April 4. 1889. but even before the act was passed Dr. 
Biegler had secured an option on the Judge Selden property on Oakland street, 
comprising three acres of land on an eminence commanding a view of the city. 
On February 5, 1889. the premises were leased, with the privilege to ])urchase 
at a later date. The Selden residence was at once refitted for its intended 
new occupancy ; an association of lady managers was formed in I<\'l:)ruary, 
1889, and on April 10 following (Hahnemann's birthday) the institution was 
formallv opened, the orator of the occasion being Dr. Clarence Willard Butler 
of Montclair, New Jersey, and the subject of his address "An Appeal for 
Hahnemann's Homoeopathy." When the trustees and managers desired to 
raise funds for the i)urchase of hospital property and the establishment of 
endowed beds, the nniltitude of friends of homoeopathy came to the relief of 
the corporation with generous donations. In August, 1890. INIrs. Appleton of 
Boston, daughter of Louis Stanislaus Hargous, gave the trustees the sum of 
$35,000 as a memorial of the professional services of Dr. Biegler to her family, 
and also as a means of expressing her gratitude to him and to homceopathy. 
A gift also of $10,000 bv Susan Jeanette and Louis Stanislaus Hargous en- 
dowed free beds in the hospital, and as an appreciation of these benefactions 
the hosjiital was given the name Hargous Memorial Hahnemann Hospital of 


Rochester. A new building was erected in 1902, and since that time the insti- 
tution has occupied a new and advanced position amonfy the charities of the 
city. , 

The Bufifalo Honi(eoi)athic Hospital was founded and opened in 1892 for 
the especial purpose of furnishinii^ dispensary treatment to patients who are 
unable to pay the ordinary physician's charges. The institution was founded 
through the generosity of several men of means, who were interested in phil- 
anthropic work. Its doors were opened for patients June i. 1892. 

The Utica Homoeopathic Hospital at Utica. New York, was founded in 
1895, ^"*^^ ^^'^s opened for patients September 28 of that year. Among those 
diiectly concerned in the enterprise in its early history, and who also were 
its officers, were Dr. William H. Watson, president ; Dr. F. F. Laird, medical 
director ; and Dr. M. O. Terry, surgeon-in-chief. A nurses' training school 
is conducted in connection wdth this hospital. 

The Syracuse Homoeopathic Hospital was founded in 1896. An organi- 

Utica Homreopathic Hospital. 

zation w'as effected in the earl\- part of that year, and at a meeting of the 
Onondaga County Homoeopathic Medical Society held in May a comitiittee 
of the hospital trustees announced to the society that they had resolved upon 
the purchase of a site for a hospital building. An original hospital incorpora- 
tion had been effected in 1895. ^""^^ J^^^*^ o"^ y^^^ afterward the institution was 
ready for patients. The affairs of the association prospered for a time, then 
seemed to become decadent and in a bad way financially until the generous 
offer of a new site for a hospital building by John Lyman and wdfe awakened 
new and lively interest in its welfare. Air. Lyman's deed of gift of the Salina 
street property bears date January i, 1903. 

The Harlem Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary. Xew York city, was 
founded and opened in March. 1896. The Yonkers Homoeopathic Hospital 
and Maternity Home was estal)lished in 1896. The Mt. A'ernon Homoeopathic 
Hospital was incorporated and organized in 1897. 



The stor\- of the origin and marvellons growth of homoeopathy in the 
United States had its beginning in the year 1825 in the city of New York, 
when Dr. Hans Burch Gram, a brilHant surgeon, physician and scholar, visited 
that city, wliere his l^rother, Neils B. Gram, resided. Dr. Gram, an American 
by birth, had recently come from Copenhagen in Denmark, where he had been 
educated and where he had become a believer in the medical doctrines promul- 
gated by Hahnemann the founder. Thus, in America Gram was the first 
exemplar to teach and to practice medicine according to the law of homoe- 

Hans Burch Gram was the son of Hans Gram, whose father was a wealthy 
sea captain of Copenhagen. Hans Gram when a young man. was private secre- 
tary to the governor of the Danish island of Santa Cruz. While travelling in 
the United States in 1782 or 1783 he became interested in a Miss Burdick, the 
daughter of a hotel keeper in Boston, where Gram was then living. He mar- 
ried her and for his action his father disinherited him, but relenting on his 
deathbed, left him his fortune. Mr. Gram settled permanently in Boston after 
his marriage, but the records of his life are meagre. At one time he was liv- 
ing in Cambridge and was an organist. He afterward lived on Common 
street, where he died in 1803. Mr. Gram on hearing of the death of his father 
prepared to leave Boston and return to his native land and receive his patri- 
mony, but the night before he was to have sailed for Denmark he was taken 
sick aiid died in a few hours. His widow survived him but two years, dying 
in 1805. 

Hans Burch Gram, the son, a year later, in 1806, at the age of eighteen 
years, went to Copenhagen to claim the fortune left by his grandfather. He 
obtained a portion of it and was successful in finding friends and relatives 
willing to aid him. Prof. Fenger, physician-in-ordinary to the king, was his 
imcle, and through his favor Gram received a superior education. He was 
placed in the Royal Medical and Surgical Institution, and Dr. Fenger gave 
liim every advantage of the other schools and later of the hospitals of Northern 
Europe. Within a year after his arrival in Copenhagen he was appointed by 
the king assistant surgeon to a large military hospital. This appointment 
was preceded by a rigorous examination in Latin, Greek, philosophy, anatomy 
and minor surgery. He was ofificially connected with the hospital as surgeon 
during the last seven years of the Napoleonic wars, residing therein much of 
the time. In 18 14 he resigned his position, having been advanced to the rank 
of surgeon, and won the highest grade of merit in the Royal Academy of 
Surgery, with the degree of C. M. L., the highest of three degrees. He then 
devoted himself to general practice in Copenhagen, and so successfully that 
at the age of forty years he had acquired a competence for himself and also 
was enabled to assist the members of his family, all of whom had remained 
in the United States. 

During the years 1823 and 1824, (iram had become acc|uainted with the 
principles of homoeopathy and had tested the new system very carefullv on his 
own person and in his extensive practice, and had become convinced of the 
truth of the doctrines propounded by Hahnemann. But he longed to see his 
family in America, and therefore returned to the land of his birth. He sailed 
from Stockholm in the ship "Vv'illiam Penn," Captain William Thompson, and 
landed with him at Mount Desert, Maine, where he lived for some time as a 


guest of Dr. Kendall Kittridge, the first doctor ever settled on the island. 
Gram afterward took passage with Captain Thompson for New York, where 
he landed some time in 1825 and where his brother, Neils B. Gram, was estab- 
lished in business. He lost his fortune by endorsing notes for this brother, 
who seems to have been unfortunate, and was obliged to resume the practice 
of medicine. 

It is probable that Gram was induced to return to America more because 
he believed he could disseminate the doctrines of homoeopathy than with any 
thought of entering into active practice. He was a ripe scholar and in Europe 
had been the associate of many learned men. However, he opened an office 
in New York, though on account of his modesty it was several years before 
he became well acquainted with his brothers in the profession. Gray says of 
him : "He was too modest by far in his intercourse with his fellow men. He 
was not diffident nor timid, for no surgeon knew better how to decide when 
or how any operation of the art should be performed, and very few, indeed, 
could operate with his skill and adroitness; but in conversing with a fellow- 
practitioner he very much preferred hearing the sentiments and opinions of 
others to delivering his own. He made it a rule never to express his opinions 
on scientific matters until they were sought for in detail. Yet Gram was apt 
and willing to converse and to teach." It is thought that he must have been 
a homoeopathist in Copenhagen for ten or twelve years previous to his depar- 
ture, and he claimed to have been one of the earliest of the European believ- 
ers. Desiring to call the attention of the medical profession of New York to 
the subject of homoeopathy, a few months after his settlement he made a 
translation of Hahnemann's " Geist der homoeopathischen Heil-lehre "" and pub- 
lished it in a small pamphlet of twenty-four octavo pages, with the title *' The 
Character of Homoeopathy." This work was dedicated to Dr. David Hosack, 
at that time president of the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons 
and professor of theory and practice in that institution. This essay was first 
published in a German newspaper of March, 1813, and afterward in a volume 
of the second edition of the " Materia Medica Pura."' It was printed in the 
form of a letter to Hosack, and was gratuitously distributed among the lead- 
ing members of the medical profession, and especially to the medical schools. 

Gram had long been away from the country and his English was bad. 
His twenty years in Denmark gave this little missionary tract such a Danish- 
German-English grotesqueness and such complicated grammatical construc- 
tion that it was difficult to' read understandingly. Gray doubted whether any 
one to whom it was sent ever did read it. Hosack said he had not done so. 
Gram was greatly disappointed that the truth he so firmly believed in should 
be so coldly received, and with the exception of certain manuscripts afterward 
loaned to Folger, and lost by him, nothing further was written bv him. This 
pamphlet was the first ever published in the United States on the subject of 
homoeopathy. Only one copy is known to exist, and that was presented by 
Mrs. Wilsey to Dr. Henry ]M. Smith and by him donated to the New York 

A powerful factor in the introduction of Gram to his fellows in Ne\v 
York was that he was an enthusiastic royal arch mason, and it was through 
the influence of the lodge room that he formed several close friendships with 
influential persons ; he met Folger at a masonic meeting. It is said that he 
was an officer in Jerusalem chapter No. 8. and took part in the exaltation of 
Folo-er at an extra meeting on ^lav 2^ 1826. After the ceremony Gram intro- 



duced himself to Folger and thus formed an acquaintance that lasted until 
the latter left the city, in 1828. 

Robert B. Folger, born in Hudson, N. Y., in 1803, commenced the prac- 
tice of allopathic medicine in New York in 1824. For some time after he met 
Gram he ridiculed the new method of small doses, but in August, 1826, Gram, 
at P'olger's request, treated successfully several cases that the latter had deemed 
incurable. He then became interested and began the study of German under 
Gram's tuition, reading with him the Organon and the " Materia Medica Pura." 
Folger began the practice of homoeopathy in 1827, but having no confidence in 
his own knowledge of the system. Gram accompanied him when he visited his 
patients. In 1828, on account of ill health, he was obliged to visit the south, 

Surg. Gen. S. N. Y. 

and Gram bade him goodbye at the vessel when he sailed. During this time 
Folger was Gram's only student and assistant. After Folger went south his 
connection with Gram ceased and he did not again practice medicine. He re- 
turned to New York in 1835 and gave his attention to mercantile pursuits. 
During the first week of their acc|uaintance. Gram introduced the subject of 
homoeopathy, presented him with his pamphlet and with a manuscript article 
on the pharmacodynamic properties of drugs. While Folger was in North 
Carolina Gram determined to go there, and was to have joined him in Char- 
lotte in 1828, but reverses in l)usiness on T^olger's part caused the project to 
be abandoned. 

In November, 1827, Gram was proposed for membership in the ^Medical 
and Philoso])hical Society of New York, and was elected the following Feb- 


ruary, initiated in June, 1828, and at the general meeting the next month was 
elected corresponding secretary. In July, 1830, he was elected president. He 
had taken a prominent part in all the proceedings of the society and in Janu- 
ary, 1829, proposed a plan of correspondence with the fellows, soliciting their 
co-operation in collecting facts, especially respecting diseases and remedies, 
whereby much knowledge could be obtained, erroneous opinions corrected, 
and sound doctrines become better known and appreciated. 

In September, 1826, Folger introduced Gram to Ferdinand Little W'ilsey, 
a merchant, who also was a prominent mason and master of a lodge, in order 
that Gram might instruct him on certain important masonic points. Mr. Wil- 
sey was born in 57 Reade street, New York, June 23, 1797. A friendship was 
at once established between the successful merchant and the physician, and 
the former often entertained Gram at his house. \Mlsey was a sufferer from 
dyspepsia and his own physician, Dr. John F. Gray, having failed to relieve 
him, he was induced to place himself in his friend's care, and thus became the 
first patient who was treated with homoeopathic remedies in the United States. 
The success of the treatment was such that Wilsey, who for some time had 
inclined toward the healing art, began the study of medicine under Gram, at 
the same time attending lectures at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. 
He began practice in private, acquiring the title of doctor and quite a reputa- 
tion among his friends, with whom his medical services were entirely gratui- 
tous. The panic of 1837 caused him to give up mercantile pursuits and. being 
somewhat reduced in fortune, his friends procured for him a situation in the 
custom house, which he accepted, still continuing his private practice. Dr. 
Wilsey received the medical degree from the College of Physicians in 1844. 
In 1845 he joined a company for mining copper in Cuba, and sailed for that* 
island to superintend operations. The project was a failure, his health became 
poor, and returning to New York, he at once opened an office and commenced 
for the first time the public practice of medicine. His efforts were successful 
and he amassed a considerable fortune. A few years previous to his death 
ill health caused him to give up practice and remove to Bergen, N. J., where 
he died May 11, j86o. He was devotedly attached to Gram and remained so 
during his life ; was his companion in his last illness, and the last at his final 
resting place. He was the first convert to the doctrines of homoeopathy in 
the United States, and also the first American who made any pretension to 
practice the same. Wilsey had frequently urged his old family physician. Dr. 
John Franklin Gray, to be introduced to Gram, but Gray considered him a 
quack and refused to meet him until in 1827, when in Wilsey's store thev be- 
came acquainted. Gray soon became interested in the new theorv of cure 
and permitted himself to discuss it with Gram. It was with reluctance, how- 
ever, that he consented to Wilsey's placing himself under Gram's treatment 
for his dyspepsia. 

Dr. Gray thus told the story of Wilsey's conversion to homoeopathv : "I 
had treated Wilsey for dvspepsia for a long time with such poor success that 
at his request I consented with much reluctance and almost boorishlv to place 
him under Dr. Gram's care, to test the value of the improved practice. Under 
his treatment the patient experienced early and marked benefits. At that time 
I ascribed the change to his improved diet. But as I could not answer Gram's 
arguments in support of the new method, and as my training, reading and ex- 
perience, which had been unusually extensive for so young a man, had failed 
to inspire me with confidence in any past or existing plan of therapeutics. I 


was soon ready to put the method of Hahnemann to the test of a fair and 
rigorous observation. Moreover, Gram's inimitable modesty in debate, and 
his earnest zeal for the good and the true in all ways and directions, and his 
vast culture in science and art, in history and philosophy, greatly surpassing 
in these respects any of the academic or medical professors I had known, 
very much shortened mv dialectic opposition to the new system. I selected 
three cases for the trial, the first, hemoptysis in a scrofulous girl, complicated 
with amenorrhoea ; the second, mania puerperalis. of three months' standing ; 
and the last, anasarca and ascites in an habitual drunkard. Following Gram's 
instructions, I furnished the proper registry of the symptoms in each case. 
He patiently and faithfully waded through the six volumes of Hahnemann's 
"Materia Medica" (luckily we had no manuals then) and prescribed a single 
remedy in each case. The first and third cases were promptly cured by a 
single dose of the remedy prescribed, and the conditions as to diet and moral 
impressions were so arranged by me (Gram did not see either of the patients) 
that, greatly to my surprise and joy, very little room was le-ft for a doubt as 
to the efficacy of the specifics applied. The case of mania was perhaps the 
stronger testimony of the two. The patient was placed under the rule of diet 
for fourteen days previous to the administration of the remedy chosen by 
Gram. Not the slightest mitigation of the maniacal suft'ering occurred in that 
time. At the time of the giving of the remedy, which was a single drop of 
very dilute tincture of nux vomica in a drink of sweetened water, the patient 
was more furious than usual, tearing her clothing ofif, and angrily resisting all 
attempts to soothe her. She finally recovered h€r reason within half an hour 
after taking the nux vomica and never lost it afterward. I was determined 
the patient should not have the advantage of imagination, so I gave her a 
junk bottle full of molasses and water during the fourteen days and made her 
take a tablespoonful every two hours, put the nux vomica in molasses and 
water, so that she did not know that we had made any change of remedies. 
The husband came for me after she had taken the nux vomica and said his 
wife was dying; she had recovered her reason and begged me to go and see 
her. I saw the lady and she thanked me for her restoration ; she was perfect- 
ly well. I was her physician for a number of years afterward. A fourth case 
was soon treated with success, which had a worse prognosis, if possible, than 
either of the others. It was one of traumatic tetanus. During the first year 
of my acciuaintance with Gram I subjected only my incurables and the least 
promising instance of the curables to Dr. Gram's experiments ; but this was 
simply because I could not read the language of the materia medica, and it 
was impossible to do any more without a knowledge of the German. 'During 
that time I surmounted this difficulty and became a competent prescriber and 
a full convert to homoeopathy." 

The year 1839 witnessed the first break in the circle of faithful enthusiasts 
who had dared and suffered so much for the cause of homoeopathy. Gram, 
who had been the guide, the teacher, the counsellor, grave, wise and afifec- 
tionate, was suddenly stricken with apoplexy. Gray says : "Gram failed in 
health completely just as the new period began to dawn upon us. Broken in 
heart by the misfortunes, insanity and death of his only brother, upon whom 
he had lavished all the estate he brought with him from Furope, he was at- 
tacked with apoplexy in May, 1839, from which he awoke with hemiplegia; 
after many months of sufl^ering he passed away on February 13. 1840. Wilson 
and I tenderlv cared for him, and Curtis watched him as a faithful son would 


a beloved father. He was an earnest Qiristian of the Swedenborgian faith, 
and a man of the most scrupulously pure and charitable life I have ever known. 
In the presence of want, sorrow and disease, secluded from all observation of 
the world, he ministered with angelic patience and with divine earnestness." 
Dr. Gram was buried in St. Mark's burial ground, New York, but on 
September 4, 1862, his old-time friend and pupil, Dr. Gray, removed the re- 
mains to his own lot in Greenwood cemetery. In the October number of the 
"American Homoeopathic Review" is a long article by Dr. S. B. Barlow, and 
another by Dr. H. M. Smith, on Gram. Dr. Barlow writes : "Hans B. Gram, 
M. D., died February 13, 1840. aged fifty-four years. So reads a marble tomb- 
stone erected over his grave in St. Mark's burial ground between Eleventh 
and Twelfth streets, on the east side of Second avenue, in the citv of Xew 

John F. Gray, IM. D. 

York. On the fourth day of September, 1862, the grave of Dr. Gram was 
opened and the remains taken up for removal to the private ground of Dr. 
John F. Gray in Greenwood cemetery, where in a lovely spot his remains have 
reached a permanent resting place. I had requested to be present at the ex- 
humation, which request was readily and kindly granted. I estimated his 
height to have been five feet ten inches. Gram's skull- was of medium size, 
with good breadth of forehead showing that he had possessed a great amount 
of volume of the perceptive and reflective faculties." Dr. Barlow describes at 
length in this article the characteristics of Gram from the phrenological exam- 
ination of his skull at this time, thus : "Veneration, conscientiousness, benev- 
olence, combativeness, cautiousness, firmness, attachment to friends, and to 


•whatever was good, true, just and humane, were all characteristics of Gram 
and the active operations of those sentiments could not but render their pos- 
sessor a pleasant companion, a good man, a kindly physician, the central lum- 
inary of whatever circle he was placed in, not assuming, dictatorial or ar- 
rogant in manner. Whatever feelings of superiority he may have felt toward 
those by whom he was surrounded, he could not hut endear himself strongly 
to his friends and pupils, creating ties, the severing of which at his departure 
must have been painful indeed. , Hence 1 find every person who knew him 
well still speaking in terms of the most endearing tenderness of him as a luost 
estimable friend. Naturally he was, doubtless, a brilliant, cheerful and happy 
man; but opposition, detraction and persecution had rendered him somewhat 
morose, taciturn, suspicious and distrustful — even of his best friends, embit- 
tering the evening of his days, producing infirmities which brought a gloomy 
obscuration over his faculties and sentiments and throwing clouds of disap- 
pointment and unhappiness over his fastest friends. 

"Future generations of physicians will do honor to the memory of Hans 
B. Gram. The plate of his coffin bore the following inscription, portions of 
which were difiicult to decipher, but I am sure it was all finally made out in 
perfection : Hans B. Gram, M. D., a Knight of the Order of St. John, died 
Feb. 13, 1840, aged 53 years." (There is a discrepancy of one year in his age 
as given upon the coffin ])late and that inscribed on his tombstone.) 

At a meetmg on Hahnemann's birthday. April 10, 1863, the meeting at 
which Gray gave his address on "The Early Annals of Homoeopathy in New 
York," after the banquet there were various toasts, and the talk turned on the 
early times of homoeopathy in New York city. Dr. Barlow was asked to give 
his opinion of the character of Gram, and he said : " The impressions I 
received from viewing the craniology of Dr. Gram were, first, the massiveness 
of his mind or brain, of his ability to grapple with whatever subject he under- 
took. Secondly, I was impressed with the idea of his courage. I do not 
mean brute courage, exactly, but courage for all good purposes, courage for 
auNthing except for evil. A man whose skull gave me the impression of a 
man who knew no fear except the fear of doing evil, doing wrong. I was 
impressed with his ability for general scholarship. His organ of languages 
was very good, his head could be called well balanced." 

This story is told by Dr. Mofiatt of New York, illustrating the fearless- 
ness of Gram : 'T heard it from his own lips. When he lived in Copenhagen 
and was a physician or surgeon in the National Military and Naval Hospital, a 
menagerie of wild beasts was there exhibited, among the animals being a full 
grown lion. The keeper entered the cage of the lion, intoxicated, which enraged 
the lion and he attacked the man and escaped from the cage. Gram was talking 
with a friend, and picking a nut with a nut-picker, when there was a sudden 
cry and the people ran out shrieking. Looking, he saw that the lion had 
escaped. Everybody fled but himself and he stood in a defiant attitude, front- 
ing the beast, which came so close that he felt the heat of his breath, and 
Gram's purpose at the time WaS to plunge his hand with the instrument into 
the beast's mouth as the only means of staving the destruction that would fol- 
low should he attempt to escape with those behind him. As the creature 
crouched to spring, he felt his hot breath. While he stood fronting him in 
that attitude the attendants came with rods and cords and secured him. When 
it was over Gram fainted. He did not tret over the effect for six months." 

The only portrait of Dr. Gram in existence is a i:)encil sketch by Dr. Cur- 


tis, which was Hthographed and published in the "United States Medical and 
Surgical Journal" for July, 1867, and is that from which is produced the por- 
trait in this work. Gray said the original was wonderfully accurate. At the 
1863 meeting Gray mentioned that a cast was taken of Gram's head, but did 
not know if it was then in existence. At the meeting Gray, Wilson and Ball 
were appointed a committee to arrange for erecting a monument over the 
grave in Greenwood, but nothing seems to have been done at that time. In 
1869 the New York State Homceopathic Medical Society inaugurated a move- 
ment to invite dollar subscriptions for a monument to Gram. At a meeting 
held September 14, 1869, at Cooper Institute, the following committee was 
appointed : Drs. John F. Grav, L. Hallock, S. B. Barlow, B, F. Bowers, Car- 
roll Dunham. H. D. Paine, of New York ; R. C. Moffatt, of Brooklyn ; I. T. 
Talbot, of Boston ; Walter Williamson, of Philadelphia ; G. E. Shipman, of 
Chicago, and Wm. H. Holcombe, of New Orleans. Circulars were issued and 
some subscriptions were raised, but the matter was allowed to drop. 

Dr. Gray's open adoption and profession of homoeopathy dated from 1828. 
He was born in Sherburne, Chenango county. New York, September 24, 1804, 
and was the fourth of five sons of John Gray, first judge of Chenango county. 
When sixteen years of age his parents removed to Jamestown, Chautauqua 
county. Thrown on his own resources, he devoted himself to obtaining an 
education and a profession. After working for a time at a mechanical employ- 
ment as a means of supporting himself, he obtained a situation as assistant 
and student with Peter B. Havens of Hamilton, Madison county, where there 
was an academy, and where he gave his services for his board and the oppor- 
tunity for study and instruction. After two years he found a position as teach- 
er in a neighboring district school. With money thus earned he was able to 
A'isit his home, and the journey of two hundred and fifty miles he accomplished 
on foot. While teaching and studying he fitted himself for a medical school. 
He was for a time under the tuition of Dr. Ezra Williams of Dunkirk. He 
Avent to New York in 1824, provided with letters to members of the college 
faculty. One from Governor Clinton to Dr. Hosack brought him to the favor- 
able notice of that leading physician, who soon became attached to him, ad- 
mitting him to his private classes and otherwise aiding him. In 1825 he passed 
an examination for a license before the county medical society with a view of 
taking the position of assistant surgeon in the navy, but which, by the advice 
of friends, he declined. He received his medical degree from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in 1826. 

Dr. Hosack through his own influence and that of DeWitt Clinton and 
Thomas Eddy, two of the governors, secured for Gray a position in the New 
York Hospital as assistant physician. His appointment had been opposed by 
many who were unfriendly to Hosack. and was coupled with the condition that 
he should undergo examination by the men who opposed him. Dr. Watts, 
"vvho had been a strong opponent, became as earnest a friend, and advised him 
to open an office in the more thinly settled but rapidly growing parts of the 
city. He -liad now formed an attachment with the lady who afterward became 
his wife, the daughter of Dr. Amos G. Hull, a well known surgeon of New 
Y^ork. and father of Dr. A. Gerald Hull. He opened an office in Charlton 
street and soon gained considerable practice. At this time he was regarded 
hy his professional brethren as a young man of unusual promise and ability. 
And now. with everything favorable to him in a professional wav, because of 
honest conviction he became a devoted adherent to the medical svstem which 


when spoken of at all, was considered as tlie latest medical absurdity, not 
worthy of serious attention. With his full adoption of homoeopathy in 1828, 
the immediate effect was to alienate his patrons and diminish the number of 
his families. Even those who had been cured, without knowing it was with 
homoeopathic medicines, declined longer to trust themselves in his hands. His 
carriage which for some time had been a necessity was given up as a useless 

At a meeting of the Homoeopathic Medical Society of the County of New 
York on April 10, 1863, to celebrate the birthday of Hahnemann, Dr. Gray,, 
the president, addressed the society on "The Early Annals of Homoeopathy in 
New York." Several toasts were given and the talk, turning to the trials of the 
pioneers of homoeopathy, the following remarks were made, and are here 
quoted to show something of the trials which beset the pathway of the early 
homoeopathic practitioners : 

Dr. Phineas P. Wells said : "The gentleman said he wished he had known 
the happiness of witnessing the birth of homoeopathy in this country. I wish 
to say to him that there are but three gentlemen in this room who knew the 
facts personally. In those days when it was known that a physician had 
adopted this view his friends forsook him like a leper, and he became the ob- 
ject of scorn and calumny. Now it is all changed. You will never forget 
it, sir (turning to Dr. Gray) and I shall never forget what we have suffered. 
You never can have any conception of it. So much the better because you 
have not the load to carry which your predecessors bore. You have only to 
take up the great work freed from shackles, from obloquy, and to carry it to 
perfection in these times which God has made your happy days." 

Dr. Smith said : "I would rather be Dr. Gray having passed through 
this than any other man in the United States. The warrior has no happiness 
when at the cannon's mouth, or when he is pierced by a bullet, but his happi- 
ness comes when he has achieved the victory in fighting for his suffering 
country'. So in the light of present enjoyment I would be willing to go 
through with that bitter experience for the sake of the pleasure and satisfac- 
tion and the unmistakable intelligence that writes itself on the front part of 
the brain in letters in fire — in letters of Hre — to remain while life lasts, as 
though thcv were written upon the blue arch of heaven with pencil of living 

Dr. Gray said : "What Dr. Wells says is more true than I like to recall. 
I went through eight years of persecution before the second epoch began. I 
had many friends but none nearer than Dr. Hering, a magnanimous man. full 
of sense and learning. He has been very kind to me. In an interview with 
my old preceptor he said to me: 'I had some hopes of you. I expected you 
to be one of those who would hold high the standard that I left. Now I 
give you up. You have taken up with that crazy Gram and that contemptible 
medical nonsense of Hahnemann, and I excommunicate you.' And he spoke 
with great feeling. Then my own father in medicine and most intimate friend 
at college (probably Hosack) and in the profession, ait me in the street as 
though I had been a horse thief or some horrible, outcast. It stuck to me like 
thistles and thorns, everywhere. My mind is sensitive. But better it is 
that a man should lie so persecuted if it bring him forward in the great path 
of human progress ; his soul will blossom unless tainted with vice, and he will 
gain all the more power, all the more magnanimity toward those who differ 
from him. As brother Wells so feelingly suggested, though on account of 



some sensitiveness of organization I have not had the very greatest pleasure 
of that sort, yet now I look back with unmixed deUght to the hour when the 
world was turned against me both in my profession and friendships, God 
bless those days ! God bless the man who led me, and the men who were 
with me ! There were some, however, although they did not accept homoe- 
opathy, whose faces never changed toward me. Some who went through the 
college course with me, notwithstanding our difference of opinion, have nev- 
er changed. Never has the cord of friendship that bound us together as boys, 
nearly fort} years ago, sutit'ered the slightest break. And there are other con- 
solations. So that the man who will preserve his justice of character, his 
truth, and his devotion to what is right, as I have endeavored to do, will al- 
ways have friends, even under the most oppressive and depressing circum- 

A. Ccrald Hull. A. M., M. D. 

Stances. But the best friend after all lies in the depths of the soul. Whoso- 
ever communes with truth within him, whosoever sacrifices for truth within, 
shall^ be paid, as the Man of Nazareth said, in this life an hundred fold, and 
infinitely more in that which is to come." But Dr. Gray outlived his ostracism 
and for many years upheld the new law of cure, and it was his pleasure to 
see homoeopathy become popular and powerful as a medical system. 

In 1829 Gram and Gray were alone in the practice of homoeopathy in 
New York city. Gray devoted himself to learning German and soon was able 
to read Hahnemann's work in the original. He also mastered French, but 
from 1830 to 1838 he was poor and had a struggle to support his family. In 
1835 his father-in-law, Dr. Hull, who had been in the truss business, died, 


leaving hini executor. Tn attending to the estate much of his time was taken 
up, and from 1835 to 1838 he had an office in V'esey street, under the Astor 
house, where he could attend both to his profession and to his duties as exe- 
cutor. In his later years he was very fond of reading philosophical and med- 
ical writings m Latin.' In 187 1 he received an honorary degree from Hamilton 

It is said of Gray that he received pupils without fee, and that he always 
was ready to aid poor students of medicine. He died at the Fifth avenue 
hotel in New York, June 5, 1882, after an illness of three weeks. Gray was 
one of the first physicians who advocated a more extended and thorough sys- 
tem of medical education, and that the state should grant the license to prac- 
tice. At a discussion in 1832 before the Philosophical Society he offered a 
resolution that but one medical school should exist in a state ; that rival schools' 
ought not to be approved ; that every physician in the state should be a teacher 
in such school, and that there should be one board in each state that should 
have the sole power of recommending candidates for license or degree. In 
November, 1832, he delivered a lecture on the policy of chartering medical 
colleges, the same being introductor}' to the course on theory and practice in 
the New York School of Medicine. 

The next to join the homceopathic ranks was Dr. Abraham Duryea Wil- 
son. Gray and Wilson had been medical friends. In fact the coterie of bril- 
liant voung physicians, students and associates of Hosack, who one by one 
accepted the truth of homoeopathy, were intimates, members of the Philosophi- 
cal Society, and it can readily be understood how they became acquainted with 
Gram. Wilson, who had been in practice in New York since his graduation 
in 1822, was introduced to Gram by Gray. At first Wilson was incredulous, 
deeming, like his brethren, the new doctrine simply humbug, but the argu- 
ments of Gram and the surprising cures accomplished induced Wilson to make 
further experiments. These tests resulted in his conviction of the truth of the 
homoeopathic law, and in 1829 he publicly adopted that method in his practice. 

Dr. Wilson was born in Columbia College, New York city, September 
20, 1801. His father, Peter Wilson, was professor of languages and Greek 
and Roman literature in that institution. He was educated in the college, 
graduating in 1818, when but seventeen years of age; but he did not receive 
his diploma until of legal age, in 1822. After graduation he at once com- 
menced the study of medicine under Drs. Hosack and Francis, receiving the 
degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1821. He at once 
settled in practice, locating on Walker street. New York city. In 1824 he- 
married Fliza Holmes. He died of pulmonary apoplexy, January 20, 1864; 
aged sixty-three years. 

On Hahnemann's birthday anniversary. April 10, 1865, Dr. Grav deliv- 
ered a eulogy on the life of the founder, and spoke of the period of \\'ilson's 
adoption of homieopathy as follows : "Wilson was already a conspicuous 
practitioner of mccHcinc when he adopted homoeopathy. This change took 
place in 1829, the eighth year after his graduation from the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, and the twelfth after receiving his baccalaureate in Co- 
lumbia College. His social status and professional standing were such as to 
make a strong sensation respecting the new practice in a wide circle of the 
community at the time. His father, an eminent Scottish scholar, was profes- 
sor of the Greek and Latin languages at the time of his son's birth, and for 
many years after. His brother, the late George Wilson, an accomplished 

HIS r( )\<\ ()!• lI()M(K()PATin' 71 

counsellor at law in the city, who was twenty years his senior, and therefore 
able to aid him socially, took unwearied pains in his behalf. Moreover, this 
brother, as Wilson told me, earnestly interested himself after the venerable 
father's departure, in his culture in ancient and modern literature and phi- 
losophy. Whatsoever the elder brother could accomplish for him in society 
and in aid of his professional career was certainly etifected with stratifying 
success. Pr. Wilson had also the great advantages in that day resulting from 
the personal friendship and patronage of his illustrious preceptor in medicine, 
'the late Dr. David Hosack^ in whose private classes he was a diligent pupil. 
Hosack had received classical training from Wilson's father, to whose mem- 
ory he was gratefully attached ; and thus it can be imagined how readily this 
young man's studious qualities were appreciated and his aspirations in the 
outset of life fostered by his powerful preceptor. And that Wilson was a 
keen and prompt student under Hosack, accepting and using all the advantages 
afforded by his great master's private and public lectures and by the great 
clinique of the New York hospital in which Hosack took the leading position, 
was abundantly demonstrated by him when, in the capacity of a censor in the 
county medical society, he officiated as examiner of candidates for the diploma 
of that body. Wilson made the acquaintance of Gram and myself and encoun- 
tered the great new problem of his life work, homcEopathy. After a patient 
study of its principles and a protracted trial of its art-maxims at the bedside, 
during all of which study and trial he refrained from expressing a judgment, 
he decided the question firmly and fully for himself and for all his future pa- 
tients, in the affirmative ; and thenceforward he openly avowed his adherence 
to the doctrine and discipline of Hahnemann. Wilson came into our circle 
with all his stores of sound culture and with all his indomitable courage in 
defence of the right and true. I have said that the avowal of his change of 
practice ensued upon a very mature and thorough examination of the ques- 
tions involved in the change ; and I may add that this was his method in all 
other philosophical and administrative problems. His powers of analysis 
were never embarrassed by the perturbations of his emotional nature. Though 
generous, even to a decided fault on some occasions, and full of sympathy at 
all times and in every fibre of his being, yet he could at all times set his reason 
to work in the precision and cool steadiness of mathematical logic : and thus 
it was his want so to apply his happily dormant rational power to the largest 
questions of faith and of practice in ethics and theosophy, as well as in ours 
of medicine. His characteristic lay in this rare peculiarity of constitution, one 
which belonged to the old time philosophers, that he could apply his conscious- 
ly rational test processes over all the lines sketched by his intuitions; and his 
merit as a man consisted in the ever rare quality that he openly avowed and 
sustained whatsoever he found to be true by this his double process of inves- 
tigation, pocolepsis. and demonstration. Wilson took this great step, homoe- 
opathy, with a deliberation and courage consonant with his training- in letters 
and science and with his constitution as a man. He was no adventurer in 
the community, with nothing to lose by the change, and perhaps a gain to 
make by heralding a novelty in medicine. Nor was he bv any view of his 
constitution, an eager innovator, a reformer of popular mistakes ; but rather 
from his harmonic tendencies (he loved music) and his cordial, social rapport 
vyith all oood meanino: ])eople of his place and time, he was a conservative ; 
was indulgent to harmless errors and indisposed to violent uprootings. X^ev- 


ertheless he went with his conviction of truth whensoever these were fully 
ripe in his soul. ' 

"Bitter were the pangs and sore the costs of this bold change for the 
accomplished and successful young Wilson. In less than two years after the 
adoption of the new method, that is to say in 183 1, when the birth of the last 
of his children had rendered the demands of family support strongest upon 
him, his change had deprived him of all his family practice save one ; of that 
g'oodly broad basis founded by his familiar associates among the Masons in 
the Dutch church, of which he was a cherished member, and from among his 
family adherents, including those of his brother, the Counsellor Wilson, only 
one stood by him, Mr. Thomas Dugan, sexton of St. George, who happened 
to be the mutual friend of Wilson and myself." 

Wilson did not study German, therefore could not determine the remedy 
for himself, and as he was ever anxious to do his utmost for his patients, he 
was in the habit of taking them to Gram for advice ; and Wilson and Channing 
held daily consultations with Gram. But long before his professional reputa- 
tion was re-established, Wilson's careful methods and cures greatly advanced 
the system in the community. 

The next in order to be mentioned is Amos Gerald Hull, who was the 
first native American to take up the study of medicine as a student of homoe- 
opathy. He was born in New Hartford, New York, in 1810, and was edu- 
cated at Union College, Schenectady. Dr. John F. Gray writes : "Mr. Hull 
took his degree in the arts at Union College, with distinguished rank, in 1828. 
He remained there some months pursuing a post-graduate course of studies 
in chemistry and anatomy under our late and justly revered colleague. Dr. 
Joslin, at that time and for many years after a professor at Union. Dr. Joslin 
and I had studied medicine together, graduating in the same class, in the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, and I suggested the course taken by Hull, 
well knowing the unusual advantages he could reap from Joslin's exact and 
• full attainments in the natural sciences. On his coming to the city Hull en- 
tered Rutger's Medical College. Hosack, Mott, Macneven, Francis and the 
great Irish surgeon, Bushe, were the professors. With Francis and Bushe he 
also studied in extra college courses of lectures as a private pupil. But best 
of all the assistance he enjoyed, in my estimation, was the daily guidance and 
conversation of the good pioneer Gram. In the summer time Gram taught 
him botany, master and pupil making frequent foot excursions for the pur- 
pose, in the neighborhood of the city, analyzing the wayside and wood flow- 
ers as they wandered through the rich floral regions of our coast. Wilson 
and 1 sometimes joined this party, and also made some advances in botany 
under Gram. In the winter evenings Gram reviewed descriptive anatomy 
with Hull, in a methodic course of dictation in the Latin language, which the 
pupil was required to record in writing as it fell from the master's lips; a 
task probably no public teacher in any of our American colleges could have 
executed, and I am quite sure no other pupil could have performed his share 
of the exercise better than did young Hull. * * * j„ ^jj HxxW spent four 
years in professional studies, after his full terms and graduation at Union, in 
this way." 

The Medical Society of the County of New York had just established a 
public and recorded exaniination of all applicants for a license to practice, and 
Dr. Hull w^as the first to undergo the ordeal. He graduated in medicine in 
1832 and commenced practice in 1833. After practicing for some years he 


removed to Newburgh, remaining a few years, but returned to New York, 
where he practiced until his death. He joined the Medical and Philosophical 
Society in 1828, and was a member of the New York County Medical Soci- 
ety and a censor in 1835. At the time he joined membership was obligatory 
upon every physician by the law of the state. Hull visited Hahnemann in 
Paris in 1836-37, of which visit he wrote a very interesting account for the 
"Homceppathic Examiner" in 1841, and which was also published as a pam- 
phlet. He died in New York, April 25, 1859, aged forty-nine years. 

Gray had married Hull's sister, and the brothers-in-law went into practice 
together. In 1835 they were joint editors of the "American Journal of Homce- 
opathia," and in 1840 of the "Homoeopathic Examiner." Hull edited an edi- 
tion of Everest's "Popular View of Homoeopathy," originally published in 
England, and several editions of Laurie's "Domestic Practice." He also edited 
several editions of Jahr's "Manual of Homoeopathic ]\Iedicine," and was co- 
editor of the translation of that great symptomatology, Jahr's "Symptomen 

Gray places Hull after Wilson in the order of precedence, probably be- 
cause the latter was a student as early as 1828, but the man who entered into 
homoeopathic practice next after Wilson was Daniel Edward Stearns. He 
was born in 1801 at Hinesburgh, Vermont, where he received his early edu- 
cation. His medical studies were with Dr. David Deming. He attended the 
University of Vermont, at Burlington, where he graduated in 1828. Dr. 
Stearns, like many of the students of his day, w^as obliged to gain an educa- 
tion under difficulties. With little money and poorly clad he earned by teach- 
ing in the winter and by working in the summer the means to enable him to 
attend the two courses of medical lectures then required by law. In the fall 
of 1826, while attending his first course of lectures at Burlington, he was 
offered a situation in a drug store in New York city. This he declined, but 
being offered the same place in 1827, and as he had attended his full course 
of lectures, he accepted and went to New York. He remained in this posi- 
tion until September, 1828, when he returned to Vermont to receive his diplo- 
ma. Undecided what next to do, he received from New York a letter advising 
him not to allow the want of money to hinder his return to the city. If he 
should pay for his diploma, his funds would be exhausted. If he returned 
to New York he could not take with him the coveted evidence of graduation. 
The means were provided, however, and he returned to New York. In a 
letter written in 1870. Stearns himself said: "I came into the city in the fall 
of 1827. I had attended my two courses of lectures at our University of Ver- 
mont at Burlmgton and read nw three years as the law required. In Septem- 
ber, 1828, I left for Vermont, then and there received my diploma; returned 
the same fall to New York city, had an introduction to John F. Gray, M. D., 
spent a part of the winter in his office, and at that time became acquainted 
with H. B. Gram, M. D., and A. D. Wilson. M. D., Dr. Channing and Dr. 
Joseph T. Curtis, who then was a student of Dr. Gram. And now I sav these 
were, with myself, the only gentlemen who had the boldness and courage to 
rally in the ranks of homoeopathy." In the winter of 1827 Stearns attended 
lectures at the College of Physicians and Surgeons and visited the hospital. 

Thus, in company with these enthusiasts. Gray and Gram and Wilson, 
Stearns soon became convinced of the truth and certainty of the homoeopathic 
law of healing. In the spring of 1829 he commenced the practice of homoe- 
opathy in New York, continuing there until in 1852 or 1853. when he removed 


to Tremont station, Westchester county, a suburb of New York. For two 
years he practiced in the city, but the increase of his Tremont practice obhged 
him to devote to it all his time. In 1856 by accident he became disabled for 
active practice. In 1872 he was still living at Tremont. 

A notable convert to the teachings of Gram, was William Channing, of 
whom Gray writes: "Dr. William Channing was a man of large culture in 
letters and very thoroughly educated in medicine. He was in the mid-prime 
of life at the time of his conversion to homoeopathy, which occurred in 1832, 
during the first appearance of the Asiatic cholera in this country. He had 
joined Gram's party in the County Medical Society for the establishment of 
the public and recorded examination of candidates, and having been elected 
in that body to the ofifice of censor, with Gram and Wilson for colleagues, he 
was frequently in our little circle, and often, of course, the new practice was 
discussed with him." 

Thus Channing became familiar with the doctrines of homoeopathy, in- 
terested in Ihcm. and was liberal enough to be willing to test their truth. 
When in 1832 the cholera appeared in New York, he tendered his services to 
the hospitals. This gave liim a chance to make a test of the new system, 
and as Hahnemann had just ]niblished his advice about the use of camphor, 
veratrum and cuprum in cholera, Channing made a public trial of these rem- 
edies on the victims. So great was his success that he published the results 
over his own signature in the "Commercial Advertiser," and soon after de- 
clared himself tO' be a believer in homoeopathy. Channing was a brilliant man, 
of large culture in letters, and thoroughly educated in medicine. Gray says 
"Channing's was an eminently logical mind, attending with full earnestness to 
all topics of a philosophical character till he arrived at definite conclusions, and 
when he reached these he was firm and decided in their maintenance. He was 
not of the skej^tical class on any subject. ''^ * * W^ith Channing's conver- 
sion came the first divergence of practice among the homoeopaths in this coun- 
try He was a thorough Hahncmannian in all his views and practice, which 
neither of his predecessors were. Gram, Wilson and myself held from first 
to last that these expedients of the old practice which had attained such a 
solid basis of empirical certainty as to good results in given and well defined 
cases of disease, ought not to be laid aside. When Gram arrived, the founder 
of the school had not adopted the later j)ractice of attenuating the remedies, 
and our method was, in 1833. to administer doses equivalent to the first and 
second centesimal dilutions. Channing went up promptly with Hahnemann in 
his doses, fully believing in the potentizing process and faith of the master, 
and even after the death of Hahnemann, going out of the very roof of all 
scientific observation with the enthusiastic Jenichen of Hanover." In 1838- 
Clianning delivered an essay on the "Reformation of Medical Science De- 
manded by Inductive Philosophy " before the New York Physician's Society.. 
The society published it, and a second edition was published l)y the homoe- 
opaths in 1 85 1. 

William Channing was born in Massachusetts about 1800. His father 
was a Congregational minister. He was educated at Phillip's Academv, at 
Exeter, New Hampshire, and graduated in medicine at Rutger's College, 
New P>runswick. New Jersey, in April, 1830. He was a cousin of William 
Ellery Channing of Boston. Dr. H. M. Smith writes of him: "He differed 
from some of the other physicians, who adhered to tlie (.'nipiric use of the 
remedies of the old school and believed with Hahnemann that such practice- 

HisTMin' ( )!•" IK )M(]:()iv\'rin' 75. 

was unjustifiable. He accepted hoiiKecjpathy as a priiicijjle, was satisfied with 
it, saw in it an all-sufficient jj^uide for the administration of remedies for dis- 
eases, and believed that a failure to cure a curable case did not disprove the 
universal applicability of the law, but want of knowledge on the part of the 
prescriber. The accession of Channing marks an era in the history of homce- 
opathy. The profession had paid little attention to this subject, considering 
it one of Gram's vageries, but the success of the treatment in cholera brought 
the practice into notice, awakened an opposition which was increased as the 
system gained in public favor, and the loss of patients affected the pockets 
of the old school physicians. Highly esteemed by all who came in contact 
with him. and having many friends, Dr. Channing was so reticent that few 
knew about his family or social affairs. He took a prominent part in the 
meetings of physicians. He failed in health in 1844. There was a gradual 
breaking down of his mental powers, and after many years of disease he died' 
at Harrisburg. Pennsylvania. February ii, 1855. 




The Cholera Epidemic of 1832 — Hahnemann an Honorary Member of the New York 
Medical Society — The Pioneer Homoeopathic Medical Society — Reminiscences of 
Early Homoeopathic Practitioners — Curtis — Kirby — Vanderburgh — Paine — Dutcher — 
Wright — Ball — Freeman — Cook — Bowers — Harris — Palmer — McVickar — Joslin — 
Belcher — Stewart — Hallock — Quin — Wells — ^A Chapter of Reminiscences. 

- At the outbreak of the epidemic of cholera in 1832 the physicians whose 
names are mentioned in the preceding- chapter constituted the entire homoe- 
opathic force in New York. Though they were few in number and with no hos- 
pitals under their administration, the comparative results of the allopathic and 
the homceopathic methods of treatment of that disease produced a powerful 
reaction in favor of homoeopathic school among the people, and a new impetus 
was given to the examination of its claims by physicians. This inquiry was 
facilitated by the fact that Hahnemann's Organon and the Materia Medica 
Pura were now printed in French. Ernest G. de Brunnow had translated the 
Organon into French and Arnold had published it in Dresden in 1824, issuing 
a second edition in 1832. A. J. L. Jourdan had made a translation of the 
fourth edition into French, which was published in Paris by Bailliere in 1832. 
Charles H. Devriant, a lawyer of Dublin, had translated the fourth edition into 
Englisli, with notes by Dr. Samuel Stratton, and it had been published in 
Dublin and London. In 1828 Bigel had rendered the Materia Medica Pura 
into French, and in 1834 Jourdan also had made a translation of the same. 
So it became possible to investigate homoeopathy without first devoting very 
m-uch time to the study of German. 

Gray writes of this epoch : "About the time of Channing's coming- over 
to homoeopathy, namely, in 1832 and 183^, Dr. Jourdan of Paris translated the 
Materia Medica Pura and Jahr's Manual into the French langtiage, and these 
works very soon made their way into this cotmtry. This event marks an im- 
portant epoch in the extension of homoeopathy, the world over. Prior to it 
no physician could test the practice or study its principles with any approach 
to success, without first making a fair conquest of the German language ; 
and very few men in middle life, especially physicians engaged in the cease- 
less cares and toils of their profession, could surmount this barrier. Hull. 
Curtis and I had done so. at the instigation of Gram, and doubtless Channing 
would have accomplished this arduous task had not the labors of Jourdan 
rendered it far less important. This difficulty fully explains the slowness of 
the expansion of our system during the first eight years of its practical exis- 
tence here in New York. Moreover, it readily suggests the reason whv the 
earlv converts here, did not press the stibject on the attention of their medical 
brethren in their private intercourse. We enjoved a wide circle of profession- 
al acquaintance, and had frequent meetings with them in the medical society. 
and in large private consultations during the two years we were agitatincr 
the rhedical reform, but with very few exceptions the topic nearest our hearts 



was treated of sparingly in all this intercourse. It was treated with still great- 
er reticence among our patients for the same reason ; and it was wholly 
impossible, except among the few educated Germans then in New York, tO' 
speak of the new practice among the people generally, without incurring, 
however incorrectly, the odium of quackery. When occasionally we were 
asked by medical men, who saw in the European journals the angry diatribes- 
which now and then appeared against Hahnemann, whether we too were his 
disciples, we answered truly, 'yes, and that for good reasons,' but we shunned! 
debate with them and avoided all explanations to the laity, as being alike use- 
less and uncongenial to our tastes and sense of duty, under the circumstances." 
Regarding the discretion and reticence in speech that was undoubtedly 
enjoined upon his disciples by Gram, its failure on the part of Channing 
caused a great breach between these two friends. Dr. Barlow thus comments 
upon it: "Possessing firmness in a large degree in conjunction with large 
combativeness and cautiousness, made him persistent in his resentments, arr 
instance of which may be still well remembered by many of his friends — his- 
resentment toward Dr. Qianning. a most es- 
timable and friendly man, for having incau- 
tiously given airing to the fact of his (Gram ) ' ~~^ 1 
being a homoeopathist. Dr. Gram never for- i 
gave his friend for this indiscretion, for that 
was the first step toward Gram's fall in the 
estimation of the faculty in New York, where 
such men as Hosack, Post, McNeven, ]\Iott, 
Rogers. Stevens and a host of other eminent 
names who up to that time had been his ad- 
mirers and had considered him one of the 
most talented, learned and skillful men in this 
country, at once became his bitter, persistent, 
unrelenting and unscrupulous enemies and 
persecutors, and so remained until he died, 
when the mantle of obloquy and wrath de- 
scended with no gossamer lightness and gen- 
tleness upon the heads of his surviving con- 

"But we were not idle; we worked for the future in mutual education' 
and preparation ; and when the translations were effected into all the spoken 
languages of Europe, as they were in 1837 and in 1838, we re-established our 
journal of homoeopathy and our distinct public homceopathic societv. The 
hour of manly open combat arrived at last, and it found us, after so manv 
years of patient waiting, harnessed for the fight." 

It is to be remembered that the phvsicians of New York were all mem- 
bers of the New York County ^ledical Societv, and that it was necessarv be- 
tore a person was allowed to practice that he have a license from that societv • 
and thus at its meetings the members of the Httle homceopathic familv of New 
• o "'^S\'''*TT r/ P^'ofessional brethren. A curious circumstance happened 
in i«32^ Dr. H. M. Smith thus relates it: "At a meeting held September 10, 
1832. Dr. Gray proposed Hahnemann for honorarv membership. Before do- 
ing so he had lent a copy of his Tragmenta de viribus Medicamentorum' to 
the president ot the society who was a Latin scholar. Dr Bernheisel ob- 
jected on the ground that Hahnemann was a quack, and \va. immediatel\r 

Dr. S. R. Kir 


-called to order ])v the chairman, who said that no one should so stigmatize 
a man who had written such a hook as the work of Hahnemann in the Latin 
tongue. This effectually silenced all the opposition. Many of the members 
indeed had probably never heard of homoeopathy. At a subsec[uent meeting, 
November 12, Hahnemann was elected. In filling out the diploma it was 
customary to state why the honor was conferred and the president asked Dr. 
Gray how he should make out Hahnemann's diploma. 'Why,' answered Dr. 
Gray, 'you can say The Founder of Homoeopathy,' and so it was filled out. 
At this date there had been but little opposition. Eleven years after, how- 
ever, at a meeting held July 10, 1843, it was 'Resolved, that the resolution of 
this society of November 12, 1832, conferring honorary membership in this 
society on Samuel F. Hahnemann of Germany be and the same is hereby re- 
scinded.' Hahnemann, however, had not been admitted by resolution but had 
been elected by, ballot. He had died at Paris eight days previous to this vote, 
in the 88th year of his age. He had been sixty-two years a doctor of medi- 
cine, more years than many of the members of the medical society had 
breathed, had written two hundred dissertations on medicine, more medical 
works than probably the majority had read, and as the discoverer of a system 
of therapeutics left a name to be revered." 

Among the early students of Gram was Louis Folk Van Beuren, who was 
with him in 1832. He graduated and for a number of years practiced in New 
York. In 1865 he was practicing in Louisville, Kentucky. 

The second student of Gram was Joseph Thomas Curtis. He was born 
at Danbury, Connecticut, January 29, 181 5. Giving promise of talent at an 
•early age, his parents gave him a thorough English and classical education. 
At the age of eighteen, in 1833, he became a student in Gram's office. He 
passed one of the most brilliant public and recorded examinations ever held 
in New York, receiving his license to practice March 23. 1836. He at once 
began the practice of homoeopathy with Gram. In 1852 he was elected presi- 
dent of the Hahnemann Academy of Medicine, and delivered an inaugural 
essay on the " Relation of Homoeopathy to Giemistry." In 1843 h^ edited, 
with Dr. James Lillie, an " Epitome of Homoeopathic Practice." This was 
compiled from Jahr, Reuckery, Boenninghausen and others. His practice was 
large and successful during the ten years in which he could work, but his 
health became poor. His sight failing, he went to Europe for a cure, but 
with only partial success. He afterwards tried the West Indies, but did not 
remain there. He tried other means without success and resumed his prac- 
tice shortlv before his death, which took place November 13, 1857. Smith 
says of him : '~ He possessed great power of analysis and comparison, and 
being profoundly versed in anatomy, physiology and materia medica, it was 
a great delight after carefully preparing his record to select the remedy from 
the scantv resources at his command. His confreres soon learned where to 
go for assistance in their daily practice. He was regarded as one of the most 
learned of practitioners, esteemed by his colleagues as well as his patients, 
but lacking the arts and blandishments bv which many commend themselves 
to their patients, he obtained neither wealth nor fame." Dr. Valentine Mott 
said of him : " Dr. Curtis is a medical scholar of rare attainments, and a 
gentleman of s])otless character. ' Dr. Willard Parker said : " He possesses 
a superior and highly cultivated intellect which be has most ardently devoted 
to the science of medicine and its collnterals." 

Another of the early friends of (Irani wds Dr. Steiiben ixevnolds Kirhy. 


In the summer of 1830 he was one of the coterie ^yho met at Gram's house 
for instruction in homoeopathy. He was born at Middle Patent, town of 
Bedford, Westchester county, New York, May 21, 1801, and came to New 
York at the age of fifteen. Later on he taught school. He was principal of 
public school No. 7 when it opened on Chrystie street, in 1827, and then 
began the study of medicine. He was a temperance advocate and president 
of the New York society'; was a member of the New York volunteer fire 
department, and an active member of the Methodist Episcopal church. He 
died in New York, March 6, 1876. Dr. Kirby in 1864 delivered an address 
on " The Introduction and Progress of Homoeopathy in the United States " 
before the New York County Homoeopathic Medical Society, in which he 
mentioned that in the summer of 1832 Gram, Wilson, Channing and himself 
were the only ones who treated cholera chiefly with camphor, and that the 
practice was ridiculed and termed the " small dose camphor treatment." He 
did not learn German, and it is stated that he practiced with indifferent success 
until after the publication of the Organon and Materia Medica Pura, and 
that he hesitated to declare himself a homoeopathic physician. He was well 
known as the editor of the " American Journal of Homoeopathy," which was 
issued in nine volumes from 1848 to 1857, and vyas the principal homoeopathic 
journal of those important years. He was one of the original organizers of 
the American Institute of Homoeopathy, and its first treasurer. He was 
president, while still treasurer, in 1846. He also was a member of various 
other New York homoeopathic societies. With Dr. Phineas P. Wells and 
James M. Quin, he opened in October, 1845, ^^^^ ^^^^ homoeopathic dispensary 
in- the United States. He was also a member of the faculty of the New York 
Homoeopathic Medical College and professor of materia medica in the New 
York Aledical College and Hospital for Women. 

An important personage among the associates of Gram w^as Federal Van- 
derburgh. In a letter to Dr. Henry M. Smith, dated February i, 1867, Dr. 
A^anderburgh wrote : '* I w^as attending Mr. M. in Pearl street, one of whose 
toes was set at right angles with his foot by a contraction of its tendon. I 
advised him to have it divided. ' Not without Mott's approbation,' he replied. 
The next day Dr. Paine and I met at his house and he dismissed us both. 
Th'rty days afterwards I met him walking the street with his toe adjusted. 
I asked him how it was done and he said that Dr. Gram had given him some 
sugar pellets of the size of a mustard seed, which straightened his toe. As 
I picked up the gems from all classes and having no prejudice to encounter, 
I straightway introduced myself to Dr. Gram. I found him working a gigan- 
tic intellect with the simplicity of a child, and entirely unconscious of its 

Vanderburgh thus tells of his first trial of the great skill of Gram : " A 
lady of 36 came to consult me ; she had been four years ill with what she called 
black jaundice. I had lost a sister with the same disease. I took a careful 
record of the case and on my return I met Gram at the door and asked him 
to read the record. He said she had been poisoned wath bark (quinine) and 
that chamomilla would cure her ; that in three days after the chamomilla was 
given the old chill of four years ago would re-appear, but so feebly that she 
would recover without another. His prophecy proved true." 

Just when Vanderburgh embraced homoeopathv is not known, but it 
must have been previous to 1834. as he then was corresponding secretary of 
the New York Homoeopathic Society. 


Federal \'anderburgh was born at Beekman, Dutchess county, New 
York, May ii, 1788. He was the seventeenth child in a family of nineteen 
(his father having been twice married) and of Dutch descent. He received 
the meagre common school education of that day, but by self-education and 
strict application he was able to learn enough Latin to afterward pursue his 
medical studies with facility. At the age of seventeen he entered himself as 
a student of medicine with Dr. Wright, a physician of New Milford, Connecti- 
cut. Dr. Hall, an old student of Vanderburgh, thinks he was licensed to 
practice about that time by the medical faculty of Litchfield county. At the 
age of nineteen he went to New York to enjoy the advantages of the hos- 
pitals and medical lectures. There he entered the office of Dr. Stephen Smith,. 
a leading physician. After attending two courses of lectures he graduated, 
before he was twenty-one. His manly appearance, for he was six feet in 
height, and finely proportioned, never suggested to the professors a doubt as 
to his age. During his student life he was subject to attacks of pulmonary 
hemorrhage that threatened his life. By some they were thought to be o£ 
cardiac origin and by others of a tuberculous character. But he never allowed 
this illness to depress his spirit. 

Vanderburgh must have graduated in 1808. but biographical accounts 
dififer as to his residence immediately afterward. Dr. J. F. Merritt, wha 
wrote his obituary for the " American Homceopathic Observer," says that he 
went to Geneva in 1812 or 1813, remained there for twenty years and returned 
to New York about 1830. Smith says that he practiced in New York until 
181 1, when on account of failing health he went to Geneva, New York, where 
he practiced ten years. He then gave up practice there to Dr. Martyn Paine, 
and returned to New York, which dates his return to the city about 1821. 
A report in the transactions of the American Institute of Homoeopathy for 
1871 says that he located in his native town and after a few years removed 
to Hudson, Columbia county, remaining there until 181 5, when he w^ent to 
Geneva, where he practiced until he removed to New York in 1823 or 1824. 
Soon after he began practice he married Hester Orinda Boardman, of New 
Milford, Connecticut. The climate of Geneva agreed so well with him that 
he became robust and until old age was a model of muscular development, 
and maintained an erect stature even when very old. Just when he embraced' 
homceopathy does not seem to be known, but there is no doubt that he prob- 
ably had an early acquaintance with Gram. In a letter written October 18,. 
1867. during his last illness, to Dr. George E. Shipman, he said : " You ask 
me for my photograph and its biographical appendage. ]\Iy photograph I 
send you. My homceopathic appendage began with Dr. Gram. When he 
arrived in New York Gram was a friendless stranger and when he opened 
his little manuscript no faith was found in his statements. The city was 
then under the spell of Post. Hosack and Mott ; the schools were animated' 
with their errors, and there was no time for them to look at atoms when the 
masses were before them. Gram was grave and thoughtful, and gained his- 
ascendency over his little circle by the interest he manifested in his future min- 
istry ; and when unheard of doctrines — such as little doses — came forth, one- 
by one. they were tested on the sick, the results of infinitesimal doses were 
recorded, and W^ilson, Gray and Curtis saw the light with its guiding star 
before them. These three scholars, with one teacher, lit the lamp whose 
cruse of oil will never empty until the educated errors of our ancient brethren' 
are buried beneath their own monuments. At this time, it T remember, the- 


sale of my medical errors had reached $10,000 a year in the higher circles of 
society before my acquaintance with Gram, and my introduction to him 
enabled me to plant the reformation of medical science on that circle to great 
advantage. I then drew to my aid the lamented Curtis, the brightest star in 
homoeopathy, expanding so rapidly under Gram's tuition that he (Gram) 
once said to me, ' I should not care to go to Heaven if I could not meet with 
Curtis there.' I made it his interest to be my preceptor ; and with his guidance 
many time-honored errors were consigned to oblivion, and many hoary preju- 
dices were marched off the stage." 

Dr. Smith says that his name Federal was thus acquired : " \Vhen he 
was born, the adoption of the federal constitution being the grand political- 
event of the time, Chancellor Kent, then a young lawyer, suggested that the 

Federal Vanderburgh, M. D. 

infant Vanderburgh be named Federal Constitution, but his mother objected 
to the 'Constitution,' and that word was omitted." 

Vanderburgh remained in active practice in New York until 1840, when 
he purchased Linwood hills in Rhinebeck, and resided there until his death. 
About one year before his death he contracted severe pleuro-pneumonia, in- 
duced by exposure to inclement weather in connection with professional duties, 
which produced an attack of dyspnoea. He graduallv failed until, without 
suftering. he expired January 23. 1868. Vanderburgh's practice was verv 
largely among the wealthy class, and he was often summoned to attend pa- 
tients at some distance from home. He practiced -medicine because he loved 
it. It is related that at the age of seventy-seven, when traveling with a patient. 


the latter said to the doctor after he had reached his destination, " Well, 
doctor, you will stay with us a few days and rest yourself." " No," said Dr. 
Vanderburgh, " I must return to-morrow."' " So soon," replied the host, 
"well, what can I do to entertain you?" "Oh, show me some sick folks." 
A physician who knew him writes : " Dr. Vanderburgh's mind was peculiar ; 
his conclusions were so often the result of intuition. This ran through a 
large portion of the writings of his later years. He practiced medicine from 
a love of his profession. He became absorbed in his cases. In speaking of 
his patients he rarely called them by name. He usually designated them as 
' the cardiac case with the valvular disease,' or ' the man with diabetes,' etc. 
He was kind to the poor, as thousands could testify. His advice was sought 
at his home, on the highway, in the railroad station, on the railroad car, on 
the steamer, at his dinner, at the hotel in the city, in bed and out of bed. He 
never turned a deaf ear to a case. He was proverbial for punctuality in his 
appointments, and woe betide the man who kept him waiting in the consulta- 
tion room. A homily was the certain penalty." 

The ten years from Gram's arrival in 1825 to the establishment of the 
first homoeopathic magazine in 183s. may be called the first epoch in the his- 
tory of American homoeopathy. There was this little company of believers 
in New York city who had been timid in advancing the claims of the new 
medical system, for they were all men of trained intellect, men who did iiot 
decide hastily, but cjuietly were following the precept — prove all things and 
hold fast to that which is good. Over in Pennsylvania also there were cer- 
tain earnest and cultured men who had become convinced of the truth of 
homoeopathy and were about to found a college for its proper teaching ; so 
that in two distinct centers in the United States in this first epoch of its Amer- 
ican existence, the law of healing of the German doctor had gained a firm 
footing. The New York men now had become so confident that the time 
seemed proper to assume a more public attitude and to establish a homoeopathic 

Previous to the year 1834, the only society which the little band of homoe- 
opathists attended was the New York Medical Society, numbering as its mem- 
bers all the physicians in regular practice in New York. But now the friends 
determined that it was time to form some union exclusively for the believers 
in homoeopathy, therefore the New York Homoeopathic Society was organized 
September 23, 1834. The following preamble was published to the consti- 
tution : 

" Whereas a great share of the reformation which is now taking place 
in the art of education, in criminal jurisprudence, in political science, and in 
the science of medicine, is to be attributed to the increased attention with 
which the studious and humane have investigated the natural history of man, 
and the influence which physical and moral agents exert upon his growth, 
health, morals and happiness ; and whereas there exists in the archives of 
homoeopathia an extensive fund of testimony (as yet unknown to English 
readers) which is believed to be very essential to the right understanding of 
the subjects above named — 

" Therefore, the subscribers, holding the advancement of the public wel- 
fare by the diffusion of knowledge to be a most sacred and noble duty, in- 
cumbent upon all who enjov the rights and means of inquiry, have resolved 
to associate, and, by this instrument, do associate, under the style of the 'New 
York Homoeopathic Society ' for the purpose of protecting, enriching and dis-' 



seminating such of the propositions and testimonies of HomcEopathia as upon 
mature trial they shall find to be sound and available," etc. Officers of the 
society for 1834-5 : President, John F. Gray ; vice-presidents, Edward A. 
. Strong, George Baxter ; corresponding secretary. Federal Vanderburgh ; re- 
cording secretary, Daniel Seymour ; treasurer, F. A. Lohse ; registrar, A. 
Gerald Hull : librarian, F. L. Wilsev ; finance committee, J. H. Patterson, 
Oliver S. Strong, L. M. H. Butler, William Bock. 

This society was composed of physicians and laymen. William Cullen 
Bryant, the poet-editor, was a member. He was an early convert to homoe- 
opathy and all his life was a strong supporter of its principles. 

The year 1835 was memorable as being the period of the establishment 
of the first homceopathic magazine in the United States, " The American 

E. E. Snyder, :Sl. D. 

Journal of Homoeopath ia."' It was a small octavo of forty-eight pages, edited 
by Drs. John F. Gray and Amos G. Hull. Four numbers were issued — Feb- 
ruary, April, June and August. In a letter to Dr. Geddes M. Scott, published 
in the "Homceopathic Examiner" for February, 1841, Dr. Hull says: 
" Your course in Scotland is just such as that pursued by the late Dr. Gram 
and his friend. Dr. Gray, the first American confessors of homoeopathy. They 
continued from 1826 till 1832 to observe a silence on the subject which was 
much blamed by the later converts. I was during these years an earnest 
student and adherent of the science, and approved their course till the year 
1834. when Dr. Gray and myself published the 'American Journal of Homoe- 


opathia.' * '"'" * Our publications ui 1834 were still too early for public 
opinion here, but it occurred in 1833 (as it soon may in your city and king- 
dom) that imperfectly educated and unscrupulous physicians began to drive 
a trade in the new system by a series of mountebank arts. This proceeding 
rendered it necessary to forestall the consequences of this flespicable, but cer- 
tainly not surprising conduct." 

A notable convert of this time was Henry Delavan Paine, a student of 
Dr. Hull, father of A. Gerald Hull. Dr. Paine was born in Delhi, Delaware 
county. New York, June 19, 1816, and graduated at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in 1838. While a student in New York he often heard earnest 
discussions on homoeopathy between Hull, Gray and others, and determined 
after graduation to embrace that system, and for a year devoted himself to 
its study, adopted its principles and located at Newburgh-on-the-Hudson. As 
a junior student during the cholera epidemic of 1834, he visited the hospitals 
and assisted in the care of the patients, and there again had opportunity to 
see the beneficial effects of homoeopathic medication in that fatal disease. 
While practicing in Newburgh he applied for membership in the Orange 
County Medical Society, but his application was refused on the ground " that 
he practiced a system of medicine disapproved by the members thereof." 
Thus, it became necessary for a practitioner to be a member of the county 
society as the course of the Orange county organization was likely to be fol- 
lowed by other societies throughout the state for the purpose of checking 
the progress of the so-called heresy. It was important to ascertain by a 
judicial decision the power of county medical societies to determine the eligi- 
bility of any legally authorized practitioner, and Dr. Paine therefore applied 
to the Supreme court of the state for a mandamus requiring the Orange 
county society to admit him as a member, the validity of his credentials having 
been fully conceded. The case was decided by Judge Cowan in favor of the 
society, the application being denied. This decision was really favorable to 
the cause of homoeopathy, as it led to legislation which repealed many of the 
objectionable laws and authorized the formation of homoeopathic societies, with 
ail the rights and privileges of the allopathic school ; and it was largely^ 
through Dr. Paine's efforts and influence that this was accomplished. In 
1844 Dr. Vanderburgh addressed a letter to Judge Cowan protesting against 
the decision, and entitled it " An Appeal for Homoeopathy." This was pub- 
lished in a pamphlet by Radde in 1844. In 1845 ^^- Paine removed from 
Newburgh to Albany, where he lived and practiced until 1865, when he re- 
turned to New York. He passed the years 1884 to 1886 in Europe and 
returning resumed his practice, but on account of ill health gave it up and 
devoted himself to literary pursuits. He was a member of the first conven- 
tion of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, and held many important 
positions in societies, hospitals and colleges. He was a member of the board 
of Regents of the University of the State of New York, and also of the first 
hoard of state medical examiners. He died at the residence of his son-in-law. 
Francis H. Delano, in New York city, June ir, 1893. at the age of scvcntv- 
seven years. 

Dr. Benjamin C. Dutcher cam.e from Utica to New York citv in 1831. 
In 1834 he studied German in order to more thoroughly study homoeonathv. 
He practiced for four or five years when he became a dentist. lie died in 
Newark. New Jersey, October 20. 1889. 

Dr. Clark Wright embraced homoeopathy in 1839. Son of Asahel Wright^ 



lie was born at Windsor, Berkshire county, Alassacliusetts, in 1799. He 
studied with his brother. Dr. Grin Wrip^ht, at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, at- 
tended lectures and graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
New York in 1823. An epidemic of ophthalmia had raged in the Protestant 
Half Orphan Asylum from 1838 to 1842. and Dr. Wright prescribed for four 
cases. In a month they were well, and he was requested to take charge of all 
the cases of the disease. He invited Drs. Parker and Oilman, professors in 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, to examine forty-three cases, and 
six weeks afterwards Dr. Parker, finding them cured, pronounced " the suc- 
cess of the treatment unprecedented." Dr. Wright was then asked to take 
charge of the children having skin diseases, which he did with such good 

Walter C. Palmer, M. D. 

results that he was invited to take entire medical charge. He died in New 
York in March, 1863, aged sixty-four years. 

Dr. Alonzo S. Ball became interested in homoeopathy in 1838. He was 
born in Keene, New Hampshire, February 11, 1800. When he was two vears 
old his parents removed to Lowville, New York, where he was educated.' He 
entered the office of Dr. Sylvester Miller at Lowville in 1821, and in 1824 
attended lectures at Fairfield Medical College. In 1825 he went to New 
York to attend lectures at the College of Phvsicians and Surgeons, but ill 
Tiealth mterfered and he took only a partial course. He did not receive a 
diploma, but returning to Lowville took a license to practice from the Lewis 
County Medical Society, and located at Salina (afterward a part of Svracuse) 
He remained there ten years, returning to New York in 1835. Dr. Ball thus 


speaks of this time: " I was a poor man entirely dependent on my own ex- 
ertions, with a famdy to provide for, and I came to this city as a sort of 
necessity of business. I had some leisure, as you may well understand, and 
I had some friends. I had a friend who said to me, ' Doctor, may there not 
be some truth in homoeopathy?' I said to him. (he was a clergyman), 
' Doctor, it grieves me exceedingly to think that you lend your name to that 
humbug.' At the end of three years I came to the conviction that there 
might be truth in homoeopathy." In 1838, Dr. Ball was introduced by 
his pastor, Rev. Dr. Patton, to Dr. Vanderburgh, the minister's physician. 
His friend, Dr. Cook, had given him a book on the new medical idea and had 
spoken highly of Dr. Curtis, Gram's student. So Ball went one evening to 
visit Curtis. Of this visit he says : " I heard that there was a young man 
in the city by the name of Curtis, who was with Gram, an enlightened homoe- 
opathist. So I ventured one night, like Nicodemus, to see this young man 
and I was interested in him exceedingly. His very presence magnetized me 
with the impression that I was in the presence of a man of might ; and he 
treated me kindly and I just told him my story that I had a patient that the 
doctors could not cure. It was a lady forty years of age, with chronic 
laryngitis." Dr. Biall had treated this lady for three months without relief. 
Dr. Cook, the consultant, said she could not live two months more and thought 
it was a case that would be a good test of the new system. Dr. Curtis saw 
the case with him and that the result was doubtful, but Avas willing to try 
the new remedies. He prescribed belladonna 2d, twelve pellets in one-third 
tumbler of water, a teaspoonful at night and one in the morning. In speaking 
of it Dr. Ball said : " On my visit the next day she remarked that she would 
take no more of that medicine as it increased her sufferings. I told her to 
stop it and without a word 'of encouragement left the house ; indeed I had 
been told too often by her that she was worse to feel particularly encouraged 
by it. However, I called the next day but one, when she met me at the door 
of her room with the astounding declaration^ ' Why, doctor, I don't know but 
that I am cured. On the morning following your last visit I found mv throat 
better, and from that time it has been improving steadily until it really seems 
as if 1 was almost well.' So astonished was I at the statement, not a little 
provoked with myself, too, that three or four pellets should have done more 
in a few hours for my patient than all my pills, boluses and blisters in six 
months ; so astonished was I, that I sat down beside her and entered into a 
careful examination of her symptoms which resulted in the conviction that 
her statement was true. The improvement continued and she was discharged 
entirely cured by the time Dr. Cook had predicted her death." The result of 
this and other trials soon made Ball an enthusiastic homoeopathist. He was 
one of the original members of the institute. He died at Saratoga. New 
York, December 17. i8()3. 

Dr. Alfred Freeman was induced bv Dr. Ball to investigate homoeopathy. 
He was born in Salem, Washington county. New York, November 6, 1793, 
and was a son of Andrew .and Elizabeth Freeman. He studied medicine with 
his uncle. Dr. Asa Fitch. While a student he was called on to bear arms at 
the battle of Plattsburg. He passed the winters of 1816 and 1817 in New- 
York city attending medical lectures, and having graduated he returned to his 
native place where he practiced seventeen vears. Tic removed to New York 
in 1834 and established himself in a practice which in a few years became 
large. He had opposed homoeopathy, as did his professional brethren, but his 

HISTORY OF IK ).\l(]-:ol'.\'rilV 


friend Ball induced liiin to investii^ate, and he became convinced. Dr. Ball, 
telling the story, said: " 1 started out and made it my business to tell my 
story. I told it to some young men whom I knew and among them Dr. Free- 
man. I had great respect tor him as a man who delighted to listen to truth. 
I had an appointment to go to the eastern part of the town, and I called at 
his house and told him my story. After hearing me he looked at me pitifully 
and said, ' Doctor, I should as soon have expected you to become an author.' 
'Very like,' said 1, 'nevertheless, I think you will do well to look at it/ and 
I left him. And the doctor did look at it and as mui know, became a convert 
and went into it with all his heart." It was ])r(il)a' 1\- about the year 1839- 
that Dr. Fi-eeman began to investigate the new s\stem. Hq died of paralvsis 
March 8, 1861. 

A. AicA'ickar, :\ 

It wai- through b'reeman thai Dr. Henry Gale Dunnell became convinced 
of the truth of homcTeopathy. He was born in Albany, New York, September 
17, 1804. and graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1826, 
in the class with Drs. Gray, Hallock, Joslin and Palmer. While on friendly 
terms with the homceopathic physicians and in favor of the public and re- 
corded examination and voting with them for it in the New York Medical 
Society, of which they were all members, he nevertheless opposed their pe- 
culiar beliefs. Dunnell thus tells his own story : " Mv eves were opened, and 
it was in this manner: I had a case of puerperal convulsions which came on 
several h(jurs after a hard labor with complete exhaustion. It was an un- 
usual case: we bled and blistered the patient and went through all the usual 


forms of treatment that we usually used, and still after forty-eight hours had 
elapsed no beneficial results occurred. Meanwhile 1 was called into the coun- 
try, and just as I was going away the husband came running after me and 
wished me to go and see his wife, as she had a return of the convulsions and 
more violent than ever. I could not go and was obliged to say so. And when 
I returned in two or three days I met a woman I had seen at that house and 
asked her as to the result. .She said to me, " Mrs. S. is well, quite well. 
When you were unable to come they called in another doctor, Dr. Freeman, 
and he gave her something in some water and she never had another convul- 
sion.' 1 immediately slipped away to my friend, Dr. Freeman. I knew him to 
be a man of truth. I had had frequent intercourse with him and could place 
dependence upon his word. I asked Freeman about the matter and he said, ' I 
tell you it is true and I advise you to look into it.' ' Do you see proofs of its 
truth?' said I. 'Yes,' he replied. He loaned me some books and I went to 
reading. I took the matter up very slowly. I had previously held some con- 
versation with Dr. Channing, and I had seen him trying fearlessly to cure 
cholera in 1832 with his minute doses of camphor, and I was more inclined 
to trust my secret with Channing than with my friend. Dr. Gray, for fear he 
would laugh at me. It was some time after that before I became a convert. 
Dr. Freeman came to the city in 1835 and located on Hudson street. I was 
just opposite. As we had leisure and common sympathies, our circumstances 
brought us together. Soon after Dr. Freeman moved to the east side, and 
I was converted to homoeopathy, and then I wanted to convert the whole pro- 
fession." This cure of Dunnell's patient occurred in the early part of 1840. 
He continued to practice in New York city until his death, which occurred 
September 4, 1868. He was an original member of the American Institute of 

Another of the members of this first union was George W. Cook, who 
was born at Hyde Park, Dutchess county, New York, May 21, 1806. He 
commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Wingfield in Crawford and com- 
pleted his term with Dr. Pomeroy White of Hudson. He graduated at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York in 1828, and commenced 
practice in Stockport. In 1836 he removed to Hudson and in 1838 began 
there the practice of homoeopathy. In May, 1844, he went to New York and 
was in partnership with Dr. Channing one year. He then practiced alone 
until 1848, when he became partner with Dr. Jacob Beakley, but in the spring 
of 1849, '^ii account of ill health, he returned to his brother. Dr. A. P. Cook, 
at Hudson, where he died October i, 1850. 

Samuel Bancroft Barlow adopted homoeopathy in 1837. He was born 
in Granville, Massachusetts, April 10. 1798, After educating himself he 
taught school from 1814 to 1817. meanwhile studying history and botanic 
medicine. In 1819 he entered the ofiice of Dr. Vincent Holcombe, and two 
years later became the student of Dr. Joseph P. Jewett of (iranby, Connecti- 
cut, lie graduated from Yale Medical School in 1822. He practiced medi- 
cine iii New England until 1834 or 1835, when he went to Florida. Orange 
county. New York. As early as 1837 he was openly practicing homoeopathy. 
While he was investigating, when there was doubt about a case, he was ac- 
customed to write to Hull or Vanderlnngh or Curtis for advice. He removed 
to New York in 1841. In 1863 li^ became professor of materia medica in 
the New York Homoeopathic Medical College, retaining that position for 
eight years. In 1850 he imported some of the woorara poison from South 



America, and was successful in usin<^ it in ])aralytic cases. In July, 1868, he 
was sunstruck, was sick for four years, and then retired from active practice. 
He died February 27, 1876. 

Among the physicians belonging to the second epoch of homoeopathy who 
were influential in its growth in New York, may be mentioned Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin Bovvers, born in Billerica, Mass., in 1796; graduated at Yale in 
1819; formed a partnership with Dr. B. F. Joslin in New York in 1837; was 
appointed phxsician to the New York Dispensary, but in 1839 was expelled for 
investigating homeopath}-. In 1847 'i^ became physician to the Half Orphan 
Asvlum in New York, retaining the position for many years. A remarkable 
mental feat of this man was that when nearly eighty years old, at the tune 
of the appointment of a state board of medical examiners by the regents of 
the tmiversity, he voluntarily entered upon a thorough review of all the de- 
partments of medical science, with a view of presenting himself as a candidate 
for a state degree. He passed a rigid examination, much to the great aston- 
ishment and admiration of the examiners, and was the first successful can- 
didate for that distinction. His death occurred 
a few weeks afterwards, on February 7, 1875. 

Dr. Zina Harris was born in \'ermont in 
1792. About 1840 he was homoeop- 
athy in New York city. In 1842 he had an 
ofifice in Canal street, near Laight street, and 
Avas then a homoeopathist. He was eccentric 
and reticent, and little is known of his birth 
and education. He died in Brooklyn, x'Xpril 30, 
1859. of apoplexy, and was buried in Green- 
wood cemetery. 

Dr. Richard M. Bollcs was born Septem- 
ber 16, 1797, at Hudson, New York. He 
studied with Dr. White of Hudson and was 
licensed to practice about 1818 by the medical 
society of Columbia county. He received a 
diploma from the medical college at Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts, in 1832. He practiced for a 
time with his preceptor and then went to Delhi. 

New York. _ He returned to New York city in 1824 and in 1832 married a 
Miss Hodgkinson. Dr. 13olles formed an acquaintance with Channing prior to 
1840. A personal observation of Qianning's successful treatment led him to 
make experiments for himself with homoeopathic medicines. In 1841 he declared 
Iiis belief and ever afterward practiced homoeopathv. He studied the Materia 
Medica Pura in the German, and used as a constant handbook Jahr's Manual, 
in French, lor which he prepared a synoptical index. He also wrote a poetic 
description of chest pains and their remedies, and a tabulation of Boenning- 
Iiausen's " Pocket Book." He died in New York, August 9. 1865. 

Dr. Walter C. Palmer was born in New Jersey, Februarv 9. 1804. In 
1826 he graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. In 1827 he mar- 
ried Phoebe Wcrrall and located in New York city. Soon after Ball's con- 
version to homoeopathy, he met Palmer at a religious meeting held at the 
house of the latter. After the meeting they were introduced, when Ball men- 
tioned homoeopath}-, to which Palmer replied that when he adopted such a 
system his friends might consider him a fit subject for a lunatic asvlum. In 

F. Jos 

M. D. 


1840 Palmer had a case of hip disease that baffled the skill of many physicians 
and was ni>t improving. He then asked Ball for a homoeopathic prescription 
for the patient, and was surprised and disappointed that the invalid began to 
improve after the first dose. Thinking the case really resulted from the effect 
of the previous medicine and not from the homoeopathic prescription, he tried 
a homceopathic remedy in a case of diarrhoea, expecting to prove its fallacy, 
but the patient was cured and he was compelled to acknowledge the truth of 
the system of Hahnemann, and practiced it for eighteen years, until 1858, 
wdien he retired. He was an institute member of 1846. He died ]u\\ 20, 

Dr. John Augustus AIcA^ickar was born in Schenectady, New York, June 
16, 1812, graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1833, and 
was the first professor of obstetrics in the medical department of the New 
York University. He became interested in homoeopathy in 1841, through Dr., 
Zina Harris, and acknowledged that it was a principle in medicine, but not 
an exclusive medical system. He died January 29, 1892. 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin Joslin was born at Exeter, Rhode Island, Novem- 
ber 25, 1796. When a boy he gave up his interest in his patrimony to be 
allowed to spend his time in study. For several years he taught and studied, 
and graduated at Union College in 1821 ; studied medicine in Nev*^ York, 
graduating from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1826. He then 
took the professorship of chemistry and natural sciences in a polytechnic 
school at Chittenango, where he practiced and lectured one year. In January," 
1827, he took the chair of mathematics and natural philosophy in Union Col- 
lege, which he held ten years. In 1835 he removed' to New York and gave 
up part of his college duties in order to devote himself to practice. For some 
years he gave lectures on anatomy and physiology with dissections. Dr. 
Bowers, who wrote an extended biography of Joslin, published in the " Trans- 
actions of the New York State Homoeopathic Medical Society " for 1863, 
says: " In 1837 ^^^ resigned his professorship, formed a partnership with the 
writer and removed to New York. His scientific reputation had preceded 
him and led to his appointment in 1838 to the chair of mathematics and nat- 
ural philosophy in the University of the City of New York, which he held 
until 1844. In 1839 I was led to examine and adopt homoeopathy. In 1840 
our partnership was dissolved. Dr. Joslin was prejudiced against homoe- 
opathy, and was not convinced by my experience. I assured him that he 
could soon be convinced of its truth, and that the easiest way of testing it 
was to try it on himself. A physician of his acquaintance, having published an 
attack on homceopathy, wrote to Dr. Joslin for his opinion of the system,, 
intending to publish it. Dr. Joslin was unwilling to publish an opinion which 
was not founded on a knowledge of the subject and determined to make 
practical experiment. ' I took,' he says, ' the third attenuation of a medicine 
and avoiding the study of its alleged symptoms as recorded in books, I made 
a record of all the new symptoms which I experienced. When this record 
was completed I examined a printed list of symptoms and was surprised to 
find a remarkable coincidence betwceen them and those I had experienced." " 
Dr. Joslin tried other ex]:)eriments to convince himself of the scientific cer- 
tainty of the homceopathic provings, and was finally obliged to admit their 
truth. This was in 1842, after sixteen years of allopathic practice. Joslin 
for thirtv vears made dailv meteorological observations. He wrote manv 



important scientific and medical essavs. He died of paralysis December 31^ 

Dr. George Elislia Ikdcher was born in Greenwich, Connecticut, Febru- 
ary 7, 1818. He graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
1839, and practiced with his father several years. Hearing casually of homce- 
opathy, he decided to investigate its merits. He procured a copy of Hahne- 
mann's Organon and the Allentown Jahr, which he read, and then experi- 
mented with homoeopathic remedies. The result was that in 1844 he em- 
braced homoeopathy. He was a leading figure among the homoeopathic phy- 
sicians of New Y'ork for many years. He died of pleuro pneumonia compli- 
cated with chronic asthma, November i. 1890. 

Dr. Edward r>ayard was born in Wilmington, Delaware, March 6, 1806. 

Lewis Hallock. ^I. D. 

He studied law in Canandaigua. New York, and was admitted to the bar. 
He then studied medicine, graduating from the medical department of New 
York University in 1845. ^^ hile studying law in Seneca Falls he practiced 
homoeopathy as a layman, and introduced it in that vicinity. He died October 
28, 1889. For many years he practiced in New York city. 

Dr. Walter Stewart was a graduate of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of New York in 1848. He was a pupil of Gray and also of Car- 
nochan and was a man of superior education, fine talents, and a surgeon of 
rare ability. He practiced in New York city. He died of consumption in 
Natchez. Mississippi, in August, 1863, aged about forty-one years. 

Dr. Lewis Hallock was born in New Y'ork, June 30, 1803. He studied 



at Clinton University, commenced the study of medicine with a relative, Dr. 
Lewis Hallock of Southhold. and a year after returned to New York and 
•entered the office of Dr. John W. Francis, professor of obstetrics in the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, where he graduated in 1826. In this class 
were four others v/ho afterward became homoeopathists : Gray, Joslin, Dun- 
iiell and Palmer. Hallock had practiced allopathy for fifteen years when he 
was induced to try homceopathic remedies in a case, with the result that he 
Ijecame convinced of the truth of homoeopathy and an avowed practitioner of 
it. He joined the institute m 1846. He died March 3, 1897, in New York 
city, where he had practiced seventy-five years, having reached the great 
age of ninety-four. 

Dr. James M. Qum was born m New York in 1806. He graduated with 

P. P. Wells, M. D. 

honors from Columbia College, and afterwards was professor of Latin and 
Greek in that institution. He studied medicine with Hosack, but after prac- 
ticing allopathy for several years embraced the method of Hahnemann. To 
thoroughly master its principles he studied German and French. He became 
well known as a specialist in diseases of the throat and chest. He also was 
an accomplished musician and instrumental in promoting musical progress. 
He died March 26, 1868. 

Dr. John Taylor was born in Hallowell (or .Augusta), Maine, in March', 
1802, and graduated in New York. He was converted to homoeopathy by 
Dr. Caleb Ticknor. He removed from New York to Ann Arbor, Michigan, 
and from there went to Rochester, New York, succeeding Dr. Bieglcr. He 
began to practice homoeo])athy in Ann Arbor, probably in 1844 or 1845. ^^ 
finally located in New York, where he died, April 5. 1850. 


Dr. Pliineas Parkhurst Wells was born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, 
in 1808, and was the son of Dr. Thomas G. Wells. In youth he worked as a 
printer, but decided to study medicine, working at his " case " during the 
daytime, rising at four in the morning and reading late at night at his medical 
studies. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1833. He began practice in Rox- 
bury, Massachusetts, where he remained until 1839. when, impaired in health, 
he went to Cincinnati, Ohio. Afterward he located in Providence, Rhode 
Island, where he was first interested in homoeopathy through Dr. A. H. Okie. 
He studied German in order to understand homoeopathy. About this time he 
became acquainted wath Dr. Wesselhoeft, who had recently removed to Boston 
from Philadelphia, and who gave him a letter of introduction to Hering. He 
visited him, and Hering turned the key of his office door, refusing to see any 
more patients that day, and they talked until the next morning at four o'clock. 
Wells found the knowledge he sought in the conversation of Hering. In 
December, 1843, '""^ located in Brooklyn, where he practiced until his death, 
November 22, 1891. He was one of the stalwarts of Hahnemannian homoe- 




Outspreading of the Homceopathic Doctrine from New York City Into the Several 
Counties of the State — The Pioneers and Their Trials and Triumphs — Reminiscences 
and Si<etches. 

While the doctrine of Hahnemann was becoming adopted by so many of 
the best known physicians in New York city, the progress of the system was 
also rapid in other parts of the state, especially in Northern New York. 

In 1833 Dr. Joseph Birnstill, who had been converted to homoeopathy in 
Germany by Dr. Griesselich, came to America, reaching New York in May. 
He soon went to Dunkirk, Chautauqua county, and attempted to prac- 
tice the new system. At that time the name of homoeopathy was hardly known 
in the county. Dr. Birnstill could converse only in German and hardly a 
person in the county could speak that language, but notwithstanding these 
difficulties he made some cures in chronic cases. In about eight months he 
went to Westfield, in the same county. He gradually acquired a knowledge 
of English and an increase in practice, but meeting with little sympathy from 
other physicians he went to Buffalo. In a few months he returned to West- 
field. When he applied for membership in the Chautauqua County Medical 
Society with authentic evidence of having received the degree of doctor of 
medicine, he was rejected solely on account of his medical practice. He was 
so embarrassed by his ignorance of English and by his foreign birth, and by 
the ridicule of the physicians, that he finally went to Erie, Pennsylvania, in 
1839, thence to Massillon, Ohio, and from there to Worcester, Massachusetts. 
He practiced in Worcester three years and in 1847 went to Boston, and in 
1849 to Newton Corners, where he died in 1867. 

As early as November, -1837, Dr. Augustus Philip Biegler began practice 
in Albany. In 1838 he was admitted to membership in the medical society 
of the city and county of New York. In the spring of 1840 he went to 
Schenectady, being the pioneer there, and in the autumn of the same year 
located at Rochester. Later, in 1840, Dr. Biegler visited Hahnemann in Paris. 
He returned to Rochester, where he remained until his death in 1849. ^^ 
1838 Dr. Biegler was partner with Dr. Rosenstein in Albany. 

Dr. Emanuel Sieze opened ati office in Hudson, Columbia county, pre- 
vious to 1839, and during that year went to Albany. It is said he was instru- 
mental in persuading Dr. Biegler to leave Germany for America, and that they 
journeyed together. Dr. Charles Frederick Hoffendahl, coming to this coun- 
try in 1837, after remaining three years in Philadelphia, located at Albany in 

As earlv as 1835 or 183c) houKeoiiathy was mtrt^duced into Dutchess cntnitv 
by a practitioner who went from Albanv to Clinton to attend a case of chronic 
rheumatism. However, Dr. Federal Vanderburgh was the real pioneer in 
this county, locating at Rhinebeck in 1843. Soon after he settled there he 


induced Dr. A. Hall of Fishkill to adopt the new method. About this period 
one Dr. Formes introduced homoeopathy in Poughkeepsie. 

Dr. Vanderburgh also converted the Rev. James Lillie to homoeopathic 
belief. This was in 1840. Dr. Lillie had studied in the University of Edin- 
burgh, a part of the time in the medical department, and as he had acquired a 
taste for medicine he was easily induced to investigate homceopathy and be- 
came convinced of its truth. Dr. Lillie in his pastoral visits was wont some- 
times to prescribe, though reluctantly, for the temporal welfare of his flock. 
His custom was to take the Materia Medica Pura (Jourdan's French transla- 
tion ) with him to the bedside. In 1842 he went to New York and was regu- 
larly graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons. He afterward 
went to Toronto, Canada. 

The pioneer in Chenango county was Dr. Caspar Bruchhausen, who lo- 
cated in Green in 1842. He was born August 25. 1806, in Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, received a classical education and became a literary man. In the spring 
of 1836 he came to America and was employed by George Wesselhoeft of 
Philadelphia, who imported and dealt in books and homoeopathic medicines, 
and also published a German newspaper. He thus became acquainted with 
Hering, Green, Humphrey. Matlack and other early homoeopathic practi- 
tioners. Among them was Dr. Charles F. Hoffendahl, from Berlin. Prussia, 
who befriended Bruchhausen and under his encouragement and tuition the 
latter commenced the study of medicine. In 1839 he went with him to Al- 
bany, where Dr. Hoffendahl entered practice. He afterward studied in Hud- 
son, New York, with Dr. George W. Cock. Ill healthy caused him to relin- 
quish graduation and for a time he devoted himself to literature. In 1842, 
learning of an opening for a homoeopathic physician in Chenango county, one 
of the then recently settled counties of New York, he located at Green. In 
Mav, 1843, he went to Oxford, remaining there five years, and in 1848 set- 
tled permanently in Norwich. He died December 28, 1891. 

In 1836 Dr. Martin Freligh, of Saugerties, Ulster county, became inter- 
ested in homoeopathy. He visited Vanderburgh in New York and was sent 
to Channing, who gave him his first instructions in homoeopathic medication. 
Dr. Freligh left Ulster county, going to Rhinebeck, Dutchess county. In 
1841 Dr. Garrett D. Crispell investigated the subject. He had been ah old 
school practitioner for eighteen years. 

Homoeopathy was introduced into Auburn, Cayuga county, by Horatio 
Robinson, who was born in Lebanon, Connecticut, in 1804. He graduated at 
the Berkshn-e Medical School and commenced practice at the age of twenty- 
one. For the next twelve years he resided at Stonington, Connecticut, after 
which he went to Yates county, New York, where he remained four years 
and then settled in Auburn. While living in Y^ates county he became ac- 
quainted with Mr. Bayard of Seneca Falls, afterwards Dr. Bayard of New 
York, who was then testing the merits of the homoeopathic system. This 
was Dr. Robinson's first mtroduction to homoeopathy. He, like others, be- 
came convinced only after practical demonstration. When he located in Au- 
burn in May, 1841, he formed a partnership with Dr. Humphrey, who was 
physician to the hospital of Auburn state prison, and who was ignorant of his 
partner's change of medical faith. The day after he arrived Dr. Humphrey 
took him to see a case and the next day went to New York, leaving Rob- 
inson to attend the business. The patient had been sick for seven weeks, and 
had been seen by two allopathic physicians in consultation. Dr. Robinson 



treated t\v.s case secretly and successfully with homoeopathic medicines, and 
the result caused the new system to he favorably received. Soon afterward 
cholera broke out in the prison, and Dr. Robinson at Dr. Humphrey's request 
treated certain cases with' arsenic and veratrum, and with marked success. In 
Jul}-. 1841, Dr. Robinson w^as called to Throopsville to see a patient for Dr. 
JMcCarthy, who was anxious to observe the effect of the homoeopathic reme- 
dies. The success in the case was so complete that he began to investigate, 
only to become convinced and soon to adopt the new system. Dr. McCarthy 
was the second convert to homoeopathy in Cayuga county. He afterward 
W'cnt to Utica. 

The Old school opposition to homoeopathy was malignant and even threat- 
ened prosecution, and in order to test the matter Mr. Peterson of Springport, 
a lawyer, supplied himself with homoeopathic books and medicines and began 
practice, visiting patients and taking fees, without having a diploma. Suit 
was brought, trial followed, and the jury brought in a verdict of three- 
quarters of a cent for the plaintiff, and at the same time donated their fees 
•to the defendant. Dr. Robinson practiced for many years and died July 28, 

1889. It is said that his homoeopathic (mtfit con- 
sisted of a small paper box, in which were eleven 
vials of homoeopathic pellets, each vial about the 
dfameter of a goose cjuill, and one and a half inches 
in length ; also a copy of Epps' " Domestic Homoe- 
()]iathy." It is said that Auburn prison was the 
first public institution in which homoeopathy was 

Dr. W. W. Alley, contemporary with Robin- 
son, lived to be the oldest homoeopathic physician 
in the world, having practiced for sixtv-five years. 
Me was l)orn in 1802 in Sullivan county. New 
"^'ork. and died at Moravia, New York, January 
24. 1802. 

Dr. Harvey Hull Cator introduced homceopathy 
into ( )nondaga county, locating in Syracuse in 
1842. He was born in Roxbury, Delaware county, 
New York. July 12, 1815, and graduated from the Geneva Medical College 
in 1840. In 1 84 1 he commenced the practice of allopathy at Moravia, Cayuga 
county. His attention was first called to homoeopathy by Dr. Robinson of 
Auburn. His own wife was cured by homoeopathic medicines after being 
given up by the allopathic physicians and he was led to adopt the new medical 
system. Syracuse seemed to be a favorable field in which to begin the new 
practice and he located there in 1842. He remained for several years. A 
notable circumstance of his sojourn was that he published there the " Homoeo- 
pathic Pioneer," a scientific and practical journal of homoeopathy. Twelve 
numbers were issued, July, 1845, to June, 1846. It was a small quarto of 
sixteen pages. Dr. L. M. Tracy was associated with Dr. Cator in this venture. 
The latter was compelled on account of his wife's health to leave Syracuse in 
1846, at which time he went west, opening an ofifice in Milwaukee with Dr. 
Tracy. He subsequently returned to New York and in 1874, after living in 
several places, opened an office in Camden, New Jersey, where he died Feb- 
ruary 21, 1882. In 1852 there were but five homoeopathic physicians in Syra- 

Horatio Koliinson, '\\. 1). 


cuse; in 1857, seven; in 1870, eleven; in 1880, seventeen; in 1890, twenty- 
one; in 1899, thirty, and in 1904, thirty-one. 

The first practitioner of homojopathy in Rensselaer county was Dr. F. S. 
Field, a graduate of Knigs College Hospital, London, an accomplished man, 
but being unknown and advocating a new doctrine, he was unable to support 
himself and left after two years. This was in 1839 or 1840. He was ac- 
quainted Vv^ith Drs. Richard S. Bryan and Richard Bloss and furnished 
them wath the translation of Jahr's Manual, then lately published. Bloss 
openlv adopted homoeopathy in 1841, being influenced by witnessing several 
remarkable cures. In 1852 there were in Troy but three homoeopathists. Drs. 
Bryan, Bloss and Simeon A. Cook; in 1857 there were four; in 1870, eleven; 
in 1880, thirteen; in 1890, eleven; in 1899, ten. 

In 1842 Dr. Daniel Starkweather Kimball, who had been for some years 
practicing allopathy at Sackett's Harbor, Jefferson county, declared his belief 
in homoeopathy. He was born in Charlestown, iMontgomery county. New York, 
January 7, 1806, and was in part educated at ' 
Auburn Theological Seminary. In 1824 he com- 
menced the study of medicine under Dr. Joseph F. 
Pitney, of AulDurn. He graduated at Fairfield ^ 

Medical School in 1828, and settled at Sackett's 
Harbor. When Dr. Kimball adopted homoeopathy 
he was the only practitioner of that school within 
an area of eightv miles. He died December 12, 

Dr. George W. Cook introduced homoeopathy 
into Columbia county in 1838. He was born at 
Hyde Park, Dutchess county, ^lay 21, 1806, and 
studied medicine with Dr. Winfield of Crawford, 
Orange countv, and with Dr. Pomeroy White, of 
Hudson. He graduated at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of New York in 1828, H. C. Hubbard, :m. I). 

and settled in Stockport, Columbia county, 

remaining there until 1836, when he located at Hudson. He began practice 
in 1838, two years after he had located in the town. In 1844 he removed to 
New York. His health failed and after short partnerships with Qianning 
and Beakley he returned to Hudson, where he died October i, 1849. 

Dr. Henry C. Hubbard was the pioneer of homoeopathy in Cortland 
county, and practiced many years in the town of Scott. He was born in 
Berlin, Rensselaer county, March 24, 1810, and died in Scott, March 22, 1867. 
In 1842 Dr. W'iilis R. Browne, after practicing allopathy for five years, read 
the Organon, became convinced of its truth, and began the practice of homoeo- 
pathy. In a letter written about that time he says : " For about five years 
previously I had practiced on the principles of the old school under a diploma 
from the professors of one of the colleges, but I can distinctly see that my 
knowledge of the art of healing commenced with my acquaintance with that 
invaluable book." 

To Dr. Nash Hull W^arner is due the honor of having introduced homoe- 
opathy into Erie county. Dr. W^arner was born in Plymouth, Connecticut, 
January 14, 1808, graduated from Yale Medical School in 1831. and com- 
menced practice in A'an Dusenville, Mass., w'here he remained until 1836, 
when he went to Euft'alo. Early in 1844 he became impressed with the triith 


of homoeopathy, and in his diary under date of February 6, of that year, is 
the following note : " This day I have made my first purely homoeopathic 
prescription," The next year he fully adopted the system. At that time there 
were but one or two homoeopathic physicians in Western New York, and Dr. 
Warner was the victim of the most bitter opposition from his former col- 
leagues. During the prevalence of cholera in 1849, ^^e fully demonstrated 
the efficacy of the doctrine of Hahnemann. He practiced in Buffalo for- 
many years, and died June 24, i860. 

Dr. Charles A. Stevens practiced homoeopath}' in Buffalo as early as 
1844. In 1852 there were six homoeopathic physicians in Buffalo; in 1857, 
ten; in 1870, fifteen; in 1880, twenty-six; in 1890, fifty-six; in 1899, forty- 
nine; and in 1904, forty-six. 

In Herkimer county Dr. Nathan Spencer, born in Sangerfield, Oneida 
•county, March 29, 1809, was the pioneer of homoeopathy. He read medicine 
with Dr. Eli G. Bailey of Brookfield, Madison county, remaining with him 
until the spring of 1834. During this time he attended three full courses of 
lectures, one in Castleton, Vt., and two in Fairfield, Herkimer county, where 
he graduated. He began practice at Winfield a short time after becoming a 
member of the county society. Being of liberal mind, he began to investigate 
homoeopathy about 1846, and was summoned before the bar of trial of the 
■county society, expelled, and the records of the action were published in the 
county papers. But Dr. Spencer defended the system splendidly, and con- 
fessed to but one dereliction of duty, that, having by his agreement to the 
by-laws promised to make progress in the healing art, he had failed in not 
long before telling the society of his success with homoeopathic medicines. 
He practiced in Winfield with excellent success, and died there December 7, 

Dr. Erasmus Darwin Jones introduced homoeopathy in Essex county in 
1844. He was born in Upper Jay, Essex county, September 10, 1818; was 
graduated from the Albany Medical College in 1841, and at once began prac- 
tice at Keeseville. In 1844 he adopted homoeopathy in his practice. In 1846 
he went to Albany, where he resided for many years. 

Dr. Ira Adams, an old school physician of Lowville, became dissatisfied 
with allopathy and through the influence of friends adopted the homoeopathic 
system. He had been practicing for thirty years and was the first homoeo- 
pathic practitioner in Lewis county. He died in 1856. 

In 1843 Dr. Chauncey M. Dake introduced homoeopathy into Livingston 
county. He was the son of Dr. Jabez Dake, of Nunda, and was born Decem- 
ber I, i8t6. He attended medical lectures at Geneva, but was obliged to 
discontinue his studies in 1836, and began to practice under a state license. 
He was converted to homoeopathy by his brother-in-law, Dr. H. Hull Cator, 
in 1 84 1. While at Rushville he suffered with inflammatory rheumatism, and 
becoming steadily worse called in Dr. Cator. who relieved and cured him 
with homoeopathic treatment. When he recovered he procured homoeopathic 
books and medicines and soon accepted the truth of the " little pills." In 
1843 ^""c located at Gcneseo. He practiced for a time at Pittsburgh, Pa.. Imt 
finally retired to a farm near Rochester, N. Y., where he died July 15, 1872. 

in the spring of 1840 Dr. Robert Rossman removed from Hudson to 
Brooklyn, where he was the first to raise the standard of homoeopathy. He 
remained alone there for three years ^vhen he formed a partnership with Dr. 
Aaron Cooke Hull, then of New York citv. Four or five months after Dr. 


l^ossman settled in the city, Dr. David Baker commenced practice there, and 
to their earnest efforts the great success of the system of Hahnemann in 
Brooklyn was larg^ely due. Dr. Rossman was born in Claverack, Columbia 
county, October i8, 1807. He graduated from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of New York, and located at Hudson, Columbia county, where he 
became a convert to homoeopathy in 1839. He lived in Brooklyn until his 
death, December 25, 1859. 

The hi3tory of homoeopathy in Kings county is practically included in 
that of Brooklyn. In 1852 there were the following practitioners of homoe- 
opathy in that city : George R. Beebe, Abraham C. Burke, Joel Bryant, Car- 
roll Dunham, Samuel Smith Guv, Charles Julius Hempel, Aaron Cooke Hull, 
O. R. King. Edwin Albert Lodge, Reuben Curtis Moffatt, George V. New- 
comb, J. R. Orton, Robert Rossman, C. D. Rossiter, Phineas Parkhurst Wells, 

In 1857 the homoeopathic physicians there were D. Baker, J. Barker, J. B. 
Bennett, Joel Brvant, Abraham C. Burke, J. Pitman Dinsmore, S. B. "Doty, 
J. Duffin, Carroll Dunham, Joseph Bailev Elliott. Bernhard Fincke, H. S. 
Gilbert, Samuel Smith Guy. S. H. Hanford, William H. Hanford, Aaron 
Cooke Hull. Edwin Albert Lodge, Benjamin Clasby Macy, H. May, Henry 
Minton, Reuben Curtis Moffatt. George V. Newcomb, William L. R. Per- 
rine. Edward T. Richardson, M. A. Richter, Robert Rossman, John Gaul Ross- 
man, Dr. Saltzweidel, Dr. Stamm, John Turner, James H. Ward, J. I. Watson, 
Phineas Parkhurst Wells, Albert Wright, William Wright. J. Young. 

In 1870 there were sixty-seven practitioners in Brooklyn; in 1880. one 
hundred and twenty-nine; in 1892, two hundred and one; in 1904, one hun- 
dred and seventy-six. Dr. Charles Harvey Hadley practiced at Blyther- 
bourne. Dr. Robert Boocock at Flatbush and Dr. John C. Robert at New 

In New York city in 1852 there were the following homoeopathic practition- 
ers : James H. Allen, .Moses Anderson, H. D. Appleton, Alonzo S. Ball. Samuel 
Bancroft Barlow, E. H. Bartlett, Edward Bayard, George Beaklev, Jacob Beak- 
ley. George Elisha Belcher, H. W. Bell, T. J. Blakeney, Richard Montgomery 
Bolies. Benjamin Franklin Bowers, Josiah Bowers, Edward V. Brown, Wil- 
liam Channing, Eliza D. Cook, J. Croffut. Joseph Thomas Curtis, H. G. Doyle, 
Henry Gale Dunnell, Benjamin C. Dutcher. Joseph T. Evans, Alfred Free- 
man. Martin Freligh, John Franklin Gray, Egbert Guernsey, Lewis Hallock, 
Benjamin Franklin Joslin, Edwin Merritt Kellogg, C. Kiersted, Hudson Kins- 
ley. Stephen Reynolds Kirby, J. F. Mahon, Erastus Edgerton Marcy, Dr. 
Morton. James Mairs, M. J. Mayer. H. G. McGonegal, Robert McMurray, 
John Augustus McVickar, James Whiting Metcalf, Walter C. Palmer. Miles 
Weslev Palmer, John C. Peters, James M. Ouin, A. Reisig, S. E. Shepherd. 
Hunting Sherriii, Daniel E. Stearns, W. Stewart. John L, Sullivan. Federal 
Vanderburgh, Lewis T. Warner, J. Westcott, Edwin West, E. G. Wheeler, 
Ferdinand Little Wilsey. Abraham Durve?. Wilson, J. D. Worrall. Clark 
W^right. In 1857 New York city contained ninety-three homoeopatbic prac- 
titioners; in 1870, one hundred and forty-eight; in 1880. two hundred and 
live; in 1890, four hundred and thirty-nine; in 1904. three hundred and 

Homoeopathy was introduced into Queens county by Dr. Spaulding, who 
settled in Flushing in 1825 as an allopathic physician, and who embraced homoe- 
opathv in 1839. He left Flushing in 1844. 

The pioneer in ^lonroe county was Dr. Augustus Philip Biegler, who 


went from Albany to Rochester in 1840. In 1852 there were ten homoeopathic 
physicians m Rochester; in 1857 there were thirteen; in 1870, seventeen; in 
1880, twenty-five; in 1890, fifty-two, and in 1899, sixty-three. In 1904 there 
are recorded seventy-one. 

About 1845 ^1'- Ezekiel Lovejoy, then located at Owego, the county seat 
of Tioga county, introduced the new system to his patients. He had begun 
practice as an allopathic physician at Owego in 1828. While visiting a sister 
his attention was called to homoeopathy. He met Dr. Granger in New York 
and tested its truth, and on his return home he adopted it in practice. He 
was born at Stratford, Conn., July 6, 1803, and died in 1871. 

' In the winter of 1843-44 Dr. Erastus Humphreys opened an office in 
Utica for the practice of homoeopathy. He had been previously in practice 
in Auburn where, in 1840, through the instrumentality of Dr. Horatio Robin- 
son, who had recently become his partner, he was converted to a belief in 
homoeopathy. He was an important acquisition, being one of the prominent 
medical men of the vicinity, physician to the Auburn state prison, and having 
great social influence. In 1842 he went to Syracuse where he practiced for a 
year and a half, and where he was joined by Dr. H. Hull Cator, having been 
the first to open an office in Onondaga county. In the fall of 1843 1"'g went 
to Utica, being the pioneer both in the city of Utica and of Oneida county. 
Dr. Humphreys remained in practice in Utica until 1847, when he went to 
New York, leaving his son, Dr. Frederick Humphreys, who later became the 
proprietor of " Humphreys' Specifics," and Dr. Samuel Stewart, to succeed 
him. In New York he endeavored to found a homoeopathic hospital, but he 
was prostrated by a sunstroke, from which he never recovered. He died on 
March 14, 1848. He was born in Canton in 1784 and received his diploma 
from the State Medical Society of Connecticut at Hartford in 1808. He 
practiced with Dr. Everest for two years, when he went to Marcellus, Onon- 
daga county, where he remained until 1823, when he went to Auburn. 

Dr. Erastus A. Munger of Waterville, Oneida county, in the summer of 
1843 went to New York for the purpose of learning something of the new 
system. While there he became acquainted with Drs. Gray, Freeman, Bayard 
and Kirby, purchased Jahr's New Manual and other homoeopathic books and 
a supply of medicines, and on his return began the practice of homoeopathy. 
At this time there was no other homoeopathic physician in the county or nearer 
than Syracuse. 

Dr. Leverett Bishop acquired an understanding of homoeopathy from the 
Babcock brothers and Dr. Douglass of Hamilton, Madison county, in the 
winter of 1843-44. Dr. Erastus Humphreys furnished him with his first outfit 
of homceopathic medicines, and with Hull's Jahr and Organon. 

The Central New York Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized 
at Utica in June, 1849, '^"*^^ was a means of union of the homoeopathic physi- 
cians in the vicinity, and also the cause of rapid growth of the system. This 
was called the " Syracuse and Utica Convention of Homoeopathic Physicians." 
The first informal meeting was held in Utica, September 13, 1849. The fol- 
lowing persons signed their names to the constitution at a meeting held at 
Utica, January 16, 1850: Drs. A. L. Kellogg. Bridgewater; S. W. Stewart,. 
Utica ; Silas Bailey, Brookfield ; Leverett Bishop. Sauquoit : N. Stebbins, Clin- 
ton ; Erastus A. Munger, Waterville ; Lucian B. Wells, Pompey : Daniel S. 
Kimball, Sackett's Harbor; Daniel Barker, ]\fa<lison; Frederick Humphreys,, 


Utica; Jonas C. Raymond, W'aterville ; Jesse M. Peak, Cooperstown ; Jere- 
miah Green, Hamilton ; H. R. Foote, Utica. 

It is probable that Dr. Louis A. Morgan was the pioneer homoeopath 
in Cattaraugus county, as he was in Chautauqua county. He was born March 
20, 1801, at West Sprmgfield, Mass. He attended the Berkshire Medical 
College and studied with a number of distinguished physicians. When he 
married Cornelia Spellman in 1826, they took a wedding trip of fifteen hun- 
dred miles through New York and Pennsylvania, during which Dr. Morgan, 
the groom, gave lectures on the sciences. He had graduated from Williams 
College in 1828, and for a time was a teacher. In 1845 ^^^^ attention was 
directed to homoeopathy and he became convinced of its truth. Previous to 
that he had been ordained in the ministry and had labored in Western New 
York as missionary and physician to the poor. He was called to the church 
in Conewango, Chautauqua county, and practiced medicine there for six years, 
the only homoeopathist in the region. About 185 1 he removed to Gowanda, 
where he had to combat the opposition of three allopaths and three eclectics. 
He remained there six years, but a disastrous fire impoverished him. He 
then went to Buffalo, where his wife died. After a year spent in Illinois, he 
returned east and opened an office in Hornellsville, "Steuben county, and re- 
mained there five years, after which he resided in Conewango. In Allegheny 
county the homoeopathic pioneers were Drs. John H. Thorp, Washington Irv- 
ing Wellman, Samuel Smith Allen, Llewellyn D. Farnham, Dr. Hayes, Syl- 
vester Pelton and W. S. Todd, Sr. 

In Niagara county the pioneer was Dr. Franklin L. Knapp, who was 
born in Pembroke, Genesee county, September 22, 1817; educated at Geneva 
Medical College and graduated in 1845. At a public debate between Dr. 
Williams, a homoeopathic physician of Geneva, and Professor Thomas Spen- 
cer of the college. Dr. Knapp was so impressed with the arguments in favor 
of homoeopathy that he decided to investigate its claims. He sought out Dr. 
Williams at his office and soon became convinced that there was indeed a 
specific law governing the remedial action of medicinal drugs. He at once 
commenced the study of homoeopathy in the office of Dr. Matthews, of Roch- 
ester. He afterward was associated with Dr. C. M. Dake at Geneseo. Called 
by his father's health to Gasport, he established himself there as a homoeo- 
pathic physician in 1846. Dr. David Fowler Bishop commenced the practice 
of homoeopathy in Lockport iii 1850. 

The pioneers in Broome county were Drs. Titus Lonson Brown, Dr. 
Brownson, Dr. Covert, E. Ely, T. Mather, Ira W. Peabody, Stephen D. Hand, 

A. A. Witherill. Dr. C. F. Harris introduced homoeopathy into Binghamton 
in the spring of 1847. I" 1853 there were four homoeopathists practicing in 
that city. 

The introduction of homoeopathy into Schuyler county w'as due to Dr. 
Richard Huson, then living in the village of Dundee in the adjoining county 
of Yates. His professional duties frequently brought him into the northern 
and middle towns of the countv, and where in connection with his practice he 
gave frequent lectures on homceopathv at school houses. Thus the knowledge 
spread rapidly through the neighboring towns. Dr. Edwdn W. Lewis com- 
menced to practice at Watkins in 1846, at which time there were but two fam- 
ilies there who acknowledged their belief in homoeopathy. 

In Delaware county the first practitioner of homoeopathy was Dr. Liverus 

B. Hawley, who was born in Delaware county, August 22, 1828. He served 


in the Mexican war and was discharged and pensioned on account of a wound, 
received in battle. In 1849 ^^^ commenced the study of medicine and grad- 
uated from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1853. He 
at once located at Delhi, Delaware county, but in 1855 removed to Phoenix- 
ville, Pa., where he resided until his death, March 20, i8$o. 

Dr. Jesse Temple Hotchkiss introduced homoeopathy into Orange county,, 
beginning its practice in 1851 at Blooming Grove. He was a graduate of the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1842. He practiced in Monroe, Blooming 
Grove and Cornwall. He died at Cornwall, June 11, 1886. 

In 1850 Dr, Reuben Curtis Mofi'at introduced homoeopathy into Suffolk 
county, being called to see a case of consumption. In 185 1 Dir. Burke of 
Brooklyn passed a few weeks at Greenport and advised a Mrs. Davis to study 
homoeopathy in order to doctor her own family. In 1857 ^^- Samuel Ban- 
croft Barlow visited Mrs. Davis and found her so successful in practice among 
her neighbors that he advised her to charge a fee for her services. 

Dr. Jabez W. Dake located in Albion, Orleans county, in 1863. Several 
homceopathic physicians had previously tried to practice there, but were com- 
pelled to abandon the field, but Dr. Dake bought a house, moved into it, sent 
word to his allopathic friends that he had paid for his house and had enough 
to keep him for a year and that he had come to stay. He remained five years 
and then gave up the place because of his health. At that time Medina alone 
in the whole county could boast of a homoeopathic physician. 

In Madison county Dr. Robert S. Bishop was the pioneer homoeopath, 
locating in 1863 at Chittcnango. Previously he had been a partner with Dr. 
David Fowler Bishop at Lockport. In 1865 he removed to Medina, Orleans 
county. Dr. Bishop was born in Paris, N. Y., November 22, 1831. 

The records of homoeopathy in Washington county are meagre. It was 
first introduced by a clergyman. Dr. J. Savage, an allopathic physician, 
adopted it, and soon afterwards was followed by Dr. A. M. Savage. In 1852 
there were about ten homoeopathic practitioners in the county. 

Great credit is due to one of the pioneers of homoeopathy in Albany county 
for his painstaking labor of historical compilation in the first ten volumes of 
the transactions of the State Homoeopathic Medical Society. These volumes 
contain a very complete history of the advance of homoeopathy in New York 
state, and that this is so is due to Dr. Horace Marshfield Paine. 

Dispensaries in Nezv York State:. Albany, 1868; Brooklyn, E. D. Asso- 
ciation, 1872; Brooklyn, 1853; Buffalo Free, 1867; Buffalo Eye and Ear In- 
firmary, 1878; Central of Brooklyn, 1882; Gates Ave., Brooklyn, 1867; Pough- 
keepsie Medical and Surgical, 1865; Prospect Heights, Brooklyn, 1889; Roch- 
ester Free, 1874; Syracuse Free, 1890; Women's Hospital, Brooklyn, 188 1 ; 
Avenue A, New York, 1883; Bayard Homoeopathic, 1886; Bond St., 1855; 
Central Flomoeopathic. New York, 1854; Five Points House of Industry, 1861 ; 
Hamilton, 1891 ; Harlem Homoeopathic. 1872; Heilenstadt, 1859; Holy Trin- 
ity, 1889; New York Homoeopathic, 1890; Metropolitan, 1868; Morrisiana, 
1869; New York Homoeopathic, 1845 (the first established in the United 
States); New York Homoeopathic, i860; College for Women, 1863; New 
York Homoeopathic College. 1859; Northeastern, 1869; Northern, 1857; 
Tompkins Square, 1874; Western, 1868; West Side, 1889; Yorkville, 1871. 

Plmrmacies: The first to deal in homoeopathic books and medicines was 
J. < '. Wesselhocft, a printer and pul)lisher of Philadelphia. He was located 
in 1835 at 142 Fulton street, New York city. William Raddc was his clerk 

]\\>\'( )K\ ()]■ II()M^^^)l^\Tll^■ 


and had chai\£;x- ct the Xow York store. Mr. Radde afterward hought the 
business in both cities. In 1840 Radde had a store at 322 liroadway, and was 
the agent for tlie Central Homoeopathic Pharmacy of Leipsic. In 1869 he 
sold out to the nrm of Dr. F. E. Bocricke and Mr. A. J. Tafel (Boericke & 
Tafel). This firm is still doing business and has several stores in New York 
city. In 1843 Jf^lii-' I • ■^- Smith, who was a patient of Dr. A. Gerald Hull,, 
began to prepare tinctures and triturations for him and Dr. j. F. Gray. As- 
soon as other ph\sicians learned this they called on him for supplies, and 
soon his time was entirely occupied in the manufacture of homcKopathic med- 
icines. In May. 1846, this pharmacy was located at 488 Broadway. In 1868 
Dr. H. M. Smith and his brother were admitted to the firm and in 1869 the 
style became H. M. Smith & Bro. This pharmacy is still continued by the 

Horace M. Fainc. M. D. 

sons of Dr. Henry M. Smith, In December, 1849. one J. Edward Stohlmann 
opened a liomoeopathic pharmacy at 24 North William street. In July, 1852,. 
J. T. P. Smith established a pharmacy at 50 Court street, Brooklyn, which he 
sold to Pierce Brothers ;n 1865, and thev in 1874 to S. G. Clarke. 

In 1852 Charles T. Hurlburt opened a pharmacy at 437 Broome street,. 
New York. In 1874 he remo\'ed to 898 Broadway, and in 1879 to 3 East 
Nineteenth street, and in 1881 located at 61 West 125th street. He has a 
branch at Harlem. Dr. C. B. Currier for a time in 1876 conducted a pharmacy 
at 1005 Sixth avenue. ]Mr. J. B. Bell had one in Vesey street in 1884. In 
1879 E. D. Clark Armstrong located at 276 Sixth avenue. J. O. Noxon opened 
a pharmacy March i. 1869, at 323 Washington street, Brooklyn. Lewis* H. 
Smith located at 59 Court street, in 1859. In 1875 ^^^ Sommers was estab- 


lished at 120 Fourth street, Brooklyn. F. P. Carter also conducted a phar- 
macy for a time in Brooklyn. 

Dr. Samuel Swan prepared his " nosodes " for sale, but kept no pharm- 
acy. They are now sold by Boericke & Tafel. 

The first homoeopathic pharmacy in Buffalo was opened by Dr. Die Lewis 
in 1850. He also edited "The Homoeopathist." He prepared his own atten- 
uations, offering them for sale at ten cents per vial of 250 drops. 

In 1864 Adolph J. Tafel opened a pharmacy at 6 Eagle street, Buffalo. 
In 1867 he sold to C. S. Halsey. H. T. Appleby, Mr. Halsey's manager, 
bouo-ht him out in 1870. It was afterward conducted by Dr. McCrea and 
C F. Buck. In 1891 Halsey Brothers opened a pharmacy at 535 Washington 
street, Buffalo. About 185 1 Dr. David A. Baldwin established the Rochester 
Homeopathic Pharmacy at 17 Arcade street. 

In 1856 James Bryan, operative chemist and druggist at 68 State street, 
Rochester, conducted as an adjunct to his store a homoeopathic pharmacy 
directed by Mr. L. D. Fleming. E. W. Farrington for a time had a pharmacy 
at 68 State street, Rochester. In 1877 Tuckes & Fitch established a pharmacy 
at 26 Warren street, Syracuse. Dr. H. R. Smith had a small pharmacy at his 
residence in Brockport, and in 1865 E. B. Sprague had a pharmacy in Owego. 

List of physicians who practiced homoeopathy in New York city previous 
to and including the year i860. The character * opposite a name indicates 
that the practitioner originally was of another school of medicine, and subse- 
quently a convert to homoeopathy ; the year preceding the name indicates the 
time of beginning practice, except that the character x following a name indi- 
cates that practice was begun before that date : 
184^ Allen, James Hart * 1852 Croffut, J. 

1852 Anderson, Moses 1833, Curtis, Joseph Thomas 

1852 Appleton, H. D. 1857 Doyle, J. R. x 

1856 Alley, James T. * 1852 Doyle, G. H. x 

1839 Ball, Alonzo Spafford * 1840 Dunnell, Henry Gale * 

185^ Baldwin, Jared G. 1834 Dutcher, Benjamm C. 

1857 Banks, H. M. x 1857 Eckhart, C. x 
1857 Banks, W. x 1852 Evans, J. T. x 

1857 Barker, Helen Cooke x 1857 Fowler, Almira L. x 

1837 Barlow, Samuel Bancroft * 1855 Fowler, Edward Payson 

1852 Bartlett, E. H. 1840 Freeman, Alfred * 

1849 Bartlett, Rodman 1854 Freeman, Warren 

1846 Baruch, Meyer 1848 Freligh, Martm 

1844 Bayard, Edward * 1854 Fullgraff, Otto 

1852 Beakley, George 1826 Folger, Robert B. * 
1844 Beakley, Jacob * 1857 Geraud, F. x 

1839 Belcher, George Elisha .1857 Gourlay, G. x 

1849 Berghaus, Julius Martin * 1827 Gray, John Franklm * 

1846 Bell, Henry W. 1825 Gram, Hans Burch * 

1853 Bissell, A. F. x 1833 Granger, John 
1852 Blakeney, J. T. 1848 Guernsey, Egbert * 

1840 Bolles, Richard Montgomery * 1846 Guy, Samuel S. 
1839 Bowers, Benjamin Franklin * 1841 Hallock, Lewis 

1841 Bowers, Josiah * 1840 Harris, Zina H. 

1857 Boskowitz, H. x 1852 Houghton, A. x ' 

1857 Brainard, E. W. x 1833 Hull, Amos Gerald 

1857 Brenna, D. x 1848 Jacobson, R. S. 

1852 Brown. Edward V. 1842 Joslin, Benjamin Franklin * 

1833 Channing, William * 1852 Joslin, Benjamin Franklin, Jr. 

1852 Cook, Eliza D. x 1852 Kellogg, Edwin Merritt 

1857 Crane, J. W. x 1857 Keuffner, F. A. x 



1852 Kiersted, C. x 1850 

1854 King, O. R. 1856 

1847 Kinsley, Hudson * 1857 
1857 Kip, R. B. • 1852 
1830 Kirby, Stephen Reynolds 1857 
1857 Kirby, T. x 1839 
1857 Leach, George H. x 1840 
1844 Leon, Alexis 1829 

1840 Lovejoy, Ezekiel * 1852 
1852 Mahon, J. F. x 1856 
1836 Mairs, James * 1845 

1848 Marcy, Erastus Edgerton * 1844 
1857 Morton x 1844 
1852 Mayer, Martin x 1857 
1857 McDonald, William Ogden x 1838 
1852 McGonegal, H. G. x 1832 
1844 McMurray, Robert * 1857 

1841 McVickar, John Augustus * 1857 
1857 Miller, C. x 1847 

1849 Metcalf. James Whiting 1857 
1857 Muhr, H. X 1857 

1857 Newcomb, O. x 1852 
1840 Palmer, Miles Wesley 1849 
1840 Palmer, Walter C. * 1852 
1847 Petherbridge, J. B. x 1826 
i860 Pardee, Walter 1829 
1840 Peters, John C. 1852 

1858 Peterson, Wilson 1852 
1857 Perkins, Roger Griswold .... 
1867 Powell, Hans * 1854 

1842 Quin, James M. * .1842 
1832 Reisig, Gottlob Adolph * 

Homceopathic physicians who have practiced in Brooklyn and WilHams- 
burgh previous to and including the year i860: 

Reisig, Richard 

Richards, George Washington 

Ring, T. L. x 

Shepard, S. E. x 

Saltonstall, G. D. x 

Schue, John 

Sherrill, Hunting * 

Stearns, Daniel Edward * 

Stewart, Walter x 

Smith, Daniel Drowne x 

Snow, Ralph Albert 

Sullivan, John L. 

Taylor, John * 

Franchand, R. x 

Vanderburgh; Federal * 

Van Beuren, Louis Folk 

Wade, Joseph L. x 

Wallace, J. W. x 

Warner, Lewis Tillman 

Weisse, J. A. x 

Wellman, Washington Irving x 

Westcott, J. X 

West, Edwin 

Wheeler, E. G. x 

Wilsey, Ferdinand Little 

Wilson, Abraham Duryea * 

Worrall, J. G. x 

Wilder, Louis DeValois x 

Ward, A. B. 

Ward, John Augustine 

Wright, Clark * 

1858 Ascoli, Achille * 

1840 Baker, David * 
1853 Barker, John * 
1855 Bateman, H. 

1859 Bates, Charles E. * 

1852 Beebe, George R. 
1847 Bennett, J. B. 

1857 Bond, Frank 
1849 Bryant, Joel 

1847 Burke, A. C. * 

1841 Cox, George * 

1848 Culbert, W. A. M. * 
1859 Cate, Hamilton J. 
1859 Dickinson, John 

1853 Dinsmore. J. P. 
1853 Doty, S. B. 

1853 Duffin, J. P. * 

1849 Dunham, Carroll 

1854 Elliott, J. B. * 
1854 Fincke, Bernhard 
1859 Flanders. A. H. 

1858 Hahne, Victor de 

1848 Hanford, S. Culien * 

1849 Hanford, William H. 
185Q Hawks, Jonathan * 
1843 Hull, Aaron Cooke * 
1858 Hunt, F. G. 





Hempel, Charles J. 
Gilbert, H. S. 
Gilbert, H. O. 
Guernsey, Egbert * 
Guy, Samuel S. * 
Johnson, F. G. * 
Kmg, O. R. 
Keep, Lester * 
Keep, J. Lester 
Lodge, Edwin A. 
Macy, Benjamin C. 
May, H. * 
Minton, Henry 
Moflfat, R. C. 
Morrill, H. E. * 
Newcomb, George V. 
Orton, J. R. 
Palmer, A. J. 
Palmer, G. W. * 
Palmer, W. W. 
Perrine, W. L. R. * 
Richter, I\L A. 
Rockwell, John 
Richardson, Edward T. * 
Rossman, J. Gaul 
Rossman, Rribert * 
Rossiter, C. D. 



1856 Saltzwedel, H. 

i860 Samson, C. M. 

1832 Skiff, Charles H. * 

i860 Skiff. Charles W. 

i860 Smith. J. W., Jr. 

1853 Stamm, Frederick F. 

1850 Stansbury, — 

1856 Stiles, Henry R. 

1859 Talmage, J. F. 

l8^6 Thomas, Edward 

List of ph}sicians who were practicing 
ions to and inclncling i860: 

1853 Turner, John 

185 1 Ward, Isaac Aloreau * 
1850 Ward, James H. 

1856 Watson, James L. 

1842 Wells, Phineas P. * 

1859 Wood, L. 

1850 Wright, Albert * 

1852 Wright, William * 
1849 Young, John 

1853 Zimmerman, — 

homoeopathy in New York state 


1846 Adams, Henry * Coxsackie 

i860 Adams, Ira R. Lowville 

1859 Adams, Henry F. Canastota 

1849 Allen, Charles S. Albany 

1840 Allen, George Auburn 

1858 Allen, Samuel S. * Angelica 

1852 Allen, Joseph H. x Oswego 

1841 Alley, William W. * Moravia 

1853 Austin, Alexander G. Williamson 
1858 Arjnstrong, T. S. * Speedsville 

1848 Ayres, Dr. Havana 

1854 Ayres, Dr. Brownsville 
1857 Bacon, W. H. x Corning 

1845 Bailey, Silas * Watertown 
1857 Bailey. E. S. x Brooktield 

1850 Baldwin, David A. Rochester 
1852 Baker, J. F. x Albion 

1857 Baker, C. x Clarksville 

1852 Ball, A. R. X Clarkson 

1852 Ball, Jay x Virgil 

1857 Ball, W. L. X Homer 

1852 Barr, D. T. Ludlowville 

1852 Barker, Daniel x Madison 

1857 Barnes, Dr. x Spencertown 

1852 Batty, B. A. x Lockport 
1857 Beers. A. H. x Buffalo 

1853 Blanchard, H. C. Buffalo 

1854 Blanchard, J. A. Rochester 
1857 Beaklcy, Henry Peekskill 

1846 Bell, 11. W. Peekskill 

1849 Bartlett, Rodman Rhincbeck 

1857 Bartlett. A. C. x Cato 

1858 Bass, Edgar C. Cazenovia 

1857 Bartlett, L. x Skaneateles 
i860 Belding, Dexter R. Malone 

1847 Benedict, H. S. * Havana 

1842 Bennet, Dr. * Batavia 

1858 Bennett, A. M. Rochester 
1840 Bennett, Hilem * Rochester 
1845 Baxter, William * Fishkill 
1840 Berry, James * Gloversville 
1853 Bigelow, Franklin Syracuse 

1851 Bigelow, Alfred (}. Alavsville 
1849 Bigelow, J. G. Syracuse 
1853 Bigelow, Thomas * Hartford 
1837 Bieglcr, A. P. Albany 

1857 Biegler, Jos. A. Rochester 

1857 Billings. Geo. H. Cohoes 

1S33 Birnstill, Joseph Dunkirk. 

850 Bishop, David F. Lockport 

844 Bishop, Leverett * Sauquuit 

848 Blodgett, T. S. Cooperstown 

853 Bloss, Jabez P. * Troy 

847 Boyce, Capt. Wm. * Auburn 

852 Bradner, Ira S. * Scotchtown 

853 Brewster, A. J. Cato 

830 Brooks, Paschal P. * Alban\ 

848 Brown, D. T. Fredonia 

853 Brown, Titus L. Binghamton 
842 Brown, Wm. R. * Homer 
852 Brownson, Dr. x Windsor 
842 Bruchhausen, Caspar Norwich 

841 Bryan, Richard S. * Troy 
852 Bryant, Chas. G. Albany 

848 Bucknell, Hanley N. * (Tape Vincent 

857 Bucknell, Jr. * x Cape Vincent 

848 Bull, Alexander T. Buffalo 

857 Bull, M. L. X Granville 

854 Burdick, Edwin Whitesville 

857 Burling. Dr. Waverly 

858 Butler, Charles F. 

857 Burritt, — x Canandaigua 

857 Buckley, M. x Easton 

857 Burroughs, G. W. x Poughkccpsie 

857 Burke, W. x Rochester 

857 Bowers. J.. Jr. x Smithtown 

852 Blakeslv, J. M. x Livonia 

860 Bullard, D. H. * Glens Falls 

852 Brush. Henry N. x Moira 

853 Campbell, M. W. Stillwater 

856 Carpenter, Chas. li. * Troy 
844 Cass, O. D. * Clinton 

846 Case, Ephriam * Clinton 

857 Gate, H. J. x Poughkccpsie 

842 Cator, Harvey H. * Kingston 
857 Cator, John J. x Roxbury 
852 Champlin, H. C. x Owego 
841 Chase, Durfec * Palmyra 

859 Chase, Edwin R. * Kecscville 
857 Clark, I. X Eaton 

S45 Clary, Lyman * 

841 Coburn, Edward * Chatham Corners 

846 Childs, Amherst x Waterloo 

852 Childs, G. C. X Clyde 

^^7 Chappell, A. W. x Pouipev 

857 Churchill. Dr. x Peekskill 

857 Clemenls, D. F. x V'ictoryville 

857 Clements. Z. x X'iclory Mills 



1852 Clements, J. x Vicloryville 

1857 Comstock, A. L. * Buffalo 

1852 Coman, J. W. x Buffalo 

1852 Cone, Dr. x Coventry 

1857 Coon, Dr. x Wecdsport 

1857 Cander, W. H. x Speedsville 

1850 Camp. Mr. H. W. (non-grad.) Owego 

1852 Corbin, E. L. x Waverly 

1850 Coweli, C. (layman) Spencer 

1842 Coburn, E. L. * Ghent 
184T Coburn, Stephen * Ghent 
1846 Cole, Edgar B. Easton 

1856 Cole, Sam'l P. * Henderson 

1857 Collins, — X Spafford 

1840 Cook, A. P. * Kinderhook 
183S Cook, Geo. W. * Hudson 
1850 Cook, E. G. Fredonia 

1849 Cook, Simeon A. * Troy 
i860 Cooke, S. G. Stanfordville 

1852 Cornell, B. F. x Moreau Station 

1855 Couch, Asa S. Fredonia 

1857 Covert, I. X Deposit 

1859 Cox, George A. Albany 

1852 Cox, James W. Albany 

1857 Crane, Dr. x Holland Patent 

1857 Crittenden, J. x Morristown 

1841 Crispell, Garret * Kingston 
1845' Crossfield, C. C. Attica 

1852 Culbert, Wm. A. x Newburgh 

1857 Dake, D. L. x Newark 

1845 Dake, David M. * Nunda 

1852 Dake, Chas. A. * Warsaw 

1841 Dake, C. M. * Genesee 

1850 DeForest, S. H. Havana 

1848 Dunham, Rufus C. * Canton Canal 

1845 Dunning, Dr. * Watertown 

1846 Doty, Hilem * Baldwinsville 
1850 Doane, Wm. C. Elmira 

1848 Donovan, T. W. New Brighton 

1850 Dykeman, H. H. x Cohoes 

184s Dodge. Lewis Buffalo 

1857 DeWolf, — X Bath 

1852 De LaMontagnie, J. x Fishkill Ldg. 

1854 Dewey, Geo. A. x Plattsburgh 

1852 Duane, James x Duane 

1857 Ely, F. X Binghamton 

1858 Evarts, Edgar S. Cato 

1850 Everett, D. L. * I\Iodena 

1851 Ely, W. A. * Hempstead 
1857 Fay, — X Fort Ann 

1852 Farnam, L. D. * Almond 
1840 Field, F. S. * Troy 

1852 Foote, S. H. X Walton New Road 

1848 Foote, E. T. * Jamestown 

1857 Foote, H. R. X Utica 

1850 Foote. G. F. * 

18.38 Formes. — * Poughkeepsie 

1843 Freligh, ^Inrtin * Saugerties 
1852 Freeman, G. W. Glencove 
1852 Freeman. Geo. L. Glenhead 
1857 Fuller, H. R. Lansingburgh 

1851 Fulton, Samuel J. Ndrwich 

1857 Fortune, J. x Canandaigua 

1S52 Fox, C. W. X Morris 

1852 Gage, J. L. x Leroy 

T852 Garner, James x Constable 

1857 Garret, R. x Morris 

1H52 Gross, J. E. X Clinton 

1852 Easton, D. J. x Saratoga Springs 

1844 Eddy, H. L. Canoga Village 

1857 Elwood, L. X Schenectady 

1852 Ehrmann, Lewis x Buffalo 

1848 Flagg. Levi W. * Yonkers 

852 Fleming, L. D. x Rochester 

857 Flowers, B. F. x Utica 

857 Fisher, D. L. x Webster 

859 Gardner, M. M. * Holland Patent 

855 Gaylord, Edward P. * Syracuse 
854 Getman, Norman H. Richfield Spgs. 

856 Getman, Norman * Pierpont Manor 

859 Gillett, ^L H. * Springfield 

852 Govan, William x North Haverstraw 

836 Graham, J. H. A. * Berne 

852 Gray. Patrick W. x Buffalo 

844 Grav, Alfred W. Portland 

853 Gregg, R. R. Buffalo 

857 Gerow, Stephen W. New Paltz 

845 Gulick, William * Watkins 

860 Guiwitz, Abram * Salisbury Centre 
844 Guernsey, C. P. * Clinton 

852 Gorton, Wm. R. x Skaneateles 

852 Gove, Geo. V. R. x Fort Covington 

852 Goodspeed, J. L. x Burke 

857 Graves, E. x Nelson 
844 Green, Jeremiah x Utica 
852 Green, H. x Peoria 

850 Hadley, Hiram * Boonville 
838 Hall, A. * Poughkeepsie 

846 Hall, L. B. Baldwinsville 

856 Hall, Geo. A. Westfield 

842 Haight, Charles * Poughkeepsie 

852 Hand, S. D. x Binghamton 
848 Hannum, Dr. * Hainesville 

858 Harter, Dr. * Salisbury 

847 Harris, C. F. * Binghamton 
846 Havens, S. F. x Cortlandville 
846 Haven, Simeon Z. * Utica 

853 Hawley, L. B. Delhi 
853 Hawley, William A. * 

851 Hawley, William H. Syracuse 

857 Hennery, — x Hallsville 
857 Holbrook, P. R. x Keeseville 
857 Herrick, S. x Hoosick 

844 Heath, H. H. x Seneca Falls 

852 Hosford, O. T. x Malone 
852 Hopkins, Dr. x Quincy 
852 Hayes, F. B. x Cuba 

852 Hewitt, Dr. x Farmersville 

852 Heming, L. D. x Canandaigua 

851 Hedenberg, James Troy 

846 Hedges, Wm. S. * Jamestown 

859 Hill, Charles J. Utica 

S^o Hindley, Alonzo S. Buffalo 

^h Hoffendahl. C. F. Albany 



1852 Hoffman, Ernst F. * Poughkeepsie 

1857 Holden, A. W. * Glens Falls 
1854 Hornby, John * Poughkeepsie 

1858 Horton, Heman B. * Eden 

1851 Hotchkiss, J. T. * Bloomingrove 

1852 Houghton, H. A. Keeseville 

1852 Houghton, A. x St. Andrew 

1853 Howe, E. C. * Troy 
1844. Howe, Israel Rushville 
1846 Hoyt, Wm. H. Salina 
1840 Hubbard, Henry C. Scott 
1852 Hull, Amos G. X Newburgh 
1842 Humphreys, E. * Auburn 
1850 Humphreys, F. Auburn 
1852 Hunt, W. W. Candor 

1849 Hurd, Edwin H. * Rochester 

1846 Hurd, George * Fayetteville 

1852 Huntington, D. N. x Malone 
1842 Huson, Richard * Dundee 

1857 Huson, S. K. X Dundee 

1853 Ingham, Geo. W. Elmira 
1842 Jayne, DeWitt C. * Florida 

1858 Jernigan, C. P. * Saugerties 
1852 Jolls, Augustus Albany 

1844 Jones, Erasmus D. * Keeseville 

1856 Jones, Henry C. Mount Vernon 

1852 Jones, Reuben x Keeseville 

1846 Jones, C. D. * Albany 
■857 Johnson, H. x Mayfield 

1858 Kellogg, George Troy 

1847 Kellogg, John L. * Bridgewater 

1857 Kellogg, A. D. X Wolcott 

1846 Kenyon, L. M. * Westfield 
1857 Keyes, Alvah E. Jamestown 
1857 Keys, D. C. x Corning 

1848 Kiersted, J. A. Saugerties 
.... Kirk, Isaac E. Hudson 

1853 Kinne, Theodore Y. 

1844 Knapp, Franklin L. * Gaspnrt 

1854 Knapp, Theodore P. * Union 
1852 Knapp, J. P. X St. Andrews 
1857 Kornbach, — * Poughkeepsie 

1842 Kimball. D. S. * Sackett's Harbor 
1852 Kendrick, — x Granville 

1857 Kingsley. W. J. C. x Rome 

1843 Leman, E. H. * 

1859 Landon, Eliza T. Fredonia 
1852 Lansing, G. C. * Rhinebcck 
1863 Lansing, B. * Hyde Park 

1858 Landt, William Mohawk 

1855 Laurie, P. B. * Rhincbeck 

1847 Lilienthal, Samuel * Haverstraw 
1840 Lillie, James * Rhinebeck 

1858 Little. Edward * Oneida 

1857 Loomis, D. D. x Bridgewater 

1844 Loomis, Isaac G. * Westmoreland 
1847 Lorillard, George 

1840 Lovejoy, Ezekiel * Owego 

1857 . Loucks, J. X Lyme 

1857 Marien. L. J. x Northampton 

1852 Manning, Warren L. x Ft. Covington 

1852 Lathrop, E. x Syracuse 












Lakin, E. L. x Jamestown 
Lawrence, Dr. x Port Jervis 
Lackey, S. M. x Rochester 
Leggatt, C. J. X Flushing 
Levanway, W. A. x Lyons 
Lewis, Geo. W. x Buffalo 
Lewis, George x Rochester 
Lewis, Edwin W. Watkins 
Lewis, Dioclesian x Buffalo 
Loersch, P. x Buffalo 
Macy, Benj. C. Dobbs Ferry 
Mather, Thaddeus x Binghamton 
Matthews, Moses M. * Rochester 
Maura, J. P. x Adams 
Merritt, J. F. * Pleasant Plains 
McCarty, Lewis * Throopsville 
McGonegal, H. G. Marcellus 
Melvin, John Shortsville 
Mitchell, G. H. Saratoga Springs 
Mitchell, John J. Newburgh 
Morgan, Alonzo R. Svracuse 
Morgan, Louis S. Gowanda 
Mosher, Charles * Shagticoke 
Mosher, James P. * Shagticoke 
Mosher, J. C. Pittstown 
Mott, Orville H. Fort Edward 
Moore, Samuel x Lyons 
Mower, John W. West Schuyler 
Mull, Philip W. Ghent 
Mull, G. H. X Ghent 
Munger, Erastus A. * Waterville 
Minier. Wm. E. x Elmira 
McCall, S. H. X Batavia 
Manter, — x Coming 
Marvin, Harvey x Evans 
Mason, — x Galesville 
Morse, A. W. x Hamilton 
Morse, G. S. x Waterville 
Morgan, Edward J. x Ithaca 
McLaren, P. M. Morristown 
Malin, George W. * Naples 
Meacham, Isaac J. * Nunda 
McClellan, C. H. x Poughkeepsie 
Miller, Frederick x Sing Sing 
Nelson, Thomas J. x Kingston 
Noble, O. E. x Penn Van 
Norton, S. S. x Vernon 
Ormes, Cornelius * Panama 
Ostrom, J. X Goshen 
Osborn. O. x Schoharie 
Owen, J. N. x Sherburne 
Paine. Henry D. Albany 
Paine, Horace M. ' Albany 
Paine. John Alsop * Albany 
Parker, C. M. x De Ruyter 
Parker. Charles * Fredonia 
Parson, Ovin C. Newark 
Palmer, Geo. B. East Hamilton 
Peabody, Ira W. x Vestal 
Peterson. P. H. Auburn 
Pearsall, S. J. Saratoga Springs 
Patrick, Abram x Cobbleskill 



1854 Pcttit, Thos. J. Fort Plain 

1858 Peck, Oliver J. * North Chatham 
1848 Peer, Geo. W. Rochester 

1846 Peak, J. M. x * Cooperstown 

1852 Perkins, S. G. x Waterford 

1853 Pcrrine. Geo. W. * Pittsford 
1852 Phillips. J. G. X Sherman 
1841 Phillips, John * Kinderhook 
1857 Phillips. S. X Catskill 

1852 Phelps, Elias P. x Fort Plain 

1852 Phillips, J. S. X Ansterlit/ 

1841 Phillips, John * Columbia 

1857 Piatt, J. H. X Albany 

1845 Poole, A. * Oswego 

1845 Potter, E. A. * Oswego 

1852 Potter, E. T. V. x Moravia 

1857 Potter, F. W. x Oswego 

1857 Potter, Asaph LeRov Dundee 

1856 Pelton, S. * Wellsville 

1859 Peterson, Orton W. Waterloo 

1852 Peterson, P. H. x Union Springs 

1853 Pom.eroy, T. F. Utica 

1847 Pot wine, Benjamin * Corry 

1854 Pratt, L. M. Albany 
185T Purdy, W. S. * Corning 

1857 Prime, A. x White Plains 

1855 Quick, Theodore Milton 
1857 Randall, W. W. X Mexico 
1851 Randall. Wm. H. Alhan}; 

185 1 Ravmond. Jonas G. Utica 
1857 Read, T..W. x * Elmira 

1844 Rice, F. * Cazenovia 

1857 Richardson, S. x Syracuse 

1857 Roberts, M. P. x Gowanda 

1852 Roberts, G. W. x Greene 

1857 Reynolds, O. x Webster 

1845 Richardson, E. T. * Syracuse 

1848 Ring, Tobias S. Yorkville 
184s Roberts, Elisha 

1840 Robinson, Horatio * Auburn 

1858 Robinson, S. A. W. New Brighton 
1847 Roe. L. S. Schenectadv 

1854 Rosa, W. V. * Waterloo 

1838 Rosenstein. I. G. Albany 

1839 Rossman, Robert * Hudson 

1845 Rogers, E. W. Watkins 

1857 Royston, T. P. x Seneca Falls 

1857 Russell, A. W. X Albany 

1857 Search, — x West Granville 

1852 Searle, J. x Granville 

1857 .Scofield, E. X Poughkeepsie 

t86o Scott, Fremont W. Modena 

1849 Scudder, Samuel O. Rome 
1852 Seward. W. x Liverpool 

1859 Searle. Wm. S. Troy 
1857 Seeley. Nathaniel R. 

1846 Seward. Stephen * Liverpool 
1849 Seymour, S. * Rome 

1852 Sibley. S. Louis x Tthaca 

1839 Sieze. Emanuel Albany 

1845 Sloan. Ja'i''cs D. * Sing Sing 

1855 Slncimi. Mrrtimcr 

832 Skiff, Charles H. * Albany 

860 Slfjan, Henry S. Binghamton 

858 Smith, R. G. Rochester 

860 Smith, Henry W. Rushville 

842 Smith, Ezra P. K. Moravia 

857 Smith, G. X Phoenix . 

857 Southwick, David E. Ogdensburg. 

852 Smith, H. E. x Rochester 

839 Spaulding, Dr. * Flushing 

846 Springsteed. D. * Bethlehem 

847 Sprague, Ezra B. * Owego 

846 Spencer, Nathan * Herkimer 
852 Spooner, Stillman x Wampsville 
857 Stebbins, N. x Clinton 

854 Stebbins, J. H. Geneva 

857 Stebbins, Wm. B. * x Little Falls- 

857 Stevens, C. D. x Cortlandville 

841 Stevens, Chas. A. Buffalo 

84s Stewart, Samuel W. * Clinton 

848 Stockton, C. L. * Ripley 
852 Stone, Joshua Randolph 
854 Stow, Timothy D. Mexico 

856 Strong. Walter D. O. K. * Owasco 

850 Stone. Henry E. * Otego 

857 Steenburg, — x Dunning Street 
857 Stanton, J. B. x Ellicottville 
857 Sayles, H. x Elmira 

857 Schell. T. C. X Geneseo 

847 Stoddard, J. L. * Glens Falls 
846 Swift, Charles E. Ithaca 

851 Schenck, Benj. B. * Plainville 

852 Schuch, Chas. E. x Rochester 
852 Sherman, Stephen x Lyons 

858 Sullivan, N. B. * Plainville 
857 Shuld, P. x Warren 

852 Sullings, Hervey x Batavia 

856 Sumner, Charles Rochester 
.. . Shattuck, A. Buffalo 

857 Sunderlin, — x Hammondsport 

848 Switz. Harman Schenectady 
852 Talmadge, Rufus x Enfield 
852 Throop, B. F. x Palmyra 
852 Thorp. John H. Whitesville 

858 Tisdale. T. P. Lowville 

859 Todd, W. S.. Sr. * Angelica 

856 Towner, Enoch, Jr. Turin 
844 Tracy, L. M. * Fairfield 
846 Towner, Daniel A. * Elmira 

857 Tuttle, Dr. x Oneida 

846 Van Buren. Roswell * Frewsburg- 

838 Vanderburgh, F. * Poughkeepsie 

8i3 Van Rensselaer, D. S. Randolph 

852 Valk, W. W. x Flushing 

857 Von Wackerbarth. Dr. x Narrows- 

857 Warren, S. C. x Otego 

857 Washburn. G. x Utica 

852 Van Vleck. — x Valatia 

852 Wager, J. L. x Ithaca 

857 Wager, W. L. x Deposit 

832 Ward, Isaac M. * Albany 

844 Warner. X. H. Buffalo 



1854 Watson, Wm. H. Utica 1857 
1857 Ward, H. R. x Oriskany Falls 1857 
1857 Weed, Hiland A. Jordan 185 1 
1857 Wellman, W. I. x Friendship 1847 
1846 Wells, Lucien B. * Pompey 1852 
1852 Weeks, Benj. x Fulton 1846 

1855 Wheeler, Jared P. Brighton 1850 

1856 White, Joseph R. Butternuts 1852 
1854 White, Joseph N. Amsterdam 1854 
1859 White, Theodore C. Rochester 1843 
1852 Whitney, J. I. x Bainbridge 1858 

1857 Wilber, E. C. x Dundee 1844 
1857 Wallrath, C. H. x Evans Mills 1847 
1857 Wisner, G. S. x Florida 1852 
1852 White, Daniel x Geneva 1S49 
1852 Wilder, Louis DeV. x Geneva 

West, Dr. x Warsaw 
Woodbury, Dr. x Pompey 
Wilbur, Charles A. 
Williams, E. D. 
Wright, J. C. X Newtown 
Witherill, E. C. x Canandaigua 
Witherill, A. A. Union 
Woodward, J. W. x Dobbs Ferry 
Woodruff, Charles S. Troy 
Wolcott, Wm. G. * Westfield 
Wright, Andrew R. BufYalo 
Wright, Noah H. * Buffalo 
Wright, Ira * Watertown 
Wright, Wm. * Fort Edward 
Wright, Albert Williamsburg 

HISTORY ()V ]]Cn\n-X)\\\T\\Y 111 


By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Introductory Remarks— Primacy of Pennsylvania in Homoeopathic Institutions — Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society of Pennsylvania— Other State and. Local Societies— Allen- 
town Academy— Recollections of Early Practitioners— Detwiller, the Prescriber— 
Wesselhoeft and Freytag, the Founders— Becker and Helfrich, the Preacher Phy- 
sicians— Ihm, the Pioneer in Philadelphia— Hering, the Prover, Philosopher, Scien- 
tist and Founder— Brief Allusion to other Early Practitioners— Lists of Pioneer 
Physicians — Plomoeopathic Dispensaries. 

HomcEOpathy gained a foothold in Pennsylvania in much the same man- 
ner as the system "was planted in New York, and within three years after 
Gram left the New England coast and settled permanently in the great 
metropolis of America. As was Gram to homoeopathy in New York, so was 
Detwiller to the new system in Pennsylvania, yet in the latter commonwealth 
greater prominence seems to have been given to the introduction of _ Hahne- 
mann's doctrine than in the former ; and .in Pennsylvania all chroniclers of 
contemporary history have' dated its advent to the day when Detwiller admin- 
istered the first homoeopathic dose. And unlike Gram in New York, Detwil- 
ler in Pennsylvania from the time he began to investigate homoeopathy was 
•encouraged by the sympathy and assistance of zealous co-workers, Wessel- 
hoeft and Freytag, and sooii afterward by ' acquisitions from abroad and the 
converts they "made among the German settlers in the locality in which the 
scene of their early experiences was laid. 

Although the Hahnemannian doctrine was first planted in New York 
and afterward in Pennsylvania, the latter in some respects holds primacy in 
the establishment of institutions and the natural development oi the homoe- 
opathic system. Indeed, there seems to have been less ooposition to contend 
•against and overcome in the Keystone state than in New York, which may 
in part be accounted for in the fact that in Pennsylvania homoeopathy first 
found lodgment in a part of the state remote from its metropolis, and the 
practitioners had gained a strong foothold with the people when Ihm set him- 
self up as a practitioner of the new school in the city of Philadelphia. Again, 
in less than eight years after Detwiller and Wesselhoeft had made their 
first practical demonstrations of homoeopathy the number of converts had so 
increased that a medical society was formed, and just a little later these same 
determined pioneers had the courage to go beyond society organization and 
found a school of homoeopathic medical instruction. The so-called Allentown 
Academy was the result of their enterprise, and while that institution was 
destined to a brief existence it always has figured in history as the first insti- 
tution of its kind in the world ; and after it had passed out of being some of 
its best elements were utilized in founding the Homoeopathic Medical College 
of Pennsylyania, which was organized in Philadelphia in 1848. The two 


schools were quite unlike in many respects, yet the experiences of the first 
endeavor were of s^rcat value in laying; the foundation of the latter institu- 


Tlie Homoeopathic Medical Society of the State of Pennsylvania, while 
not the first organization of its character in the state, is nevertheless of first 
importance and is regarded as the conservator of the peace and dignity of 
the homoeopathic profession and its other societies the extent of whose author- 
ity and jurisdiction is less than that of the mother organization. The State 
Society, as commonly known, was organized at a convention of physicians 
held June 5, 1866, in the Homoeopathic Hospital of Pittsburgh in pursuance 
of a call emanating from the Allegheny County Homoeopathic Medical Soci- 
ety. This informal meeting was called to order by Dr. J. C. Burgher of 
Pittsburgh^ who stated briefly the object of assembling the homoeopathic 
physicians of the state. Dr. J. P. H. Frost was chosen chairman and Dr. 
Bushrod W. James secretary pro tem. An informal organization was then 
perfected and a committee of one from each county was appointed to prepare 
a constitution and by-laws for the government of the society's affairs. These 
preliminaries being settled the convention proceeded to perfect a permanent 
organization by electing officers for the ensuing year, as follows : Dr. J. B. 
Wood of West Chester, president; Drs. J. H. P. Frost of Philadelphia and 
J. C. Burgher of Pittsburgh, vice-presidents ; Bushrod W. James of Phila- 
delphia, recording secretary ; Robert J. McClatchey of Philadelphia, corre- 
sponding secretary ; David Cowley of Pittsburgh, treasurer ; Coates Preston 
of West Chester, Robert Faulkner of Erie, and H. H. Hoffman of Pittsburgh, 

Thus permanently organized and officered the society began its active 
career and history, and during tlie period of its existence in all later years it 
has been instrumental in promotmg and safeguarding the interests of the 
homoeopathic profession in the Keystone state, and through its members has 
exercised an influence for good in directing the affairs of that greater body, 
the American Institute of Homoeopathy. There were thirty original members 
of the society, all of whom were subscribers to the constitution. In the course 
of the next year the membership increased to seventy-one, and in the third 
year to ninety-eight. In 1903 the society numbered three hundred and fifty- 
eight members, which represented about one-half the strength of the profes- 
sion in the state. 

The policy of the society ever has been to hold its annual meetings in 
different cities. Previous to 1873 these meetings were held in May or June, 
and since then in September or October; now they are held in the former 
month. Transactions have been published since the society was first organ- 
ized. The first six volumes were issued in paper covers and later ones in 
substantial cloth binding. In 1889 the society published a repertorv to Her- 
ing's "Condensed Materia Medica." Several important annual addresses by 
presidents of the society also have been published. 

The Hahnemannian Society was the pioneer organization of homoeopathy 
in Pennsylvania and indeed in the entire country, and dates its history to 
April 10, 1833, when Drs. Ihm, Bute. Matlack, Hering and Wesselhoeft, wMth 
a few la\nien, associated themselves for the purpose of disseminating among 
the ])enple some knowledge of the history and doctrines of homreopathv, and' 

History of iioMCEorATiiY 113 

its advant'ii^cs over other inctliods of medical treatment. In pursuance of 
this design Dr. Herin"- ])repared an interesting address, an English version 
of which, furnished by Dr. Matlack, was read before the society April i8, 
1833, and was afterward published under the title of "A Concise View of the 
Rise and Progress of Homoeopathic Medicine." This address and notices of 
it by the press were the means of promoting to a considerable extent the de- 
sign contemplated by its publication. The society having issued this brochure, 
and having addressed a letter to Hahnemann, informing him of its formation 
on the anniversary of his birth, and bearing his name, was succeeded by 
another society, from membership in which laymen were excluded, and which 
was known as the Homoeopathic Medical Society of Philadelphia, organized 
in 1838, with a membership of physicians only. This was the first regularly- 
constituted homoeopathic society in the city of "Brotherly Love." 

Another notable organization of Hahnemann's disciples of which chron- 
iclers of homoeopathic history in Pennsylvania have given little account was 
that known as the Homoeopathic Society of Northampton and Counties Adja- 
cent, which was formed soon after the Hahnemannian Society, and of which 
Detwiller many years ago gave this description : "In 1834, 23d of August, 
the Homoeopathic Society of Northampton and Adjoining Counties was 
formed by Drs. W'esselhoeft, Freytag, Romig, myself and Rev. Christian J. 
Becker, D. D. The object of the association was the advancement of homoe- 
opathy amongst its members — by interchange of experience and reciprocal 
encouragement to persevere in the study and spread of the doctrine and prac- 
tice of similia similibus curantur." The meeting at which the society was 
organized was attended by several notable characters in earlv homoeopathic 
history in Pennsylvania. They were Wesselhoeft, Freytag, Romig, Detwil- 
ler, Becker, the minister, Joseph H. Pulte, afterward founder of a homoe- 
opathic medical college in Cincinnati, Ohio, J. C. Gosewich, assistant to Wes- 
selhoeft, Rev. R. Wohlfrath, Gustav Reichhelm the pioneer homoeopath west 
of the .Allegheny mountains. Rev. John Helfrich and Rev. Mr. Waage. The 
first officers of the society were E. Freytag, president ; William Wesselhoeft, 
vice-president; Rev. C. Becker, recording secretary; Henry Detwiller, corre- 
sponding secretary and librarian. 

For more than half a century Pennsylvania has been the home of manv 
important medical societies and associations, some of them district organiza- 
tions and others of a purely local character. The older of these are the Alle- 
gheny County Medical Society, organized November 25, 1864, and still exist- 
ing; Allegheny County Anatomical Society, organized October 19, 1864, 
incorporated December 4, 1865 ; Allegheny County INIateria Medica Club, 
May 3, 1875 ; American Provers' Union, organized at Philadelphia, August 
15, 1853; Beaver County Homoeopathic Medical Society, January 8, 1883; 
Berks and Schuylkill Counties Homoeopathic Medical Society, November 9, 
1869; Boenninghausen Club of Philadelphia, November, 1867'; Chester Coun- 
ty Homoeopathic Medical Society, September 5, 1858: Chester Organon Club, 
1887; Crawford County Homoeopathic Medical Society, July 28, 1882; Cum- 
berland Valley Homoeopathic Medical Society, May 8,"^ 1866'; Dauphin Countv 
Homoeopathic Medical Societv, 1866; Erie Countv Homoeopathic Medical 
Society. July i, 1891 ; Farrington Materia Medica Club of Allegheny County, 
1888; Germantown Homoeopathic Medical Societv, October, 1879; German- 
town Homoeopathic Medical Club, about 1889: Hahnemannian Association of 
Pennsylvania, organized in Philadelphia, October 11, 1887; Hahnemann 


Club of Philadelphia, January, 1874; Hahnemannian Society, organized at 
Philadelphia, April 10, 1833. the first homoeopathic society in America; Hahne- 
mann Medical Society of Reading, November 23, 1882; Hahnemann Medical 
Institute, a students' society organized 1849-1850; Hering Club of Phila- 
delpdiia, December 20, 1880; Homoeopathic Medical Council of Pennsylvania, 
November 24, '1880; Lehigh Valley Homoeopathic Medical Society, March 24, 
1881 ; Lippe Society of Philadelphia, January 5, 1880; Luzerne County 
Homoeopatliic Medical Society, 1868; Northeastern Philadelphia Society of 
Homoeopathic Physicians, February 9, 1883 ; Northwestern Pennsylvania 
Homceopathic Medical Society, July 5, 1866; Northwestern Pennsylvania 
Homoeopathic Medical Society, January 13, 1874; Northern Pennsylvania 
Homoeopathic Medical Society, June 20, 1882; Northampton and Adjacent 
Counties Homoeopathic Medical Society, organized August 23, 1834; Organon 
and Materia Medica Society, November 6, 1888 : Pennsylvania Homoeopathic 
Pharmaceutical Association, April 9, 1881, incorporated October 3, 1881 ; 
Philadelphia Branch of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, organized at 
Philadelphia June 6, 1846; Philadelphia Homoeopathic Clinical Society, 1877; 
Philadelphia Homoeopathic Medical Society, 1838; Philadelphia Homoeopathic 
Medical Society, July 19, 1852; Philadelphia Countv Homoeopathic Medical 
Society, April 13, 1859; Philadelphia Medical Club, 1882; Women's Homoe- 
opathic Association of Pennsylvania, 1883-1884; Women's Homoeopathic Med- 
icaJ Club of Philadelphia, October 15, 1883; Ladies' Association of the Homoe- 
opathic Hospital of Philadelphia for Sick and Wounded Soldiers, Septem- 
ber 8, 1862; Pittsburgh Microscopical Society, 1881 ; Doctors' Round Table 
Club of Allegheny County, 1891 ; Schuylkill County Homoeopathic Medical 
vSociety, July 28, 1883 ; Scranton Homoeopathic Clinical Club, March, 1892 ; 
Homoeopathic Medical Society of the Twenty-Third Ward, Philadelphia, Octo- 
ber 21, t88i ; Homoeopathic Medical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Au- 
gust 3, 1881 ; West Philadelphia Homoeopathic Medical Association, 1882. 


In reality there never was an institution in existence under the proper 
name of Allentown Academy, yet for convenient designation that name was 
assumed in preference to that adopted by the founders — The North American 
Academy of the Homeopathic Healing Art ; but under whatever name the 
institution was brought into existence it was the first school of homoeopathic 
medical instruction in the world, and as such is worthy a place in Pennsyl- 
vania homoeopathic history, although it is also made the subject of somewhat 
extended mention in the chapter devoted particularly to the old Homoeopathic 
Medical College of Pennsylvania and its successor, the Hahnemann Medical 
College of Philadelphia. It may be said, however, that the events narrated 
in this chapter relate to elements of history which are not specially treated 
in the college article, hence the double mention must not be regarded as a 
duplication of subject matter. 

The so-called Allentown Academy had its inception in the Homoeopathic 
Society of Northampton and Counties Adjacent, to which reference has been 
made, and also, although in a less degree, to that pioneer organization of 
homoeopathy in this state known as the Hahnemannian Association. The estab- 
lishment of this society, the circulation of Flering's, pamphlet, and the other 
efforts of the friends of homoeopathy at an carlv dav excited considerable 
interest not only among the clergy and other laymen but among physicians, 



and many of the latter were disposed to investigate the new doctrine ; but it 
was soon found that there was need of some method by which the principles 
of homoeopathy could be taught. Hering's plan was to devise a course of 
lectures on the subject, and to encourage students of medicine to learn the 
German language in order to understand and appreciate the value of the 

Allentown Academy. 

founder's teachings. At the same time the members of the Northampton soci- 
ety felt the need of a school for the teaching of homoeopathy, and in writing 
on the subject Det wilier said that as early as December 30, 1833, Wesselhoeft, 
Romig and himself waited on Hering in Philadelphia and adopted a plan 
which ultimately resulted in the establishment of the academy. The plans 
were matured on Hering's birthday, January i, 1834, and provided for an 


academy to be located in AUeutown, with Hering as president and principal- 
instructor, for which purpose he was to remove to that place from Philadel- 
phia "as soon as they would guarantee him a salary equal to that of a first 
class Allentown clergyman."' 

The plans of the founders contemplated the procuring of a charter from 
the legislature through the influence of the homceopaths in Northampton and 
Lehigh counties, which being accomplished, Wesselhoeft proposed to invite 
there medical students who attended the allopathic colleges for instruction 
during the summer months, there being no summer courses at that time, and 
that they should have the benefit of lectures devoted to the science and appli- 
cation of pure homoeopathy. Such a thing as opposition from any source 
was not thought of, as there was to be no interference with the regular courses 
in other schools, but such violent opposition and bitterness of feeling as was 
soon aroused was as surprising as it was unwarranted. 

The commendable purpose of the founders was to devote considerable 
time during the winter months to the preparation of text works with which 
to promulgate the doctrines of homoeopathy ; also to pledge all students to 
continue their courses in other schools, except those who came for the express 
purpose of perfecting themselves in- homoeopathy alone. All books previously 
published on the subject of homoeopathy were to be translated into English. 

Another original purpose of the founders was to organize a stock com- 
pany for the purchase of land and the erection of an academy building. For 
this object about one hundred subscribers from Allentown, Bethlehem, Phila- 
delphia and New "^'ork did create a fund sufficient to purchase a tract of land 
comprising one entire square in the very center of Allentown. The greater 
part of this fund was in fact raised in Philadelphia through the efforts of 
William Geisse, who is said to have been the real pioneer of homoeopathy in 
that city. 

According to the original plans, which as a matter of fact were not fully 
carried out, the academy building was to comprise a main structure with two 
wings, each forty by sixty feet in size, three stories high, and of brick con- 
struction, and another two story building for use as a chemical laboratory 
and also for anatomical and dissecting purposes ; for these old patriarchs of 
Jiomoeopathy had in mind the establishment of a college curriculum which 
included both didactic and clinical teaching, and furnished instruction in sur- 
gery as well as medicine. But the elaborate plans of the foimders never were 
consummated; discouragements and obstacles arose before them and confused 
their operations to a considerable extent. They did, however, succeed in open- 
ing the academy and carried forward its work for several years, though with 
not better than indififerent results so far as medical education was concerned 
and at some loss from a financial standpoint. The principal mistake was in 
giving medical instruction in German in an English speaking countrv, and 
rather than educate themselves in German the American students were inclined 
to enter other schools and thus quite naturally adopted some other svstem 
of medicine than homoeopathy. 

To receive an Allentown diploma was a medical distinction. The profes- 
.sors were graduates of German universities and subjected the candidate to 
the same rigorous examination as they had received. Manv who sought to 
pass were rejected. 

Several important books were issued under the auspices of the Allentown 
Academy. "Einige Wort ueber Nothwendigkeit" — the address at the dcdica- 


lion of the academy; the "Homoeopathic Domestic Physician," by Hering, 
1835-38, and Hahnemann's Organon, a reprint of the Stratton edition. This 
was pubhshed at the "Academical Bookstore," 1836, and contains a preface 
"by Hering: the "Correspondenzblatt," 1835-37; "Wirkungen des Schlangen- 
giftes" (Effects of Snake Poisons), by Hering, Allentown, 1837. 

So much of the early history of Allentown Academy as is here nar- 
rated will suffice for the purposes of this chapter, which is devoted more par- 
ticularly to the history of homoeopathy in Pennsylvania than that of its schools 
of medical instruction. Again, the academy history is made the subject of 
sufficient mention in the chapter which relates especially to the Homoeopathic 
Medical College of Pennsylvania and its successor, Hahnemann Medical Col- 
lege and Hospital of Philadelphia, the former of which was in a way the indi- 
rect outgrowth of the older institution at Allentown, although not immediately 
a part of it. It is proper to state, however, that this first school of homoe- 
opathic medical instruction in the world was founded in 1835, and that its 
cornerstone was laid with due ceremony on May 27 of that year, the contents 
of the box being as follows : Hahnemann's Organon and picture ; the con- 
stitution of the academy corporation, printed in German and English ; names 
of members of the academy household and the incorporators ; Hering's ad- 
dress ; Philadelphia newspapers containing an account of homoeopathy in Ohio ; 
a copy of "Freidensbote ;" quantity of homoeopathic medicine, names of state 
and city officers ; programme of the celebration. 

At a meeting of the founders and incorporators held on the same day 
these officers were elected: Constantine Hering, president; John Romig, 
vice-president ; Adolphus Bauer, secretary ; Solomon Keck, treasurer ; Will- 
iam Wesselhoeft, Eberhard Freytag, Henry Detwiller, Rev. Christian Becker, 
John Rice, C. Pretz, Joseph Saeger and George Keck, directors ; William 
Eckert, Rev. Philip H. Goep, Henry Ebner and J. V. R. Hunter, trustees. 

On June 17, 1836, the legislature granted a charter to the North Amer- 
ican Academy of the Homoeopathic Healing Art, and the institution then incor- 
porated by law entered upon its interesting and eventful career. The incor- 
poraiors completed the organization of their body, and adopted a constitution 
which in its declarations showed the beneficent objects of its founders. The 
second article reads as follows : "The Academy shall consider every member 
of a Homoeopathic .Society in the United States as a member of its own body, 
and shall grant to all equal privileges in the use of what has been accom- 
plished by means of its enterprise, according to conditions hereafter mentioned, 
without demanding therefor, generally, a stipulated contribution." 

The constitution also provided for a thorough course of study, medical 
and otherwise, as will, be seen by the following extract from one of the arti- 
cles : "The Literary institution according to the express design of its foun- 
dation shall be as comprehensive in its operations as possible, and will em- 
brace the following branches of study as indispensable to the complete educa- 
tion of the physician, viz. : clinical instruction, examination of the sick, and 
semeiotics ; pharmacodynamics and materia medica ; pharm.aceutics and med- 
ical botany; dietetics; special therapeutics, surgery and obstetrics; medical 
jurisprudence; general therapeutics; symptomatology and human pathology; 
phvsiology and anatomy ; comparative physiology and comparative anatomy ; 
zoology, phytology and mineralogy ; chemistry, physics, geology, astronomy 
and mathematics ; history of medicine and natural sciences : the Greek, Latin 
and German languages as preparatory studies." 































r. . 





This curriculum was broad enougli for the most 
advanced medical schools of the day in which the 
founders wrought, and theirs was hardly more than 
an experimental institution. Indeed the prescribed 
course would do justice to many modern colleges. 
Those old founders built better than they knew, and 
liad the English language been spoken by the fac- 
ulty as freely as twenty years later the academy 
undoubtedly would have endured to the present time. 
However, its downfall has been attributed, in part 
at least, to other causes than the mere fact of hav- 
ing been a school in which German only was spoken. 


The Homoeopathic Hospital for the Insane at 
Allentown. In 1876 an effort was made to secure 
a homceopathic hospital for the insane in this state, 
but the attempt was not well organized hence noth- 
ing came of it; nor of a similar movement in 1888, 
although considerable interest was then awakened 
in legislative circles and also generally in the med- 
ical profession. However, another twelve years 
passed before any well organized effort was inaugu- 
rated in the direction of such an institution, and then 
the initial steps were taken by the Germantown 
Homoeopathic Medical Society of Philadelphia, an 
organization of about two hundred- influential ho- 
mrjeopathic physicians of that city, who fathered 
the movement, raised the necessary preliminary 
funds, and aroused public interest in favor of the 
cnter])rise to such extent that the legislature in 
1 90 1 appropriated $300,000 for the purchase of 
lands and the erection of hospital buildings, but the 
governor cut the appropriation to $50,000, pleading 
in justification of his action economy in public ex- 

The commission appointed under the act to 
select a site, purchase grounds and erect the build- 
ings comprised Dr. William P. Snyder of Chester 
county, William F, Marshall and Dr. Louis H. Wil- 
lard of Allegheny county, W. R. Stroh of Carbon 
county, and Dr. Isaac W. Heysinger of Philadelphia, 
the latter the representative of the homoeopathic 
profession and chairman of the executive commit- 
tee of the Germantown medical society which had 
taken such earnest interest in the enterprise from 
the licginning. 

In 1903 the legislature appropriated $300,000 
f reduced to $2^0.000 bv the executive) for the 
ereclion of hospital buildings at Fast Allentown on 


lands purchased by the state for that purpose, and on June 2^, 1904, the cor- 
nerstone of the main structure was laid with formal ceremonies, the governor 
being present and taking part ifi the exercises. 

The Cholera' Hospital of Philadelphia was the first public charity of the 
homoeopathic school of medicine in this country, and was established by the 
authorities of that city during the cholera epidemic of 1832. It was located 
in a building on Cherry street, and was placed in charge of Dr. George Bute,, 
one of the "homoeopathic pioneers of the city and state. The hospital was 
established for a temporary purpose and when the period of the epidemic had 
passed the institution was closed. 

The Homoeopathic Hospital of Philadelphia was chartered April 20, 1850. 
For its purposes a building at the southeast corner of Chestnut and Twenty- 
fourth streets was rented! a hospital staff was organized, and in 1852 the 
institution was opened for the reception of patients. This was the second 
institution of the kind in America. Indeed, it may be regarded as the first 
regularly organized homoeopathic hospital in this country. It was continued 
only two years. 

The Homoeopathic Hospital of Philadelphia for sick and w^ounded soldiers 
was the outgrowth of a meeting of patriotic women held September 9, 1862, 
at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania for the purpose of 
organizing a soldier's hospital. The board of managers of the college fitted up 
a building for the reception of patients, with the hope that the war department 
would allow such soldiers as preferred homoeopathic treatment to become its 
temporary inmates. This, however, was refused, and only disabled soldiers 
who had been discharged were received there. Several reports were pub- 
lished by the managers, and the institution during its existence was the means 
of much good for the public welfare. 

The Pennsylvania Homoeopathic Hospital for Children was established 
largely through the eft'orts of a number of charitable persons of both sexes 
who appreciated the advantages of homoeopathic treatment of children, and 
who conceived the idea of an institution especially for them. A building in 
West Philadelphia was secured and fitted up for the purpose, and was opened 
April 24, 1877; a board of managers was created, of which Mrs. William H. 
Furness was president and Miss H. W. Hinckley secretary. The hospital 
stafif comprised Dr; W. C. Goodno, attending surgeon ; Dr. C. B. Knerr, at- 
tending physician ; Dr. C. R. Norton, resident physician ; Drs. Hering, Lippe, 
Raue, H. N. Guernsey and Thomas Moore, consultants ; Dr. C. M. Thomas, 
surgeon. In 1880 a gift of $15,000 from the estate of William Weld enabled 
the association to purchase the hospital property, and the institution was char- 
tered June 19 of tliat year. The hospital occupied one-fourth of a city square, 
furnished acQpmmodations for twenty-five patients, and was provided with a 
dispensary department. It was continued tmtil after the death of Mrs. Fur- 
ness, who had been its chief supporter, when (January, 1886) the hospital 
was merged in the Hahnemann Hospital of Philadelphia. In the latter a ward 
was established in honor of Mrs. Horace Howard Furness and Mrs. Will- 
iam H. Furness, Avhich became known as the Mrs. Furness ward. 

The Children's Homoeopathic Hospital of Philadelphia is one of the most 
completely appointed institutions of its kind in the world, and is known from 
one end of the country to the other. Lt was founded as a public charity, the' 
result of an incident which was not uncommon to life in a great city, but in 
its immediate foundation was the result of the action of members of the 


Hahnemann Club and their determination to estabhsh an institution in which 
sick and injured children could receive proper care and attention. To this 
€nd a meeting of friends of the enterprise was held at the house of Dr. Bush- 
rod W. James on January i6, 1877, and at that time a temporary organization 
was effected. On March 5 following the institution was incorporated, a char- 
ter was secured, and on April 14 a permanent organization was effected in 
the election of a board of directors and officers, as follows : Henry C. Carey, 
president ; Enoch Turley, vice-president ; William N. Shoemaker, treasurer ; 
Thomas M. Montgomery, secretary. 

In connection with the immediate management of the hospital a board of 
lady managers was formed, with these officers : Mrs. Joseph Elwell, presi- 
dent; Mrs. V. C. Haven and Mrs. Enoch Turley, vice-presidents; Mrs. Will- 
iam Shoemaker, treasurer ; Miss Georgiana Sturges. secretary. 

The medical staff of the hospital was composed of members of the Hahne- 
mann Club, viz. : Drs. Robert J. McClatchev, A. H. Ashton. C. S. Middleton, 
E. A. Farrington, Pemberton Dudley, B. F.' Betts, M. M. Walker, J. R. Ear- 
hart, W. H. H. Neville, M. S. Williamson, J. Frishmuth and R. C. Smith, 

Children's llomccopathic Hospital, Philadi'lpliia. 

attendin>,; ])h}sicians ; Mrs. Beulah M. Townsend, matron : Dr. Thomas L. 
Bradford, resident physician. 

The hospital was opened June 20, 1877, at the northwest corner of Eighth 
and Poplar streets (now qoi North f'lighth street). A dispensary was estab- 
lished in the same building. The building in this location was occupied by the 
hospital association five years, and in 1883 the hospital was removed to North 
Board street, where a new site had been secured by purchase at an expense of 
$24,000. The new building was formally opened March 14, 1883. The hos- 
pital had thirty-six beds ; the dispensary was in a separate building in the 
rear; the nurse's school was opened in 1886. 

The new quarters were much larger and better suited to the purposes 
of the hospital association than the former home on Eighth street, but within 
the brief space of ten years it became evident to the managers that still more 
commodious buildings must be provided in the near future, and to this end 
the directors began the work of determining upon a new location with lands 
of sufficient extent to meet the requirements of the institution inr many 
years. Soon afterward the committee on. site and buildings secured lands at 

HISTOkV UJ" JK )Ma-:oi'ATIlV 121 

the corner of Franklin and Tlionipson streets, distant (jne sqnare from (jirard 

The plans for the new hospital contemplated a large central building with 
extensions on both sides, and the latter have been built as occasion made nec- 
essary. On September 14, 1898, ground was broken for the main building and 
on November 19 following the cornerstone was laid. The structure was 
completed and formally opened during the week of June 5-12, 1889, and on 
the latter date the inmates of the old hospital on Broad street were transferred 
to the new building. The new south wing was begun August 26, 1903, and 
was finished and opened June 15, 1904. The north wing, now nearly com- 
pleted, will cost $30,000. The buildings previously erected cost $55,000. 
The main building has fifty-four beds ; the isolation building four beds ; the 
south building seventy-two beds, a total of one hundred and twenty-six beds 
in the hospital. The institution is supported chiefly by the state, and in a 
less degree bv endowments and voluntary contributions. In 1894, at the earn- 
est suggestion of Dr. Bushrod W. James, free beds were set apart for sick 
and iniured newsbovs. 


lieniii; i iuiidiii,^, Medical and Mir!;ical I )fi)ai'tiiicnt. 

The Medical, Surgical and Maternity Hospital of the Women's Homce- 
opathic Association of Pennsylvania, in the city of Philadelphia, comprising 
one of the most worthv institutions in a city famous for noble charities, was 
founded in 1882, by seventeen women who previously had been members of 
the auxiliary board of managers of the Homoeopathic Hospital of Pennsyl- 
vania, and who from their experiences in that institution were in position to 
appreciate the necessity of a home in the city for the care of women in confine- 
ment. In carrying their resolution into effect a society was formed, and on 
December 13, 1882, the Women's Homoeopathic Association of Pennsylvania 
was incorporated under the laws of the state. Various means were resorted 
to in order to arouse public interest in the proposed institution, and loyal 
friends soon provided the means to place the association on a safe and lasting 
basis. In June, 1883, through the generosity of Charles D. Reed, lands at the 
northeast corner of Susquehanna avenue and Twentieth street were purchased 
and paid for, Mr. Reed donating the entire purchase price ($30,000) and also 


contributing liberallv to the general building fund. Another generous bene- 
factor was Miss iMary jeanes, who gave to the association the occupancy of 
two houses on Twentieth street, and at her death devised the same for the 
benefit of the institution. On March 20, 1884, the hospital was opened in 
these houses. On July 17 of the same year work was begun on the new 
building and was completed in October. 1887. The state appropriated $20,000 
for the construction fund of the association. The main structure when com- 
pleted was called Hering building, in memory of the late Constantine Hering. 
It was opened October 13, 1887. The maternity pavilion was finished May 
16, 1890, and was called Sargent building, in allusion to Dr. Rufus Sargent. 
The isolation building was begun in the latter part of 1890, was finished in 
the next year, and was named Lippe building, in honor of the late Dr. Adolph 
Lippe. whose admirers had contributed generously to its construction fund. 
The nurse's school was opened soon after the completion of the hospital. 
The entire institution is maintained strictly in accordance with the principles 
of pure homoeopathy and temperance, and its staff includes nearly all the 
Hahnemannian hnmcpopaths in Philadelphia. 

Lippe Isolated Pavilion. 

The Homoeopathic Medical and Surgical Hospital and Dispensary of 
Pittsburgh, one of the best institutions of its kind in the country, was the 
result purely of homoeopaniic initiative born of the old-time prejudice on the 
part of the allopathic school and its disposition to deny homoeopathic access 
to the hospitals of the city. The homoeopathic practitioners of Allegheny 
county having failed to secure accommodations in the then existing hospitals 
of the city for patients who desired their treatment, determined to establish a 
hospital of their own, and for their exclusive use and benefit. For this purpose 
an informal organization was effected and grounds and buildings on Second 
avenue near Smithfield street were secured and held, through the influence 
and good offices of Drs. Burgher, Cote and Hoffman, until a more permanent 
organization could be accomplished. On April 4, 1866, a charter was obtained, 
trustees and officers were chosen and the work of the corporation was begun 
in earnest. Buildings were arranged for the occupancy of the hospital, and 
the institutifin \vas opened for patients on August i, 1866. 



The hospital was continued in its ori.£?;inal building- until April, 1882, 
when the trustees determined to erect new buildings and extend the area of 
the surrounding grounds. A considerable fund was required to carry out 
the plans of the corporation, but friends were found in the time of need. 
William Thaw gave the trustees $50,000 ; the legislature appropriated for the 
hospital in 1882 the sum of $50,000, and a like sum in 1884. The Ladies' 
Association "house warming" netted more than $17,000; Miss Jane Holmes 
gave $15,000, and many smaller contributions were received from various 
other sources. With the splendid fund thus created the trustees erected the 
present hospital structure, comprising two main buildings, one on First ave- 
nue and one on Second avenue, the total cost of which was nearly $234,000. 
From 1882 to 1884 hospital work was suspended on account of the improve- 
ments, but the completed structure was opened for patients on April i, 1884; 
the formal opening was held April 15. On that occasion Dr. Cooper on be- 

}.^n?-i V 

Sargent or IMaternitv Building. 

half ot the building committee handed the kev to Dr. McClelland of the exec- 
utive committee.' who accepted the same with the responsibilities of the trust 
implied by it. From that time the hospital has been recognized as one of the 
most worth}- institutions of the great city in which it is located, and through 
the good works there accomplished has been the means of elevating the stand- 
ard of the homoeopathic profession both in Pennsvlvania and in America. In 
connection with its .general work an excellent nurses' school is maintained. 
The institution is supported by the interest on its invested funds, the pay 
of patients, and contributions from benevolent persons. The "Hospital News" 
is a publication issued monthly by an editorial staff chosen by the officiary of 
the hospital corporation. 

The Homoeopathic .Aledical and Surgical Hospital of Reading is the out- 
growth of the still older Reading Homoeopathic Dispensary Association, which 
was organized in 1887 and located on Franklin street. A ladies auxiliary 
association was formed in November, 1888. After active measures for organ- 
ization and the creation of a necessary fund, a charter w^as obtained in 1890. 
Soon afterward tb.e trustees purchased the Dr. Luther Diller property on 

Homoeopathic Hospital, PittsbuVKl'- 

iiisi'oin' n\- ii()M(]:()rATiiv i:^^ 

Sixth street, wliich was eciuipped for its intended occupancy through the 
generosity of the ladies auxihary. The formal opening was held July i, 
i8gi. and since that time the hospital has taken rank with the hest of the city's 
charities. 'J1ie hospital staff is chosen from the homoeopathic physicians of 
the city. In 1897 the institution received a bequest of $12,000 from the 
estate of Maria Von Neida. 

The Woman's Southern Homoeopathic Hospital of Philadelphia dates its 
history from the year 1895, and is the outgrowth of a dispensary opened in: 
September, 1893,. by Dr. Amelia L. Hess and Miss Annie M. Miller in a 
small first floor room in what now is Rodman street. The dispensary accom- 
plished much good work and the constantly increasing demands upon it neces- 
sitatefl frequent removals to more commodious quarters. In 1894 Dr. Han- 
nah R. Mulford became a part of the life of the dispensary, and soon after- 
ward it was resolved into a private hospital, and was located on South Seventh 
street. In 1895 the Woman's Homoeopathic Qub began taking an interest 
in the work, and the outcome of its efforts was a charter (October 31, 1896) 
for a hospital corporation and the conduct of a hospital, dispensary and mater- 
nity home under the name of the Woman's Southern Homoeopathic Hospital 
of Philadelphia. In 1897 the premises on the south side of Spruce street, 
near Eighth, was purchased and arranged for hospital occupancy. The dis- 
pensary is an important department of the w^ork of the hospital. The Ann 
May memorial home became a department of the greater institution in 1904. 
It is the gift of Mrs. Albionia Whartenbury of Philadelphia as a memorial of 
her daughter. Ann May Whartenbury Robinson, and was formally opened at 
Spring Lake, New Jersey, June 10, 1904. 

St. Luke's Homoeopathic Hospital of Philadelphia had its origin in a 
meeting of physicians and laymen held in November, 1895, to discuss the need 
of a hospital in the north part of the city. An association was formed and a 
house on North Broad street was secured and equipped for its intended occu- 
pancy. The formal opening was accompanied with a three days' public recep- 
tion, January 7-9, 1896. In October following a training school for nurses 
was established in connection with the hospital. The trustees incorporation 
was effected January 30, 1896. On September 14, 1899, the trustees, com- 
prising men only, resigned and their places were filled with women, under 
whose management the institution has since been conducted. However, the 
constantly crowded quarters of the hospital made it necessary for the man- 
agement to secure more commodious quarters in another location, and to that 
end a building committee was chosen to accomplish the work. In May, 1904, 
the trustees purchased, at a cost of $75,000, the property formerly ownecl by 
Dr. Meyer at the southwest corner of Broad and Wingohocking streets. The 
stone buildings on this site are now being arranged for hospital uses. The 
site is most desirable for the purpose for wdiich the property is intended. Ac- 
cording to the plans, a dispensary will be provided, and located in a separate 
building, fronting on Fifteenth street. The main building when fully arranged 
will contain rooms for fifty beds, and a separate building will be provided for 
servants' quarters. 

The J. Lewis Crozer Home and Hospital for Incurables, near Chester,, 
was founded through the benevolence of the late Mr. Crozer, for whom the 
institution is named. He died in April, 1897, ^^^ i" ^'''s will made provision 
for founding a home for incurables and also a homoeopathic hospital, for 
which purpose the sum of $50,000 was set apart from his estate. After his 


death his widow immediately set out to carry the provisions of the bequest 
into effect, and in Uctol)er of that year the work of erectino- the home was 
begun. The buildings are located at Upland, near Chester, and within its com- 
fortable walls are loo rooms, and 40 beds. The medical staff is selected from 
the members of the Organon Medical Club of Chester, who have management 
of the home and hospital. In 1902 a hospital building was erected, and opened 
July 17, 1903. The grounds of the institution include 36 acres, the gift of 
Mrs. Crozer independent of her husband's original bequest. 

The Hahnemann Hospital at Scranton became one of the incorporated 
institutions of the city December 13, 1897, and since that time has been num- 
bered among the worthy charities of northern and northeastern Pennsylvania. 
It is a public institution in a sense, in that it is in part supported by the state 
and in return receives within its hospitable walls patients who are public 
charges ; otherwise its support is derived from pay patients and voluntary con- 
tributions. In the early part of the year mentioned the homoeopathic physi- 
cians of Scranton and interested friends of that school of medicine determined 
to establish in the city a homoeopathic hospital, and for that purpose associ- 
ated together and became a body corporate. This accomplished, the trustees 
secured the James Blair homestead at the corner of Washington and iMulberry 
streets, which was the first home of the hospital, but later on more permanent 
quarters were found through the generosity of W. W. Scranton, who equipped 
for the trustees a comfortable building at the corner of Linden and Monroe 
streets. A nurses' school was opened in 1898; the home for nurses was pro- 
vided in 1902. The trustees and hospital association are now taking steps 
•toward the erection of a new and modern hospital building. 

The West Philadelphia Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary was 
founded in June, 1903, and permanently organized in 1904, when the property 
at the corner of Girard avenue and Fifty-fifth street was secured as the home 
of the institution. 


The first epoch in the history of homoeopathy in Pennsylvania extends to 
1835, when the first college of homoeopathy in the world — x\llentown Acad- 
emy — was established. During this first epoch the system of Hahnemann 
had been introduced into two states at nearly the same time and without con- 
cert of action. 

To Dr. Henry Detwiller, then of Hellertown, is due the honor of having 
given the first homoeopathic prescription in Pennsylvania, and the time, July 
23, 1828. He was born in Langenbruch, Canton P>asil, Landschaft, Switzer- 
land, December 13, 1795. At the village school he showed such aptitude for 
learning that when he was thirteen he was sent to a French institute at St. 
Immier, where he remained until he was fifteen, when he became a private 
pupil of Laurentius Senor, M. D., a graduate of Wurzburg, under whose tui- 
tion he prepared for matriculation in the medical department of the L'niver- 
sity of Freiburg, in the grand duchy of Baden. He was admitted in, this insti- 
tution in the spring of 1814, and studied there for five consecutive semesters. 
After leaving the university, having barely reached his majority, and being 
fond of the natiu'al sciences, he felt a strong desire to investigate and to ex- 
plore the regions of America. So he left Basd in the spring of 181 7. Several 
hundred emigrants accomj^anied him to Amsterdam, and on the passage he 
acted as physician to the company. When he arrived at Mu}den, near Amster- 



(lam. he was asked to present himself to a medical board for examination, 
which he did, and passin^^" snccessfully. was appointed physician on the ship 
"John of Baltimore," an American vessel from Boston. It was an old three- 
master, on its farewell trip, almost worn out and unseaworthy, but it took 
on board over fom- hundred men, women and children. The captain taking 
a southerly course, goin^- south of Bermuda in the middle of July, the oppres- 
sive heat produced dysentery, cholera morbus anrl a prostrating diarrhoea. 
The ship's medicine chest was not proijcrly supplied and Dr. Detwiller and 
General Vandame were obliged to furnish medicines from their own private 
stores. The vessel reached Philadelphia the last of July. The passengers 
were largely redemptioners and were obliged to remain on board until prop- 
erly disposed of. Many were sick and they with those similarly afflicted from 

Henry Detwiller, M. D. 

another vessel in port were entrusted to Dr. Detwilltr by the port physician, 
and the ofiticial physician at quarantine placed the same trust in him. 

While thus detained in Philadelphia Dr. Detwiller through General Van- 
dame became acquaintefl with Dr. Alonges, a French physician who often 
called him in consultation in the family of General \'andame and other French 
refugees then in Philadelphia. At the suggestion of Joseph Bonaparte, Gen- 
eral \'andame and Dr. Ivlonges, Detwiller abandoned his original purpose of 
going into the Indian country, and decided to establish himself in a localily 
where the language was chiefly spoken. Being well provided with 
letters of introduction, he went to Allentown, Pa., and on September 2, 1817, 
entered the office of Dr. Charles H. Martin as an assistant. Here he remained 
for seven months. During the fall and winter of 1817-18 there appeared in 


many parts of Lehigh and the adjoining- counties a disease attacking whole 
famihes with more or less severity, and attended in convalescence with fre- 
quent relapses, the patients being sick for months and then often dying from 
phthisis or dropsy. This disease was diagnosed by the physicians as bilious 
colic, as one of the most prominent symptoms was abdominal or intestinal 
pain, with very obstinate costiveness and vomiting. The treatment had 
been with opium and calomel in very large doses, powerful laxatives, tobacco 
smoke even being forced into the rectum, while salivation was indulged in 
extensively. Detwiller was able to discover that the real cause of the preva- 
lent epidemic was lead poisoning produced from the glazing with litharge of 
earthen pots in which apple butter, often rather sour, had' been kept. This 
discovery and his successful antidotal treatment gained for the young doctor 
a great reputation, and he was urged to settle in many different localities. 
He finally selected- Hellertown, and in April, 1818, opened an office there. 
In December he married Elizabeth Appel, a native of the vicinity, and who 
died seventeen years later, leaving three sons and four daughters. 

Dr. Detwiller writes of himself: 'T began to practice homoeopathy in 
the year 1828, July 23, at Hellertown, Pa. Dr. W. Wesselhoeft at that time 
practicing in Bath, Dr. E. Freytag in Bethlehem, Dr. Becker in Kreidersville, 
myself at Hellertown, all in Northampton county, met frequently at the house 
of Dr. Freytag, interchanged our experiences in the then to us, new practice, 
prepared a kind of repertory for our own use. Homoeopathic treatment in an 
epidemic of dysentery in the fall of 1829 (where out of 86 only two proved 
fatal) urged us to closer studies. Dr. Wesselhoeft furnished books and medi- 
cines which he received from his friend Dr. Stapf as a present. In 1831 I 
received the then extant whole library of works on homoeopathy, together 
with the medicines, from my friend Dr. Siegrist in Basil." 

Dr. Wesselhoeft in Bath was twelve miles north of Hellertown, but he 
often met Detwiller socially and in consultation. At one of these meetings 
Wesselhoeft said that he had received from his father and Dr. Stapf in Ger- 
many some books on homoeopathy and a box of homoeopathic medicines. 
They commenced to investigate the new system. Detwiller studied up a case 
he then had on hand and decided that Pulsatilla was the proper remedy. He 
gave it, the first dose of homoeopathic medicine given in Pennsylvania, on 
July 23, 1828. The result was a speedy cure. From this time he was a steady 
practitioner and champion of the principles of homoeopathy. 

Dr. Wesselhoeft soon began to give homoeopathic medicines, and Dr. 
Eberhard Freytag also. The Rev. Christian J. Becker of Kreidersville, of 
whom Detwiller speaks, was a clergyman who had been partially educated in 
medicine and became greatly interested in the new method. The result of 
the investigations convinced him of its truth and he practiced with consider- 
able success among the poor of his neighborhood. In 1830 Dr. John Romig 
joined this band of workers. 

In 1836 Dr. Detwiller visited Europe in company with his eldest son, 
whom he placed at school where he was to remain for four years. While in 
Europe he visited Professors Schoenlcin, Oken and Schintz at Zurich to 
converse upon scientific subjects. Fle also had several interviews with Hahne- 
mann in Paris in the interests of homoeopathy in the United States, and espe- 
cially of the Allentown Academy, then just started. He also visited his alma 
mater, presenting his certificates of examination (absolutorium) executed in 
the fall of 1816, when he was unable because of youth to receive his diploma. 


Thus, after an absence of twenty years, he applied to the medical faculty for 
a re-examination. After a most thorough examination on the different 
branches including operations on the cadaver, he was granted a diploma. 

He returned to the United States and resumed practice at Hellertown, 
remaining there until 1852, when he removed to Easton. He introduced 
homoeopathy into Easton and had much opposition at first to contend against. 
During his long residence at Hellertown, Detwiller, notwithstanding his very 
extensive and arduous practice, always found time to follow his favorite study 
of natural science. He collected his "Flora Sauconensis," his specimens hav- 
ing been gathered largely in upper and lower Saucon. He made many botan- 
ical excursions with his friends De Schweinetz and Huebner. His ornitho- 
logical specimens, the mammals, reptiliae, cheloniae, etc., represent nearly 
the whole fauna of Pennsylvania. The greater part of this collection was 

Samuel R. Dubs, M. D. 

donated to public institutions and museums in Europe, especially to the Uni- 
versity of Basil, he being corresponding member of the Natural History 
Society there. 

In 1836 he became a member of the faculty of the Allentown Academy. 
He was one of the organizers of the American Institute of Homoeopathy in 
1844. In 1866 he assisted in the formation of the Pennsylvania State Homoe- 
opathic Society. In 1886 at the dedication of the Hahnemann Medical College 
building on Broad street, Philadelphia, he was present, bowed with the weight 
of years, and with long whitened hair, but with eyes still bright and skin 

Dr. Detwiller died at Easton April 21. 1887. He had been seventy-two 
years in practice and was ninety-two years of age. About three weeks before 


his death ho arose at an early hour, as had been his habit from childhood, took 
his regular morning- walk, and near the corner of Fourth and Northampton 
streets fell, striking his forehead on the pavement. He was assisted to his 
feet, returned to his office, partook of his customary lunch and went to Beth- 
lehem to attend several patients. The next day he made professional calls at 
Frenchtown, N. J., and in the evening of the third day began to feel the 
effects of his fall. He was then confined to his room but almost to the last 
gave directions for the treatment of his patients. He was interested in educa- 
tional matters and in many business enterprises. His family consisted of three 
sons and four daughters. He left twenty-seven grandchildren, twenty-one 
great-grandchildren and two great-great-grandchildren. 

As has been stated, the companion of Dr. Detwiller in the first investiga- 
tion in Pennsylvania of the truth of homoeopathy was Dr. William Wessel- 
hoeft* of Bath in Northampton county. He was the second son of Karl Wes- 
selhoeft, who, with his brother-in-law, Friedrich Frommann, owned the largest 
publishing house in the university town of Jena during the palmy days of 
Saxe- Weimar. William was born in 1794 and when he was four years' old 
his father moved from Chemnitz. When he was ten years of age Goethe 
took a kindly interest in his education and gave him pencils and paper and 
friendly advice, in order to foster a love for drawing, for he believed that 
art was an essential to early education, and he himself excelled in it. Nor did 
Karl, the father, stint these educational advantages, though impoverished by 
the wars with Napoleon. He had residing in his family as private tutor to 
his children the celebrated De Wette, afterward professor of theology at Ber- 
lin and later at Basle ; and after De Wette, Grossman, who became superin- 
tendent of the Lutheran churches at Leipsic. This family school consisted of 
William, his brothers Edward and Robert, his sister Wilhekuina, and a ward 
of his uncle Frommann, Minna Herzlied, celebrated in the "Memoirs of 
Goethe" as one of the ladies who for a time held the sentimental poet's heart. 

In 1809 Wesselhoeft became a pupil at the Real-Schule of Nuremburg, 
then under the direction of G. H. von Schubert, the great natural philosopher 
and psychologist, in whose autobiography may be found frequent mention of 
young Wesselhoeft. Here, besides studying Latin and Greek, he began his 
profound studies in the natural sciences, including anatomy, of which he was 
very fond, becoming very expert in anatomical drawings. His botanical 
studies also were extensive, and he prepared a valuable hortus siccus. Dur- 
ing his student life, he was in the habit of making extensive tours for the 
purpose of explorations in botany, mineralogy and geology, and his collections 
of mineral and geological specimens were given to Dr. Adolph Douai for 
the benefit of the students in the Perkins Institution for the Blind. 

Our young savant also studied transcendental physics with the celebrated 
Oken. In 1813, being nineteen years old, he entered the University of Jena, 
graduating there seven years afterward as doctor of medicine, having per- 
fected his general and medical education at the universities of Berlin and 
Wurzburg, at each of which he resided for a season, and at which he passed 
the second and third examinations necessary in Germany to obtain a license to 
practice medicine. 

Wesselhoeft was not only a scholar of parts liut also an attractive man 
of the world. At this time Goethe was mucli interested in meteorology, and 

^Memorial of Dr. William Wesselhoeft. hy P'lizahctli P. Peabody. Boston, 1859. 

i[iSTORV OF TK)^r^l•:op.\T^[y las 

Wesselhoeft enjoyed niakino ol)?ervations of the clouds for him at the observa- 
tory at Jena. 

Wesselhoeft was in s\-nipathy with the young patriots who had returned 
from German army service, in which struggle Koerner fell in 1806. When 
in Berlin in 1819 he became intimate with "Old Jahn." who invented the mod- 
ern system of gymnastics and had in Berlin a gymnasium as early as 181 1. 
It was the time of the Burschenschaften in Germany, or secret political societies 
to promote nationality ; and William and Robert Wesselhoeft, who were stu- 
dents at Jena, were' very active in promoting these organizations. These 
Burschenschaften were betrayed by a traitor and many were arrested, among 
them William and Robert Wesselhoeft. William, who was at the time pur- 
suing his studies at Berlin, was thrown into the political prison, and Robert 
was' confined in the fortress at Magdeburg. WilHam escaped after a two 
months" imprisonment and was for a long time concealed in his father's house 
at Jena. Then young Dr. William wished to go to the assistance of the 
Greeks, who were struggling for freedom. He became surgeon to the Ger- 
man Philhellenen and started w^ell equipped with surgical appliances. Indeed 
so ample was the quantity of lint and of bandages prepared by his sister Wil- 
helmina, his friend Ferdinanda, and others in the secret, that it is said to 
have served him all his life. When he arrived at Marseilles an injunction wa3 
laid on the vessel, and no more volunteers could go to Greece. From Mar- 
seilles he went to Switzerland, where were his friends Follen and Beck and 
De Wette, who had found positions at the University of Basle. In this uni- 
versity Wesselhoeft also found employment as demonstrator of anatomy and 
assistant oculist. He remained there two years, and spent his vacations in 
tours among the lofty mountains not only for love of natural science but for 
the picturesque. During the later years of his life he often talke'd of revisit- 
ing Switzerland, and the last picture he purchased was a painting of the Alps 
reminding him, as he said, of his own youth. 

But "there was interference by the allied powers with the German refu- 
gees, driving Drs. Follen and Beck from Switzerland, and compelling Wessel- 
hoeft to leave for America at the same time. Some letters showing his sym- 
pathy with Follen had fallen into the hands of the despots. He sailed from 
Antwerp and was four months on the voyage. On his arrival he w^ent to Le- 
high county. Pa., where lived a German family he had known at home. From 
there he went to Northampton county, seeking a place to practice, and finally 
settled at Bath, where the population was largely German. Follen and 
Beck, who also came to America, made efiforts to induce him to go to Massa- 
chusetts. In 1825 Ticknor wrote asking him to take charge of the gymnas- 
ium at Cambridge and Boston, but already a large practice occupied him at 
Bath and he refused. Here he married Sarah Palmer, in whose family he 
had become known bv his professional calls as an allopathic physician. Even 
then he was meditating a change, and studying the svstem of Hahnemann. 
He frankly told his fiancee his plans, of the unsatisfactory methods of the 
prevailing therapeutics, and of the possibility that his change in medical prac- 
tice would for a time hurt his income. 

Soon after Wesselhoeft had come to America certain of his old class- 
mates had become interested in homoeopathy and wrote to him to test the 
medicines. His old friend Stapf sent him the Organon provins-s, together 
Avith homoeopathic medicines. At first it seemed absurd to him. but a love 
of fair play to the man who had devoted so much time to this new materia 


medica induced him to test its virtues. Infinitesimal doses were hardest to 
accept. His first experiment was in a case of ozaena whose symptoms indi- 
cated Hahnemann's thirtieth dihition of some medicine. He said : " I was 
really ashamed to give the thirtieth dilution and substituted the sixth." When 
he went the next day his patient was sitting up in bed, the symptoms much 
worse and she very angry. The disease was cured, however, without another 
dose. Among his first successes was his treatment of croup with pongia and 
hepar. He communicated these cases to Freytag, Detwiller and to others, 
and they engaged in personal investigation. So great was the confidence in 
him that his patients were willing to take the small doses that he soon began 
to prescribe. The story of the first provcrs' union, the first society, the Allen- 
town Academy, with all which Wesselhoeft was identified, will appear in 
proper sequence. When the success of the academy became doubtful, Hering 
went to Philadelphia and Wesselhoeft to Allentown to try to support the 

In 1842 Wesselhoeft decided to remove to Boston. His brother Robert, 
who had been a lawyer in Weimar and an officer of the government, was 
arrested with other members of the Burschenschaften, and for seven years was 
kept in mild imprisonment, but on the accession of Frederick William IV of 
Prussia, he was released, returned to Jena, married, and was given his old 
government position. But his principles were too liberal, and he was 
requested by the authorities to leave Europe and take up his abode in America. 
With his family he came to Allentown and made his home with his brother. 
Robert was taught the materia medica during the year they resided at Allen- 
town. He afterward removed to Cambridge, Mass., and William, to Boston, 
and it was not long before they together founded the Brattleboro (Vt.) 
water cure. This was established in 1846, and was continued until 1851. 
Dr. William expected in removing from the interior of Pennsylvania to 
Boston to find again that cultured companionship he had known in Germany, 
and doubtless believed the physicians of Boston would be liberal enough to 
investigate the new medical system; but he was met by ridicule and contempt. 
He passed his sons and nephews through Harvard Medical School, however, 
and set himself quietly to practice. At that time there were four or five 
homoeopathic physicians in Boston, among whom Wesselhoeft's greater experi- 
ence gave him the lead. He was soon engaged in a large and lucrative practice. 
During the last year of his life he became aware that he was overtaxing his 
constitution. He went for a vacation to the country, but a cold brought him 
back to the city. He sent to Philadelphia for Hering, his old friend, refusing 
to see all others that he might have strength to talk to him. About twelve 
hours before he could expect him to arrive he was sitting near his wife, her 
hand in his, when suddenly he brought his other hand upon it, pressed it 
tenderly several times and said "Will you go with me?" Then he arose, 
made two or three firm steps towards the bed and fell. On being raised up 
it was seen that he "was beyond and above" — September i. 1858. 

Another of this little medical fraternity in Pennsylvania was Eberhard 
Freytag, then practicing in Bethlehem. At that time he was sixty years old. 
He was associated with all the advancements of the new system in Northamp- 
ton county, in the first society and the academy. Until the time of his death. 
March 14, 1846, he was an enthusiastic believer in the new medical law. 
He was one of the charter members of the institute, and his was the first 
death presented to that society. He was 82 years when he died. The records 



of his life are meagre. The Northampton County Homoeopathic Medical 
Society passed resolutions of regret and resolved to report the death at the 
meeting of homoeopathic physicians about to assemble in convention at Phila- 
delphia in May. These resolutions appear in the transactions of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy for 1846. 

Rev. Christian J. Becker was an original director of Allentown Academy, 
He became a successful practitioner among his parishioners and was a member 
of the first homoeopathic medical society. About 1838 he practiced homoe- 
opathy at Harrisburg. 

Dr. John Romig was born in Lehigh county, January 3, 1804, and was 
of German ancestry. He graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 
1825, and located at Fogelsville, Lehigh county. In the spring of 1829 he 

H. H. Hoffman, M. D. 

removed to Allentown, forming a partnership with Dr. Charles H. Martin. 
About 1832 or 1833 he commenced to practice homoeopathy and was asso- 
ciated in all the homoeopathic enterprises of that time. He was professor of 
obstetrics in the Allentown Academy. In 1838 he removed to Baltimore 
with others to introduce homoeopathy. Drs. Haynel and McManus were then 
in homoeopathic practice there. He remained but two years, returning to 
Allentown, where he passed the rest of his life. He had two sons, William 
H. and George M. Romig, both graduates of the University of Pennsylvania 
and of the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, George in 1870 and 
William in 1871. 

One of the important members of this homoeopathic brotherhood and 


one whose influence was extensive, was Rev. Johannes Helfrich. He was the 
son of Rev. John Henry Helfrich of Mosbach in Germany, who was sent to 
America bv the Moravian synod of Holland in 1771. He was placed at 
Weisenberg in Lehigh county (then called Northampton) and at this place 
Johannes was born January 17, 1795. He was educated for the ministry at 
rhiladelphia and while yet there pursuing his' studies he was called to the 
charge left vacant by his father's recent death. This was in the spring of 
181 6. He was licensed and accepted- the call, and three vears later he received 
ordination at the synod of Lancaster. He served this charge all his life. On 
April 19. 1818, he married Salome Schantz. Three years after marriage he 
purchased a home within a mile from that in which his father had resided. 
He was a warm friend of the Germans and his house became a hospitable 
home for many immigrants. Lentil his two sons were grown to manhood he 
kept, at different times, six very able German teachers who were well versed 
in the sciences. At this time his home was known all about the country as 
the " Weisenberg Academy." He was the means of educating many who 
afterwards became professional and influential men. Among the German 
professors at his academy was Dr. William Wesselhoeft. It was through 
Wesselhoeft that Mr. Helfrich became interested in homoeopathy. He read 
his medical books, listened to his discussions on the new medical law, and 
with him made many botanical expeditions in order to find new remedies. 
Mr. Helfrich also became intimate with Hering and was greatly influenced 
by his enthusiasm. For a number of years Mr. Helfrich in connection with 
his pastoral labors was accustomed to prescribe homceopathic remedies for the 
ailments of his parishioners, but this so overtaxed his strength that he 
required all patients to call at his home. It was soon filled with invalids 
and took the form of a hospital, rather than a school. In the fall of 1830 
Mr. Helfrich arranged his work to devote two davs weekly to medical treat- 
ment. On these days as many as twenty or thirty patients were regularly 
present and homoeopathy was given a practical test. Dr. Wesselhoeft, at 
that time settled at Bath, made weekly visits to the Weisenberg hospital to 
assist in the treatment and to further instruct Helfrich. The results of this 
clinic and dispensary were very encouraging. These meetings were con- 
tinued until the establishment of the Northampton society in 1834. Then 
came the establishment of the Allentown Academy, of which Mr. Helfrich 
was a founder. From this institution Mr. Helfrich received one of the first 
diplomas granted. He was now fully established as a phvsician and the 
demands upon his medical skill constantly increased. His eldest son, John 
Henr} Helfrich. graduated in Philadelphia as a physician in 1846 and estab- 
lished himself in his father's home in Weisenberg. In 1849 Mr. Helfrich 
published a German book on homceopathic veterinary practice, the first book 
on the subject published in this country. Dr. J. H. Helfrich, the son, prac- 
ticed in Allentown until his death. The elder Helfrich died April 8, 1852. 

The weekly reunions of these earnest physicians, Wesselhoeft, Detwiller, 
Freytag and Becker, were begun in 1828, and were held for convenience at 
the house of Dr. Freytag in Bethlehem. In 1829 an epidemic of dysentery 
occurred in Northamjjton county, and at- that time Dr. Wesselhoeft gave up 
the old practice and devoted himself entirely to the practice of homoeopathy. 
For a year he treated free all cases that came to him, wishing to learn more 
thoroughly the new materia medica. He established offices in Bath and sur- 
rounding places, where he invited the sick to come for treatment, and he 



devoted a part of each day to these cUnics. Previous to 1830 he furnished 
all the medicines and books, but in that year Dr. Detwiller received the com- 
plete publications of homcEopathy and also its medicines from Dr. Siegrist 
of Basel ( Basle ) , who had been practicing homoeopathy in Switzerland for 
several years. But there was need of a more extended organization, and on 
August 23, 1834, was formed the Homoeopathic Society of Northampton and 
Counties Adjacent, of which mention is made elsewhere in this chapter. In 
the meantime, however, homoeopathy had been introduced into Philadelphia 
by Dr, Carl Ihm, a native of Frankfort-on-the-Main, and a graduate of the 
University of Wurzburg, in Bavaria. It is supposed that his coming to 
Philadelphia was induced by William Geisse, a wealthv German merchant of 
that city, and a personal friend of Hahnemann, with the purpose of investi- 
gating the truth of homoeopathy. Dr. 
Ihm studied the doctrine, adopted its 
tenets and began practice. He was the 
first homoeopathic physician in the city. 
In the latter part of 1833 he went to 
Tioga county, practiced there wdth Dr. 
Lewis Saynich, and afterward went to 

The question of precedence in 
next prescribing homoeopathic medi- 
cines in Philadelphia seems to lie be- 
tween Dr. Charles F. Matlack and Dr. 
George H. Bute. Matlack graduated 
from the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1820. In an autograph letter he 
writes : " I may here remark that I be- 
lieve I was the first American physi- 
cian in chronological order who prac- 
ticed in Philadelphia according to the 
homoeopathic method. I employed it 
by way of experiment as early as the 
winter of 1832-33." He practiced 
homoeopathy in the city for many 
years, removing thence to German- 
town in 185 1. In 1833 he translated 
Hering's address before the Hahne- 
mannian Society— Kurze Uebersicht der Homoeopathischen Heilkunst (A Con- 
cise A lew of the Rise and Progress of Homoeopathic Medicine). He died in 
1874. Dr. Matlack was a member of the Society of Friends and his early 
stand for homeopathy probably influenced the course taken by so manv of 
that sect, both in the United States and in England, in relation to the adoption 
of homoeopathy. 

George Henry Bute was born in the duchy of Schaumburg Lippe Buecke- 
burg, :\Iay 20, 1792. During the French 'dominion in Germany he left 
home to escape military conscription. He led a roving life for several years, 
servmg on a Dutch man-of-war. He visited the soudiern parts of Europe, 
even Constantinople, but deserted at Genoa, traversed Germany on foot and 
came to the United. States, reaching Philadelphia in August, 1819. He 
became acquainted with the Moravians through their bishop, and in 1822 

J. C. Burgher, M. D. 


entered Nazartth Hail, the Moravian boarding school at Nazareth, Pa., as 
teacher. He married at Nazareth Mary Bardill, daughter of a Moravian 
missionary, in April, 1825, and returned to Philadelphia, where he was em- 
ployed in a store until after the arrival from Germany of his younger brother 
Charles, when the two started a sugar refinery. In 1828 he received a special 
commission to go to Surinam (Dutch Guiana) as a Moravian missionary. 
Being stationed in the city of Paramaribo, he became acquainted with Dr. 
Constantine Hering, who was there as a botanist and geologist for the Saxon 
government, and who was also practicing homoeopathy. Bute became a stu- 
dent of Hering, but returned to the United States in 1831. He landed in 
Boston and later went to Nazareth to perfect himself in medicine. The chol- 
era epidemic of 1832 broke out in Philadelphia and he went there, devoting his 
time to the care of the victims and the custody of the hospital on Cherry 
street. He was a partner with Hering in Philadelphia and practiced there 
for six years, when ill health compelled his return to Nazareth, where he 
passed the rest of his life. He died there February 13, 1876, aged eighty-three 
years. He was the prover of several important remedies and all his life was 
enthusiastic in the advancement of homoeopathy. 

Constantine Hering was the most powerful factor in the growth of early 
American homoeopathy. He was a physician, poet, scientist, naturalist, psy- 
chologist, scholar and author. Reaching America just at a time when there 
was need of ^ome one to organize the few men who were practicing homoe- 
opathy and to find methods to spread the new medical doctrine, Hering was 
able to accomplish all these things. When he had been in this country only 
a few months we find him addressing the little , Philadelphia Homoeopathic 
Society on the subject of homoeopathy, in which address he gave a complete 
account of Hahnemann and his discoveries and practice. He was the principal 
mover in the establishment of that first college of homoeopathy, the Allen- 
town Academy, whose graduates spread the truths of the new doctrine all 
over the country, although in 1835, when the academy was opened, there were 
no practitioners of the system in any state except New York and Pennsyl- 
vania; in 1840 there were practitioners in sixteen different states, and the 
pupils of the Allentovvn Academy had carried the new medical system into all 
of them. 

Constantine Hering was born in Oschatz, a small town between Dresden 
and Leipsic, January i, 1800, The family originally was from Moravia and 
the family name was Hrinka. His father was devoted to teaching and music, 
and published several works on musical instruction. In 1795 he was given 
the position of conrector and organist of the church of Oschatz, with the 
title of magister. His family consisted of three daughters and four sons. 
When Constantine Hering was born his father was seated at the organ, and 
when the news was brought to him, answered with that grand old anthem of 
praise, "Nun Danket Alle Gott." The diligence passed through the town of 
Oschatz and often a traveller of note stopped over night and spent the even- 
ing with Magister Hering. Hering listened to their talk. Seume, a literary 
man, inspired him with his talk about America and democracy and love of 
freedom and hatred of the privileged classes. His teachers were cultured men ; 
August Rudolph was an excellent mathematician and taught him to love 
mathematics. History young Hering called "a collection of foolish and hor- 
rible things.'' He preferred the study of plants, insects and stones. He 
earned reproof from Herr Rudolph by refusing to call Peter of Russia, Peter 


the Great, but wrote in his composition, "Peter, whom fools call great." Her- 
ing in his boyhood saw the march to Russia of the French army, and its ter- 
rible retreat. A part of the army passed by his father's door, and one day a 
company halted and demanded food. Constantine, then twelve, ran out with 
a loaf of black (rye) bread, which an officer took only to fling it on the 
ground where it was kicked about by the soldiers. "It's good bread," said 
the boy, "my mother made it ; don't you know God will punish you for throw- 
ing bread away?" On the retreat the same squad stopped again at the door 
and again young Hering took out bread, this time white bread, to them. The 
same officer, wasted and in rags, his arm in a sling,. met the boy. "Ah! my 
boy," he explained, "the curse you told us of has fallen upon us." 

Hering found his first stimulus to natural history on a grapevine, the 
caterpillar called sphynx atropos. This atropos, followed in later years by the 
lachesis (the poisonous snake), reminded him of the "Three Fates." He 
once said : "The destinies have come to me in reverse order." First came 
atropos, the inflexible, who cuts the thread of life, next lachesis, who spins 
it, and finally clotho, holding the distaff. He likened his work in writing the 
materia medica to the spinning of threads in a fabric, and when the web was 
well done, he said, "When I shall be called hence the work will be left on 
the loom for other hands to weave." He now became enthusiastic in col- 
lecting insects, stones and plants. He made long excursions to the neigh- 
boring hills and valleys and returned laden with specimens. He would stop 
at some inn to arrange them, and it was there he learned the plain simple 
language he so much loved. 

In 1817 the young naturalist was sent to an academy in Dresden, where 
he studied surgery. A year later a copy of Euclid fell into his hands at an 
old book stall. He resolved to go home and give himself to Greek and mathe- 
matics, which he did until 1820, when he went to Leipsic, where he studied 
seven courses in medicine. He then went to Wurzburg, attracted by the 
fame of Schoenlein, the pathologist, with whom he formed a friendship which 
his conversion to homoeopathy never disturbed. He graduated at Wurzburg 
with the highest honors, in 1826. As was the custom, he presented at gradu- 
ation a thesis which he was obliged to defend in public disputation with mem- 
bers of the faculty and students. The following preamble in Latin was printed 
on the cover of his. dissertation : 

"Johann Lucas Schoenlein, Dean pro tempore of the gracious order of physicians, 
Doctor of Philosophy, Medicine and Surgery, and public professor in ordinary, etc., etc., 
with all due courtesy, invites the noble vice-rector of the Academy, the senate fathers, 
the professors of all grades, the academic citizens, finally men of letters and the patrons 
.of letters, to public disputation, to be held March 22d, 1826, at 9 A. M., by the very 
noble, illustrious and learned man, Mr. Constantine Hering, Saxon, under the presidency 
of Caritanus Textor, Doctor of Philosophy, Medicine and Surgery, Aulic Councillor to 
the August King of Bavaria, and public professor in ordinary, etc., etc., for the purpose 
of duly obtaining the highest honors in Medicine, Surgery and Obstetrics." 

This printed invitation which young Hering had to extend for his dis- 
putatia inaugiiralis contained a number of short propositions or theses in 
Latin, each one of which he stood ready to defend in argument. A transla- 
tion of the "Questiones inaugtdares and Theses'' is here given : 

1. Springs are living fossils. 

2. I hold that there are nerv-es in the placenta. 

3. The " ganglion petrosum " is to the ear what the " ganglion ophthalmicum " 
is to the eye. 


4. The olfactory, optic and acoustic nerves are apophyses of the cerebrum and 
cerebellum, not nerves. 

5. The old man is the perfect man. 

6 Materia Medica is to Hahnemann what Pathology was to Hippocrates. 

7. Such as life i.s, is disease. 

8. The rational system is not merely the better, but the only one in pathology. 

9. I deny psychic^ diseases. 

10. Any disease may be removed at any stage. 

Hering- received his degree of doctor of medicine, surgery and obstetrics, 
March 22, 1826. His medical examination was severe, doubly so because of 
his known devotion to ' homoeopathy. From 1817 to 1826, the nine years 
previous to graduation, Hering's life was that of a student. By his fellows 
he was nicknamed "Wisent," from his studious habits. He was poor and 
his privation.s were many. He first became interested in homoeopathy by 
promising to write against it. His preceptor in the University of Leipsic, 
Dr. J. Henry Robbi, who had been surgeon in the army of Napoleon and had 
served in Larrey's ambulance, introduced Hering into practical surgery and 
in 1820 made him one of his assistants. Baumgartner, the founder of a pub- 
lishing hotise, wanted a book written against homoeopathy, for after Hahne- 
mann was obliged to leave Leipsic to escape persecution it was thought that 
homoeopathy would die out, but as this death seemed too slow this book was 
intended to hasten the end. Robbi was offered the work but refused and 
recommended his assistant. It was nearly completed when, in order to make 
quotations, Hering was provided with Hahnemann's books. In the third vol- 
ume of the "Materia Medica" he found the "nota bene for my critics." This 
induced him to make experiments, and ended in convincing him of the truth 
of homoeopathy. The book was never finished. An old friend, an apothe-- 
cary, was delighted that he was writing against homoeopathy, but when Her- 
ing went to him one day for some peruvian bark, telling him he wished it 
for a homoeopathic proving, his friend said, "My young friend, don't you know 
there is danger in that?" Herins- replied that as he was a mathematician he 
believed he could distinguish the true from the false. His old friends and 
others now shunned him and said he was going crazy. 

In making an autopsy Hering poisoned a finger, which soon became 
gangrenous. Leeches, calomel and caustics were of no avail and aiuputation 
was advised and rejected. He did not yet believe that external diseases could 
be benefited by internal remedies and when an older practitioner of homoe- 
opathy proposed to treat the hand with homoeopathic pellets, he ridiculed the 
suggestion, but permitted him to give him some small doses of arsenic. The 
wound soon began to heal. Hering said of this: "I owed to it far more 
than the preservation of a finger. To Hahnemann, who had saved my finger, 
I gave my whole hand, and to the promulgation of his teaching, not only my 
hand, but the entire man. body and soul." 

After graduation Hering became a teacher of natural sciences and mathe- 
matics in the Blochmann Institute, an academy in Dresden for edticating 
young noblemen. On recommendation of Blochmann, he was sent by the king 
of Saxony on a botanical and zoological expedition to Surinam and Cayenne. 
An old friend. Christo]:)he Weigcl, was appointed botanist to the exjjedition. 
He remained in Sm-inam six years. While he pursued his naturalist work 
he also practiced homteojiathy. He resided in the Moravian colony of Surimm 
and had every opportunity to practice his profession. During his stav he 
wrote letters and papers on homtieopathy for his friend Stapf, editor of the 



"Arcliiv fur die honioopathisliee Hcilkunst," a lioniceopathic journal of that 
period. This offended the physician of the king^. and orders were sent from 
the government to abandon his homoeopathy and to attend to his zoological 
duties alone, and in future to avnd publishing such offensive articles. The 
day after he received this letter Hering made up his accounts and sent them 
with a letter resigning further connection with the governmental mission. 
He then commenced the practice of homoeopathy in Paramaribo, at the same 
time continued collecting specimens. This double pursuit he soon found too 
much, and learning through a friend, George fjute, that an academy of natural 
sciences had been founded in Philadelphia, and that Rev. Mr. Schweinitz, a 
well known m\cologist, was a prominent member, he decided in 1830 to send 
all his botonioal collections, mostly cry])togramic. and zoological collections 

Hering's Lachesis bnaKc. 

to this academy. He did so and became a corresponding meml^er. The life 
of Constantine Hering m Guiana was interesting. He was a visitor to the 
leper colony of Surinam, seeking to alleviate the terrible suffering, and his 
observations there greatly enriched the therapeutics of leprosy. He studied 
the habits and customs of the Creoles, mulattoes. negroes and Arrowackian 
Indians. He penetrated deep into the trackless forest to meet this tribe, 
and it was there he found the surukuku snake — the lachesis — whose atten- 
uated venom has relieved many sick peoi)le since that time. While he was in 
South America in July. 1828. Hering and his wife were living in a little camp 
on the upper Amazon river, on the edge of the great tropical forests. The natives 
were his assistants and had told him much of a deadly serpent living there and 


he had offered them a reward for a live specimen. One day they brought in a 
bamboo box, and then fled from the place. They had brought him a living 
ghurukuku, the most venomous of their snakes. It was the lachesis trigon- 
acephalus, or lance-headed viper. He and his wife were alone, and he was 
about to risk life itself in order to obtam its venom. As the box was opened 
he struck the snake a blow on the head, and then placed the head under a 
forked stick and pressed out the poison on sugar of milk. The poison thus 
obtained was for many years the only supply used in preparing the attenua- 
tions of our lachesis. He brought the dead snake with him to the United 
States and it is now preserved in the Academy of Natural Sciences in Phila- 

The ship in which Hering sailed from South America was old and badly 
handled. She was bound for Salem, Mass., but went ashore on the Rhode 
Island coast, and finally put in at Martha's Vineyard. Hering stepped ashore 
on a Simday morning in January, 1833. On the ground lay snow, the first he 
had seen in seven years. "I took it up," he said, "and was happy." He soon 
went to Philadelphia, and there passed the rest of his life. Dr. Hering always 
retained pleasant recollections of his life in South America. He kept the 
golden piece, his first fee there, as a keep-sake and his son-in-law. Dr. Knerr, 
still has it. 

In Pennsylvania in 1833 there were ten physicians practicing homoe- 
opathy, and of these, Drs. Bute, Ihm and Matlack were in Philadelphia. Bute 
at once welcomed Hering, who became associated wath him in practice. Al- 
though he had to fight bitter prejudice, it was not long before his skill gained 
for him a large clientage. In the first year of his residence in the city he 
married Marianne Hussman, daughter of George Hussman. Dr. Hering's 
influence was at once felt. There was the faithful coterie in Northampton 
county, Lx)uis Saynich was at Blossburg and Edward Mansa in Buffalo 
township. Tiering was welcomed, and in that same year of 1833 there was 
formed in Philadelphia the Hahnemannian Society. It was organized on 
Hahnemann's birthday, April 10, 1833, but three months after. Hering reached 
the city, and was composed of both physicians and laymen. On April 18, 1833, 
Hering delivered a scholarlv address "A Concise View of the Rise and Prog- 
ress of Homoeopathic Medicine," in which he gave an account of the life of 
Hahnemann, his progressive discoveries in medicine and a lucid explanation 
of the real principles underlying homoeopathy. He said : "May our benefi- 
cent Society largely contribute to the wider prevalence and reception of the 
Hahnemannian doctrines ; may that which single individuals can of them- 
selves scarcely achieve be effectuated bv united efforts ; then in this blessed 
country, may the miseries of disease be diminished, future generations be 
rescued from its leaden fetters, the bitterest human misery — disease bearing 
down all earthly joy become less from year to year and the sweetest boon on 
earth — health and domestic felicity, become the portion of growing thousands. 
* * * It will succeed here sooner than in Europe, for, among a free 
people, who with practiced eyes, soon discern the truly useful, a treasure 
like this new art must quickly be estimated in a degree commensurate with its 
real value. * * * The American people demand facts and upon these we can 
confidently and securely rest for our support. The language of opposition 
may be employed against it, but truth is not long obscured here by forms of 
speech. The victory will be ours, and in a century to come the anniversary 
of our society, this first step on the way which must lead to the public and 


general acknowledgment of the new doctrines will be solemnized with grate- 
ful remembrance. So great an aim cannot be attained without labor, but we 
are prepared to undertake it ; we shall not arrive at it without conflict, but we 
stand equipped for conflict; we shall not reach it without defamation, but we 
will suffer ridicule and defamation with composure." 

Hering's address was published in German by Wesselhoeft, and was 
translated into English by Matlack and published by the Hahnemannian Soci- 
ety in 1833. It made a small octavo pamphlet of thirty pages, and was the 
second homoeopathic publication printed in the United States. Having been 
printed in German and English, and being largely circulated and extensively 

John Henry Floto, ]\I. D. 

noted and quoted by the public press, the address brought homoeopathy to the 
notice of the people. Dr. Hering died in Philadelphia,"july 23, 1880. ' 

Dr. P. Scheurer was of the Allentown coterie. He was born in Lehigh 
county, August 18, 1799, and labored in the ministry for fifty years. Ill health 
induced him to read medical books and he acquired a knowledge regarding 
the practice of medicine. In 1839 he became interested in homoeopathv and 
afterward practiced successfully, devoting nearly all his time to it. He died 
at Hanover, April 20, 1875. 

In the list of directors of Allentown Academy appears the name John 
Henry Floto. He also was a student and received a diploma. He went to 
California and lived to enjoy the distinction of being the oldest homoeopathic 
physician in the world, in January, 1896, the "Pacific Coast Journal of Homoe- 


opathy" published his picture with the legend : "John H. Floto, the oldest 
practicing- homeopathist in the world." 

Christian Frederic Geist was a member of the Allentown Academy in 
1836. He afterward practiced in Boston. 

Another of the students of Allentown Academy was Charles Haeseler. 
After graduation in 1836 he went to Lewistown in Lebanon county, where he 
remained two years. He afterward settled in Poctsville. 

Jacob Schmidt was a student at Allentown. He was born at Kreuznach, 
Germany, June 29, 1813, came 10 the United States in 1836 and found em- 
ployment in his profession as civil engineer. He was received by Hering as 
a student in his office and member in his family. He remained three years, 
having meanwhile attended lectures at the Pennsylvania College (allopathic), 
and received a degree from the Allentown Academy. Dr. Schmidt located 
in Baltimore. 


While homoeopathy in New York was establishing itself through its cir- 
cle of enthusiastic investigators, the band of earnest physicians at the new 
homoeopathic school at Allentown were busily engaged in teaching the doc- 
trines of similia, and it was gaining a strong foothold in Philadelphia and 
certain towns throughout the state. The second epoch includes the period 
between the establishment of Allentown Academ^• and the organization of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy, in 1844. 

In January, 1833, when Hering reached Philadelphia, there were but the 
two homoeopaths, >Ihm and Bute, in practice there. Dviring the year 1833 
several physicians had begun to investigate. Dr. Matlack began practice 
about the same time as Bute. In 1833 William Schmotde, a native of Ger- 
many, came to Philadelphia and became a student and assistant of Bute's. 
He graduated at the Allentown Academy and established a large practice in 
the city, where he remained until 1844, when ht returned to Germany and 
spent four years in studying special branches of medicine, especially pathology 
and morbid anatomy, under Rokitansky and other pathologists. Returning 
to Philadelphia, he assisted in organizing Penn Medical University in 1854. 
Schmoele is said to have been one of the first men in this country to advo- 
cate the germ theory of disease. After 1857 ^^^^ time was in part devoted to 
business operations. The date of his death is unknown. In 1835 Drs. Jacob 
Jeanes, Gideon Humphrey and Jonas Green, three allopathic physicians, joined 
the homoeopathic ranks. Each began the investigation of homoeopathy on the 
same day. 

Dr. Jeanes was born in Philadelphia, October 4, 1800, and died December 
18, 1877. '^^ 0"6 of the founders and faculty of the Homteopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania his professional life is made the subject of extended 
mention in that connection, hence need not be repeated here. 

Gideon Humphrey, the next of the three who embraced homoeopathy in 
1835, was born at Simsbury, Conn., in the year 1776 or 1778. His parents 
were of the ancient famil\- of Homfray of Normandy. At an early age he 
lost his father and at fourteen he left home and made his wav on foot to 
Fort Niagara to join his brother, ]\Iajor Enoch Humphrey of the army, who 
was stationed there, and who in later years highly distinguished himself at 
the battle of New Orleans. The country about the fort was almost a wilder- 
ness and the bov arrived there shoeless and with bleedin*'- feet. He was too 


young to be of service and spent the most of his time with the Indians, join- 
ing them in hunting excursions and often sleepmg in the snow wrapped in 
his blanket. After some years of wandering Hfe he dev(jted himself to the 
study of medicuie in New York city, and graduated at Columbia College. He 
afterward received appointments as surgeon on board various vessels, sailing: 
to almost every part of the world ; was once captured at Havre, France, and 
tried as a spy, but was acquitted. He visited the West Indies and was pres- 
ent during the revolution of Santo Domingo, and was instrumental in saving 
many of tlie planters fron: massacre. He joined the Miranda expeditioij in 
1806, which, was intended to revolutionize a portion of South America, and 
was appointed surgeon on the ship "Emperor." They were attacked by a 
Spanish fleet and captured, with the exception of one or two small vessels, 
on one of which he escaped and returned to New York, where he commenced 
the practice of his profession ; but inducements were offered him to move 
further south and he located in Delaware county, I'a. After residing many 
years in Delaware county he went to Philadelphia. He soon became well 
known and was celebrated for his great skill and success. As age began to 
tax his powers, he wearied of city life and purchased a home on the confines 
of Burlington, X. J., where he lived in almost total seclusion. Subsequently 
he went to L5e\erly, \. J., where he passed the rest of his life, devoting his 
time to reading, meditation and the cultivation of his grounds, for he was a 
lover of nature. He gradually became blind. He continued the practice of 
allopathy until 1834, when he became acquainted with Hering and was induced 
to investigate homoeopathy. He resisted for some time, bvit being broad and 
progressive in his views and an earnest seeker after truth, he was honest 
in his trials and at last became a convert to Hahnemann's law and adopted it 
in his extensive practice. He published an "Address to the Public on the 
Regular Practice of Medicine" (Burlington, 1848), and edited "Ruoft''s Rep- 
ertory," "Broackes on Constipation," and Curie's "Domestic Homoeopathy." 
He died at Beverly, August 3, 1872, aged 94 years. 

Of Jonas Green there is but little jecord. He practiced allopathy in 
Philadelphia, and became interested in homoeopathy in 1835. In 1836 he 
published a pamphlet of 24 pages, "A Familiar Exposition of Homoeopathia, 
or a Xew Aiode of Curing Diseases." After explaining the new doctrme he 
says: "For years after 1 first heard of homoeop'athia, I had no knowledge of 
its doctrines, except that which I obtained through the distorted medium of 
the English medical journals. The ridicule there cast upon it by ignorant and 
interested writers at that time produced upon my mind, warped as it was by 
prejudice, a conviction of its utter worthlessness and folly. Time rolled on 
and the subject was forgotten only w'hen my attention was called to it by 
relations of alleged cures performed by homoeopathic practitioners ; the cause 
oi which I was willing to attribute to chance, to nature, to any thing rather 
than to homoeopathia. At length, however, some of my personal friends, who, 
I knew had long labored under severe indisposition and who had sought the 
aid of the most distinguished members of the faculty, not only in vain, but 
whose disease had been aggravated when under their treatment, had recourse 
to homoeopathia, and with benefit. An accumulation of similar facts which 
could be solved only by an admission of the efficacy of the new treatment 
left m.e no alternative and I determined to investigate the principles of this 
wonder working power. I accordingly experimented upon my own person, 
being then in a state of health, and found to my surprise that I was very 



sensibly affected by the small doses. Still doubting, however, the issue of the 
first experiment, I repeated it again and again with similar results. Two 
or three of my friends about the same time took the same article and acknowl- 
edged that they were also affected, some slightly, others more severely accord- 
ing to their different susceptibilities. The evidence of such facts I could no 
longer resist, though I had cherished in advance a strong desire to disprove 
the truth of the doctrine. My next step was to try the medicines upon the 
sick ; an opportunity soon offered, I studied the symptoms carefully, selected 
the remedy according to the directions of the system, and had the pleasure of 
witnessing a complete recovery. This was fhe case of a young lady who had 
suffered from re]x"ated attacks of Fever and Ague, which from time to time I 

Charles Neidhard, M. D. 

had removed by the use of sulphate of quinine. On this occasion, however, 
being the third time she had relapsed, J. administered two or three doses of 
China, which effected a permanent cure, as more than a year has elapsed and 
she has had no return of the disease. The cure could not be attributed to the 
force of the imagination as the patient knew nothing of my plan of treatment. 
An equally wonderful instance of the power possessed by aconite in reducing 
arterial action and febrile excitement, occurred in the case of a young man 
of very full habit to whom I was called one evening and was informed that 
during the preceding night he had been restless and delirious, getting no sleep, 
during the day he had much heat and fever, and was becoming every moment 
worse, pain in the head violent, pulse full and quick with great force, thirst 
intolerable, face flushed and much heat in the head. To this patient I fur- 
nished a dose of aconite, ordering it to be dissolved in three or four table- 
spoonfuls of water, one to be given every two or three hours until relieved; 
after the second dose the fever subsided, the heat abated, he fell into a gentle 


sleep which continued till late in the morning. When I visited him next day 
all the unfavorable symptoms had subsided and he was about to walk out, 
nor did they ever return." Dr. Green was an original member of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Homoeopathy. He practiced in Philadelphia, where he died 
December 25, 1868. 

In 1836 Dr. Charles Neidhard came to Philadelphia and Dr. G. S. F. 
Pfeiffer settled in Germantown. Drs. Jacob Lentz, Caleb B. Matthews, 
George Lingcn and Richard Gardiner were added to the homoeopathic pro- 
fession in Philadelphia in the same year. Reminiscences of the professional 
life of Dr. Neidhard may be found in the history of the Homceopathic Medi- 
cal College of Pennsylvania, in which he was a conspicuous factor. 

Of Dr. G. S. F. Pfeiffer little is known. He removed to Philadelphia in 
1837 and in 1846 was still living in that city. 

There is but meagre record of Dr. George Lingen. He embraced homoe- 
opathy in 1836, and about that time engaged in the sale of homoeopathic med- 
icines. In 1848 he v/as located at Yellow Springs, Pa. Later he went south. 
Dr. Malcolm Macfarlan says that Dr. Lmgen was practicing homoeopathy at 
Mobile in 1862-63. He was a German of fine education with a taste for the 
arts. He died in 1868 at the age of fifty years. 

Of Dr. Jacob Lentz there is no record. He embraced homoeopathy in 
1836, practiced in Philadelphia, and died in 1841. He was a member of the 
Homoeopathic Society in 1838. 

Dr. James Kitchen, of Welsh descent, was born in Philadelphia March 
8, 1800. His early education was acquired in a private school kept by a Mr. 
Robinson. Later he prepared for college at a boarding school at Newtown, 
Pa. While there he became acquainted with Dr. William S. Helmuth. He 
entered the academic department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1817, 
receiving the degree of A. B. in 1819. He at once entered the medical 
department imder the preceptorship of Dr. Thomas A. Hewson, and gradu- 
ated in 1822. Soon after he went abroad, spending two years in travel and 
study in England, Scotland, Holland and France. In Paris he listened to 
Laennec as he demonstrated the use of the stethoscope, then just invented by 
him ; walked the wards of the hospital with Dupuytren, who made his visits 
before breakfast in dressing gown and slippers ; and attended the lectures of 
Larray, army surgeon to Napoleon, of Broussais and other eminent medical 
men. He returned to Philadelphia in 1824 and opened an office next door 
to his father's house. His first year of practice yielded $40.00 ; the next year, 
$80.00. Finding little encouragement in Philadelphia, Dr. Kitchen determined 
to settle in New Orleans. His trunks were packed and the da}- fixed for de- 
parture, when his father was taken suddenly sick, and after a short illness 
died. Before his death his son promised him that he would remain in Phila- 
delphia and care for his mother and sisters. The trunks were unpacked, he 
opened an office in his father's house and assumed the responsibility of the 
head of a family. Though Dr. Kitchen never married he was always at 
the head of a large household and a large family of relatives looked to him 
for support and counsel. For sixty-six years his sisters, nephews, nieces, 
grandnephews and nieces received his fatherly devotion, and all of them 
honored their "Uncle Doctor" Kitchen. His business and influence now rap- 
idly increased. He was placed in charge of the quarantine station in 1831 
and was post physician from 1832 to 1836. 

Dr. Kitchen's attention was called to homoeopathy in 1836, and having 


made a test of its medicine and treatment, he was so pleased with the result 
that in 1839, after fifteen years practice of allopathy, he formally became a 
homcEopathic practitioner. He was a ready writer and contributed many valu- 
able articles to the journals. In 1828 he translated from the French Bouil- 
lard's "Treatise on Rheumatism," and in 1841 made a translation of Jahr's- 
"Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia," which was for some time the standard text- 
book of homoeopathic pharmacy. In its introduction he gave his reasons for 
embracing homoeopathy. He was one of the corporators of the Homoeopathic 
College in 1848, and took a lively interest in that institution. He was one of 
the editors of the "Philadelphia Journal of Homoeopathy." He practiced 
medicine over seventy years. After an attack of cholera in 1832, and of ship 
fever in 1847, he had a severe attack of malarial fever in 1877, after which he- 
was obliged to decline night calls. From July, 1893, he was confined to his 
room and kept his bed six months prior to his death, which occurred August 
19, 1894. When celebrating his ninety-first birthday he said : "When I was 
born Philadelphia was a town of 70,000 people, and now I have seen an in- 
crease of over a million." 

In 1840 there were several accessions to the homoeopathic ranks, among 
them being Drs. William S. Helmuth, Coburn Whitehead, Bernard Bernes and 
Samuel R. Dubs. Mention of Dr. Helmuth will be found in the history of the , 
Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Richard Dubs was born in Philadelphia, November 8, 181 1, and 
was educated in the public and high schools of that city. At the age of sixteen- 
he was placed in a drug store, where he remained for a year without pay. 
In 1829 he entered the ofifice of Prof. Charles D. Meigs and attended a par- 
tial course of lectures in the medical department of the Pennsylvania Univer- 
sity. Being thrown on his own resources, he bought a drug store on credit 
and conducted it so successfully that he was able to continue his studies and' 
graduate in 1836. For three years Dr. Dubs practiced allopathy and then 
was prostrated for months with haemoptysis. When recovered sufficiently to- 
walk about he still suffered with a cough and gastromalacia. Obtaining no 
relief from allopathy, and having studied Hahnemann's Organon and Materia 
Medica, he tried nux vomica, following it with doses of sulphur, and was 
cured. He then adopted the system. He continued in active practice until 
in 1858 when he had another attack of haemoptysis and retired to his farm 
in Doylestown, where he remained for two years quietly. Pie was then 
induced to practice in the neighborhood. In 1868 he returned to Philadelphia 
to practice, remaining until 1872, when he was obliged to return to Doyles- 
town on account of his health. He died at Doylestown, December 26. 1889, 
in his seventy-eighth year. In 1839 and 1840 Dr. Dubs first advised the use- 
of the decimal scale in preparing medicines instead of the Hahnemannian 
centesimal. He was one of the founders of the American Institute, a mem- 
ber of the Prover's Union, and a corporator of the Philadelphia Homoeopathic- 
College. He married, first, in 1866, Adelaide Ross, and after her death, Marv 
E. Wolfe. 

Joseph Bcrens adopted homoeopathy in 1841. He was born' in Eslohe,, 
Westphalia, December 2, 1813. Plis early education was obtained in Germany. 
In 1840 he attended lectures in the medical department of the Pennsylvania 
College, and graduated in March 2, 1841. IDuring his young life Dr. Berens 
was subjected to much heroic treatment, saw its effects in his family and was- 
led by the unsatisfactory methods of the old school to turn to homoeopathy. 


He first practiced it in Cincinnati, but soon returned to Philadelphia, where 
he died. 

Dr. Bernard Bcrens began the practice of homoeopathy in Philadelphia 
in 1840. He joined the institute in 1846. But little is found regarding him. 
He died in Philadelphia, May 15, 1886. 

Moses Anderson practiced homoeopathy in Philadelphia in the forties, 
and his name is given in the list of Philadelphia homoeopathists published in 
the transactions of the institute for 1846. He died April 18, 1855. 

Dr. Coburn Whitehead established himself in Philadelphia as a homoe- 
opathic physician in 1840. and went from there to Harrisburg. His name 
appears as a member of the American institute in the transactions for 1846. 
At that time he was located in Harrisburg. 

James Kitchen, M. D. 

G. Eiliger, a native of Strasburg. Germany, introduced homoeopathy in 
Germantown about 1845. He traveled in the stage coach from Philadelphia 
to Bethlehem, stopping at towns on the way one day each week. Afterward 
he passed half of his time in Philadelphia and the other half in Germantown. 

During the years between 1828 and 1844, which comprise the first epoch 
■of homoeopathy in Pennsylvania, the new school had become established in 
many towns in the state. As early as 1832 Dr. Lewis Saynisch, a German, 
highly educated and a graduate of medicine from a German university, lo- 
cated at Blossburg, Tioga county. He had met Hahnemann shortly after 
graduating, and during a discussion with him had become convinced of the 
truths of the new law of cure. After coming to America he was for a time 


associated in practice with Carl Ihm in Philadelphia, and he was considered 
the best physician in that part of the state. His practice extended into New 
York and he was often called to visit the sick in Buffalo, Albany, Utica, 
Syracuse, and other places in that state as well as in northern Pennsylvania. 
He died in 1857. 

In 1832 or 1833 Dr. Edward Mansa came from Germany and settled in 
Buffalo township, Armstrong county, where he began practice. He remained 
there until 1857, then went to Illinois and from there to Missouri, where he 
died in 1870. He was succeeded by Dr. S. Simpkins, an allopath, who in 
1859 settled at Slate Lick and was obliged to study homoeopathy, so great was 
the demand for homoeopathic remedies. His practice was of either school, 
as the people desired. He died in 1871, and Was succeeded by his student, 
Dr. A. D. Johnson, who was a graduate of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Col- 
lege in 1868. 

Dr. Edward Caspari located at Prestonville, now called West Grove, 
Chester county, as early as 1835. He had been a student under Hering. He 
remained there but a short time, going thence to Kentucky. 

Dr. Francis Ehrmann introduced homoeopathy into Carlisle, Cumber- 
land county, in 1835, remaining there until 1844. 

Rev. Christian J. Becker who had been a director of the Allentown Acad- 
emy practiced at Harrisburg for a short time in 1839 or 1840. 

Dr. Walter Williamson mtroduced homoeopathy into Delaware county 
in 1836. Dr. Manning B. Roche was its second practitioner. He settled near 
Darby in 1839, remaining for three years when he went to New Bedford, 
Mass., introducing homoeopathy into that city in 1841. Dr. Roche was born 
in Wilmington, Del., in 1790, -graduated at Princeton College, and in medi- 
cine at the Allentown Academy. He retired from practice in 1861 and died 
at Riverside, N. J., July 8, 1863, aged seventy-three years. 

Dr. Alvan E. Small of Maine located as an allopath at Darby in 1840 
and became a homoeopath in 1842. He practiced there until 1845. when he 
went to Philadelphia. 

Flomoeopathy was introduced into several counties about this period by 
Dr. C. G. Reinhold. He was born in Muhlhausen, Germany, November 8, 
1802, and was educated at Leipsic. While a medical student in Leipsic he 
became intimately acquainted with a disciple of Hahnemann, from whom he 
first heard of homoeopathy and with whom he studied that medical system. 
He practiced for several years at Muhlhausen. In 1830 he came to the United 
States and began to practice homoeopathy in Philadelphia, and was associated 
with Dr. Carl Ihm for a time. He remained in Philadelphia until 1834, when 
he went to Lebanon, remaining in that town until 1836, and from there went 
to Harrisburg and associated himself with Dr. Becker. They dissolved part- 
nership in the spring of 1838, at which time Dr. Reinhold removed to Mifflin, 
Juniata county, where he remained until 1840 and then located at Lewistown. 
He practiced nine years in Lewistown and then went to Boalsburg in Centre 
county, locating in 1849 ^"d remaining there until 1858. In 1864. with his 
son, Hahnemann E. Reinhold. he settled at Williamsport, where he died from 
over-exertion, June 28, 1865, aged sixty-three years. Dr. Reinhold did much 
to introduce homoeopathy in a number of towns. In all the places where Ik 
settled he was obliged to submit to ridicule, slurs, and jeers at homoeopathy ; 
but he gained a large practice. While at Boalsburg his professional circuit 


was extensive. He frequently was called to Mifflin and Lewistown and into 
Huntington, Perry, Montour, Union and Northumberland counties. 

Dr. Frederick Ehrmann was a physician of Wurtemburg, Germany, and 
the son of a physician. He had five sons, all of whom became homoeopathic 
physicians. They were Benjamin, Frederick, Christian, Louis and Ernest 
Ehrmann. Dr. Ehrmann, the father, came with his family to Pennsylvania 
and settled in York county about 1833. The Ehrmanns were important fac- 
tors in the introduction of homoeopathy into various towns. Benjamin, when 
he reached this country, was twenty-one. He soon joined the Allentown 
circle and graduated from that institution. After graduation he settled in 
Harrisburg and there in 1842 married Elizabeth Bigler. ' About 1845 he intro- 

Alvan E. Small, M. D. 

duced homoeopathy into Lancaster county, settling in Lancaster, w^here he 
remained for a few months, and then went to Cincinnati. Francis Ehrmann 
(or Frederick) located at Carlisle, Cumberland county, about 1845. He later 
went to Maryland. Ernest J. Ehrmann studied medicine with his father and 
located in Liverpool, York county, being the first homoeopathic practitioner 

In 1840 Dr. Alexander H. Burrett introduced homoeopathy into Craw- 
ford county, at Guy's Mills. He also practiced for several years at Conneaut- 
ville. removing from there to Cincinnati and thence to New Orleans. 

Dr. Charles Baver, a native of Wurtemburg, located in Allegheny City 
in 1841 or 1842. He had been educated for the ministry at Tubingen, but 
had decided to study medicine. He is said to have been retired in manner 



and especially devoted to the materia medica. In the winter of 1865, while 
going home from a professional visit, he fell on the ice, his injuries proving 
fatal in a few days. 

In 1834 Dr. Adolph Bauer established himself in Lynn township. He 
received a diploma from the Allentown Academy and afterward went west. 

Dr. Ezra Fell commenced the practice of homoeopathy at Norristown, 
Montgomery county, in 1842. In 1840 one Dr. Wauke had located at Trappe 
in the northern part of the county and was very successful as a practitioner. 
Dr. Fell continued in ])ractice in Norristown until 1848, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Thomas Pierce. 

Dr. William P. Esrev practiced for a short time in Norristown, about 

' Joseph IJercns, M. D. 

Dr. Josei)h II. Pulie, who had been one of tlie professors at the Allen- 
town Academy. |)raclice(l for a short time at Troxlertown, Northampton 

As has been stared, Dr. Edward Caspari practiced for a short time in 
West Grove in 1835. After he left there was no homoeopathic physician in 
the county of Chester until 1840, when Dr. Robert May settled in Warwick 
township, near Warwick h\irnacc. where he had been a practitioner of allop- 
athy since his graduation from the University of Pennsylvania in 1822. 
Dr. May said: "I ceased to use calomel and the lancet and finally gave it up 
altogether, being fully convinced of its absurdities. I used for a short time 
after this Thompsonian or the botanic practice, but I also gave that up. I 
then took a trip to the west. After my return I heard of the system of homoe- 



opathy and determined to inquire into its truthfulness. Accordingly, I went 
to Philadelphia and visited Dr. Williamson and others. I purchased books 
and medicines, and ever since have been an earnest advocate of its truths." 
During Dr. May's residence at Warwick he lectured in various places on 
homoeopathy. While at Warwick he married ; his wife had studied medicine 
and also practiced to some extent before and after the death of her husband, 
January 26, 1867. 

In 1841 or 1842 Dr. Adolph Lippe introduced the system of Hahnemann 
to the people of Reading', 1 Jerks county. He remained there but a year or 
two when his place was taken by a Dr. Moore, who after a sojourn of two 
years renaoved to Philadelphia. Dr. Caspari practiced for a few months at 
Reading in 1843. Dr. Ezekiel Lovejoy was the pioneer in Bradford county, 
as early as 1841. His professional life, 
however, was more active in Owego, 
New York. Leonard Pratt located at 
Towanda previous to 1851. Homoeop- 
athy was introduced into Union county 
hy Dr. Ignatius Brugger, who located 
at New Berlin in 1838. 

Dr. J. Stuart Leech, after studying 
luedicine at Pittsburgh, graduated in 
1 841 at the Jefferson Medical College of 
Philadelphia. He settled that fall to 
practice allopathy in Downington, thirty 
miles from Philadelphia. He became a 
friend of William Dowming, who had re- 
cently been made a convert by the cure 
of a daughter after the local physicians 
had failed. One evening Dr. Leech, go- 
ing to his house, made the remark : 
" Well, old Mother Juniner must die to- 
night or to-morrow." She was a very 
old negress suffering with asthma and 
lived on a hill back of the town. She had 
been turned over to the young physician 
bv three old ones, as a hopeless case. 
ITien said Mr. Downing, " Why not 
try some homoeopathic remedies ? It can 

do no harm, can it? " Dr. Leech thought it could do neither harm nor good but 
he was induced to give some pellets of arsenicum from Mr. Downing's domes- 
tic case. He gave her half the contents of the bottle during the night and the 
aggravation nearly killed her, but the next day she was better and soon per- 
fectly recovered. Dr. Leech returned to Philadelphia, gained all the informa- 
tion possible about homoeppathy and returned to Downington in 1842 to prac- 
tice it. He soon established a very large and lucrative business. He was born 
in 1811. 

The first person to use homoeopathic medicines in Lebanon county was 
a Mr. J. C. Reisner, who in 1835 prescribed them for his neighbors and others. 
Dr. Benjamin Becker settled in the town in 1835, but remained only a few 
months. In 1840 Dr. John Hatton Marsden introduced homoeopathy in Adams 
county. He was at the time a clergyman located at York Sulphur Springs. 

G. Reichhelm, M. D. 


He afterward regularly studied and graduated. In 1845 Dr. Ehrmann, of 
Carlisle, treated certain cases, and one Jacob Bender, with a box of medicines 
and a book, practiced gratuitously among his neighbors. 

In 1853 Dr. Thomas Bryan introduced homoeopathy in Beaver county, 
locating at New Sheffield. Dr. Pretsch was the first pioneer in Blair county, 
settling at Hollidaysburg. A Catholic priest first brought homoeopathy to 
Butler county, about 1854, being stationed at Saxonburg. In 1864 Dr. Max 
J. Werder located at Johnstown, Cambria county. Dr. J. Crowley Bunting 
located at Mauch Chunk, Carbon county, in 1855. Dr. C. G. Rheinhold intro- 
duced it into Centre county in 1849. Dr. F. S. Smith settled in Clinton county 
in 1859, being the first homoeopathist there, locating at Lockhaven. Dr. J. 
C. Rutter settled at Bloomsburg, Columbia county, in 1855. Dr. S. Marvin 
settled at Springfield. Erie county, in 1848. Dr. Alonzo Potter Bowie set- 
tled as the first homoeopathist in Fayette county, at Uniontown. Dr. J. 
Gourhea, in 1876, was the only practitioner of the system in Green county. In 
Huntington county Dr. Wiestling was in 1859 the homoeopathic practitioner. 
In Indiana county Dr. W. Hunter was the pioneer, located at Blairsville. In 
Jefiferson county Dr. R. S. Hunt was the pioneer, located at Brockville. Drs. 
Samuel Searles and David C. Porter as early as 1848 located at New Castle, 
Lawrence county. In 1865 Dr. G. T. Moore located in Mercer county. In 
Montour county a Dr. Scott was the pioneer, located at Danville. In Venango 
county Dr. I. W. Pond was the pioneer ; in Warren county. Dr. Samuel Adams 
Robinson ; in Washington county. Dr. George Inglis ; in Wayne county, Dr. 
Edwin West, at Honesdale. in 1849; i^ Westmoreland county. Dr. F. X. 
Spranger, who located at GreensBurg in 1861. 


In the summer of 1837 the Rev. Father Byer, a Catholic clergyman sta- 
tioned in Pittsburgh, having learned of the advantages of homoeopathy, wrote 
a letter to Dr. Hermg, then at Allentown, asking him to send a homoeopathic 
practitioner to the city beyond the Alleghenies. Hering presented this re- 
quest to some of the younger of the men attending his post-graduate school 
at Allentown, and among those asked to consider this call was Gustavus 
Reichhelm, a young and enthusiastic Prussian, who had learned the princi- 
ples of homoeopathy from Wesselhoeft, Hering and others of the Allentown 
faculty. , 

Gustavus Reichhelm came to America in the autumn of 1834 and became 
acquainted with Hering and his followers. He was born at Alt Damm, a 
village near Stettin in Prussia, January 30, 1807. He and his brother Fred- 
erick began their studies at the preparatory gymnasium. Their father died 
January 30, 1816. Gustavus remained at the gymnasium until ready to enter 
the University of Halle, where he applied himself to the study of jurispru- 
dence, but soon changed to medicine. He continued his medical studies at 
Berlin. The Allentown Academy had just been opened when he reached 
Pennsylvania, and he entered as a student of homoeopathy. He had already 
commenced to practice at Hamburg, Pa., when the request came from Pitts- 
burgh. To leave this medical brotherhood and to go out into what then was 
the wilderness of an unknown region seemed a difficult undertaking ; but 
when Hering urged him to accept he said, "Give me five minutes to think of 
it," and before the time of deliberation was passed he had decided to make 
the journey. 



Dr. Reichhclm was gladly received by Father Byer and the few others 
who believed in the new method. He began his work in Pittsburgh October 
lo, 1837. He was known at first as the "Dutch Doctor," and the "Sugar- 
powder Doctor," and he was denounced by the old school physicians, ostra- 
cised by the clergy and boycotted by the druggists, but he went his way quiet- 
ly, making cures and gaming friends among the people. He was employed as 
attending physician at the Catholic Orphan Asylum and the cures he made 
there attracted much attention. During twelve years under his administra- 
tion, with several epidemics of measles, whooping cough and scarlet fever, 
there were but two deaths in the institution. It is said that more children 
died within one year after Reichhelm was superseded by an allopathic physi- 

Benj. Becker 

cian than during the whole term of his service. The change of doctors was 
made because the institution had passed into control of another order of 
sisters, who knew nothing of homoeopathy and preferred a Catholic medical 
attendant. When the physicians found that ridicule failed to check the new 
practice they resorted to slander. Two prominent allopaths circulated a mali- 
cious report. A respectful but prompt demand was made for retraction. One 
physician offered an explanation but the other ignored Reichhelm's note. A 
suit for damages was brought and friends of the parties effected a compro- 
mise. For eight years Reichhelm was alone in Pittsburgh, until 1845, when 
Dr. Charles Bayer located at Allegheny City, on the other side of the river. 
Dr. Reichhelm remained in Pittsburgh until 1853. when he went to Phila- 
delphia, where he practiced until his death, which occurred November 21, 


1861. Dr. Dake thus describes him: "Reichhehn was finely educated, of 
commanding presence, self reHant, of few words, and always cheerful and 
kind." He was a strong figure in the army of the stalwart pioneers of homoe- 
opathy in America. 

Benjamin Becker, born in Sumneytown, Montgomery county. Pa., March 
22, 1796, was a son of Dr. J. J. Becker, a German, who came to this country 
in 1775. When fifteen years old young Becker assisted his father in preparing 
medicines, and also in minor surgical operations, and often went with him 
to the bedside. After his father's death, in 1813, he wished to continue his 
studies, but having no means was obliged to work for several years to earn 
them. In 1819 he attended his first course at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1820 he settled at Lyneville, Lehigh county, and soon had a good 
practice. In 1824 he moved to Hamburg, near the line of the Schuylkill canal, 
then being excavated, and soon had a large practice from the accidents and 
the malarial fevers prevalent there. In an epidemic of dysentery that fol- 
lowed, Dr. Becker by his novel methods of practice was very successful. In 
1833 he was appointed steward, physician and clerk of the Schuylkill county 
poorhouse. In July, 1835, he removed to Orwigsburg, where on account of 
some remarkable cures of which he had heard, he became interested in homoe- 
opathy and finally adopted it. He now had to undergo the customary ridi- 
cule, sarcasm and proscription that always befell the conscientious seeker after 
medical truth, but his practice increased so rapidly and he had so many calls 
to Lebanon, that he decided to move there. He soon had an extensive prac- 
tice in many neighboring towns. He thus introduced homoeopathy into Leb- 
anon, Harrisburg, Dauphin, Lancaster, York, Cumberland, Perry, Snyder, 
Juniata, Northumberland and Luzerne counties. In 1839 he removed his 
family to Orwigsburg, surrendered his practice to his associate, and during 
the next seven years traveled in the west; and in five successive journies he 
practiced homoeopathy in Ohio, Kentucky, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Cali- 
fornia, Colorado and Utah. In 1866 he received a degree from the Homoe- 
opathic Medical College of Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Ignatius Brugger, who first located in New Berlin, was born at 
Uper-Eichsel, Ober Amt Schopheim, in the grand duchy of Baden, July 31, 
1809. His father died when he was two years old. He attended day school 
until he was eleven years of age, then was obliged to work for a farmer, 
remaining with him until he was fifteen. He then received several months 
tuition in German, Latin and French from a teacher in Rheinfelden, Switzer- 
land. In November, 1826, he entered the gymnasium at Freiburg, remaining 
until 1827. He then studied at the lyceum at Constance, Baden, for two and 
a half years, when he went to the University of Freiburg, attending lectures 
in philosophy, medicine, surgery and obstetrics until April, 1834, when he 
came to' America and arrived in New York in October, 1834. He at once 
sought Dr. Detwiller of Hellerstown, Pa., who received him kindly and invited 
him to study homoeopathy with him and assist him in practice. He accepted, 
remaining with Detwiller for several months and then commenced practice 
in Bucks county, near OuakertoWn, but soon removed to Skippacksvillc, and 
from there to Philadelphia. In January, 1838, he located in New Berlin, where 
he remained until 1856, when he settled at Lewisburg and was for two years 
associated with Dr. J. F. Harvey. In January, 1842, he married Mary M. 
Smith of Berlin. The date of his death is unknown. 

William P. Esrey was the oldest son of Josejih b'srey of Maple town- 


] J7 

ship, Delaware county, and was born in 1818. In 1841 he commenced the 
study of medicine with Dr. Walter Williamson and graduated at Jefferson 
Medical College in 1844. After graduating he remained for some months 
Avith Dr. Williamson in order to obtain a more thorough knowledge of homoe- 
opathy. He then went to Norristowri, but was soon afterward summoned 
back to Philadelphia by his preceptor as an assistant. After a year he opened 
an office for himself in the city. He joined the institute in 1846. He was 
the author of a work on anatomy and physiology, and also compiled a reper- 
tory to the materia medica of American provings, which was published as part 
of the transactions of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. He also trans- 
lated several works from the German into English. He died in Philadelphia' 
September 28. 1854. 

Obadiah C. Buckley, A 

Dispensaries. The following homoeopathic dispensaries have been estab- 
lished in Pennsylvania : Allegheny City Free Dispensarv, organized, April, 
1875; Allentown Homeopathic Dispensary, opened in 1884; Chester Homoe- 
opathic Dispensary, 1882 ; Dispensary of Children's Homoeopathic Hospital 
of Pennsylvania. April 24, 1877; Dispensary of Children's Homoeopathic 
Hospital of Philadelphia. June 20. 1877; Dispensary of Little Wanderer's 
Home, Philadelphia, 1870; Frankford Homoeopathic Dispensary; Free Dis- 
pensary of Homoeopathic Medical Societv of Twenty-third Ward, Philadel- 
phia, 1882; Germantown Homoeopathic Dispensary, July 20, 1869; Hahne- 
mann Medical College Dispensary, 1867; Hahnemann Medical College and 
Hospital Dispensary; Homoeopathic Hospital Dispensary, Philadelphia, 1869;: 



Homoeopathic Infirmary of Philadelphia, 1859; Homoeopathic Dispensary of 
Southeastern Philadelphia, Novemher 14, 1859; Johnstown Homoeopathic Dis- 
pensary, 1889; Northeastern Homoeopathic Dispensary, 1874; Philadelphia 
Homoeopathic Dispensary, 1848; Philadelphia Homoeopathic Eye, Ear, Throat 
and Surgical Dispensary ; Pittsburgh Homoeopathic Hospital Dispensary, 
1866; Reading Homoeopathic Medical and Surgical Dispensary, 1887; Ridge 
Avenue Homoeopathic Dispensary, Philadelphia. 

J. G. Wesselhoeft was the first to sell homoeopathic books and medicines 
in Pennsylvania. As early as 1833 he was located on Broad street in Phila- 
delphia. Dr. George Lingen sold homoeopathic supplies, and they were also 

Obadiah C. Brickley, U. 1). 

sold at the Academical book store in Allentown. Jacob Behlert made cases 
for Hering's domestic physician. In 1838 Dr. John Tanner returned from 
Leipsic, where he had been a student of the Leipsic Homoeopathic Pharmacy, 
and opened the United States Homoeopathic Pharmacy at No. 104 Chestnut 
street, Philadelphia. Dr. Gideon Humphrey sold homeopathic medicines, 
as also did Dr. Jonas Green. About 1835 Mr. William Radde, clerk to Mr. 
Wesselhoeft, went to New York city, taking possession of that branch of 
his business. Not long after Mr. Radde bought out the Philadelphia interests. 
In 1843 Mr. Charles L. Rademacher opened a pharmacy at No. 39 North 
Fourth street. In 1848 Dr. Jacob Sheek became his partner and they located 
at 239 Mulberry street (now No. 635 Arch street). Mr. Rademacher with- 
drew in 1855 Dr. Sheek continued the business until his death in 1858. 



William Radde, Jr., son of William Radde, bought Dr. Sheek's stock, con- 
tinuing in the same place until his death in 1862. Dr. Francis E. Boericke 
succeeded him. at the same location. In 1869 Dr. Boericke formed a partner- 
ship with Mr. Adolph J. Tafel, under the firm name of Boericke & Tafel. 

In 1852 Matthews and Houard opened a pharmacy at Eighth and Spruce 
streets. The pharmacy afterward passed into the hands of Dr. Boericke. 
There have been several others engaged in the sale of homoeopathic medicines 
in Philadelphia. At present there are the firms of Boericke & Tafel, Boericke 
and Runyon, and Mr. Carl Vischer. 

Homo'opafhic physicians in Philadelphia and Pennsylvania previous to 
i860. The date preceding the name indicates the year the physician began 
the practice of homoeopathy. The character * indicates that the practitioner 
originally was of some other school ; the character x indicates that phvsician 
practiced medicine before the date given. 



Aldey, John H. 



Anderson, Moses x 



Ashton, Adolphus H. 



Bell, Sanford x 



Berens, Bernard 



Berens, Joseph 



Brooks, Silas Swift * 



Brown, T. x 



Burdett, S. D. x 



Bunting, Thomas Crowell 



Campton, C. B. x 



Climte, J. C. x 



Cowley, David 



Coxe, John Redman, Jr. 



Cresson, Charles C. 



Dubs, Samuel Richard * 



Duhring, George H. x 



Duffield, Henry 



Earhart, Jacob R. 



Elder, W. x 



Evans, R. T. x 



Esrey, William P. 



Fellger, Adolph * 



Freedley, Samuel * 



Frost, James H. P. 



Gallagher, Joseph H. 



Geary. John Fitzgibbon 



Gardiner, Richard * 



Gardiner. William A. 



Geib, William x 



Cause, Owen Beverly 



Gilman, J. B. x 



Greenbank, J. x 



Guernsey, Henry Newell 



Gumpert, B. Barton 



Helmuth, William Tod 



Helmuth, William Sheaff * 



Hempel, Charles Julius 



Hering. Constantine * 



Houard. John Gustavus 



Hitchens, Peter S. 



Houghton, C J. X 


Houghton, John S. 
Huber, A. x 
Humphrey, Gideon 
Hussman, F. C. 
Ihm, Carl 
James, Davis * 
James, Richard S. 
James, Bushrod Washington 
Jeanes, Jacob * 
Johnson, J. x 
Johnston, Edward R. 
Kern, B. F. x 
Kitchen, James * 
Koch, August Wilhelm 
Koeifier, E. x 
Kreeger, G. H. x 
Leech. Charles A. 
Lee, John K. 
Lcntz, Jacob 
Leon, Alexis x 
Lingen, George 
Lippe, Adolph 
Loomis, Joseph G. * 
McAllister, James Mairs 
McClatchey, Robert John 
Matlack, Charles F. * 
Matthews, Caleb Bentley 
Metcalfe. William 
Middleton, R. S. x 
Miles, Dr. x 
Moore, Thomas * 
Morgan, John Coleman 
Murphy, William 
Musgrave, John Freedley 
Neidhard, Charles * 
Nuncy. C x 
Pehrson, J. G. G. x 
Pearson, S. A. x 
Powers, W. R. * 
Pfeiffer, George S. F. 
Raue, Charles Gottleib 
Randel, John Massey 






1 845 





Reed, William Ashton 
Reichhelm, Gustavus 
Schmoele, Henry x 
Schmoele, William 
Schaeffer, Casper x 
Schwartz, Gustavus x 
Sims. Francis * 
Smith. Edward M. x 
Small. Alvan Edmond 
Semple, Malthew 
Sheek, Jacob F. x 
Simons, W. J. x 
Stecks, J. X 
Stiles, William x 
Tanner, John 
Thomas R. W. x 
Tindall, Daniel M. 

1S51 Toothaker, Charles Everett 

1856 Thomas, Amos Russell 
1848 Vinal, L. G. x 

1855 Ward, John Augustine 
1838 Ward, Isaac Moreau 
1841 Ward, Walter x 

1857 Watson, James L. x 
1846 Weick, John M. * 
1840 Whitehead, Coburn 

i8_|5 Williams, George Cushman x 

1856 Williams, John Henry 
1S36 Williamson, Walter * 
1S57 Williamson, Walter Martin 
1846 Withey, Samuel J. x 

185s Wolfe, George 

1857 Wright, W. R. X 


Aldey, J. H. Reading 1846 

Acker, E. x B'reeport 1857 

Armor, Smith Columbia 1853 

Armstrong, John * Carlisle 1845 

Baelz, C. ^ Pittsburgh 1856 

Baker, Joshua T. Lancaster 1846 

Bardin, D. R. * CoatesvUlc 1851 

Barr, Benjamin VVellsboro 1854 

Barnes, M. V. x Bath 1828 

Barden, William M. '^ Mansfield 1854 

Bauer, Adolph Allentown 1857 

Bayer, C. Allegheny City 1857 

Behlert, Jacob x Emmaus 1857 

Becker, Benjamin Orwigsburg 1844. 

Becker, Christian J. Harrisburg 1854 

Behne, John H. Reading 1857 

Bender, Jacob Bendersville 1835 

Belden, L. C. x Le Raysville 18^0 

Blanchard, J. A. Pittsburgh 1835 

Black, Alexander * Pittsburgh 1840 

Bloede, Gustavus Norristown 1844 

Bratt, Benjamin R. Reading 1840 

Brickley, George * York 1845 

Brickley, Obadiah C. 1 ork 1857 

Brisbane, Dr. x Wilkes-Barre 1857 

Brisbane, W. x Wyoming 1857 

Brugger, Ignatius * New Berlin 1857 

Bryan, Thomas * New Sheiifield 1849 
Bunting, Thomas C. Mauch Chunk 1857 

Burgher, John C. Pittsburgh 1848 
Burbank, J. C. x Towanda 

Burrett, Alexander H. Guys Mills 1857 

Busch, Lewis HoUidaysburg 1838 

Busk, H. X Alexandria 1857 

Buie, George H. Nazareth 1839 

Caspari, Adolph 1857 

Caspari, Edward Prestonville 1859 

Church, William J. Pittslnn-gh 1828 

Clay, George B. L. Gcrmantoun i860 

Coburn, E. x Le Raysville ' 1851 

Cooper, F. B. Allegheny City 1835 

Cooper, John F. Allegheny City 1856 

Cote, Marcellin * Pittsburgh 
Corbin, E. L. x Athens 
Cowley, David Pittsburgh 
Coxe, John Redman Jr. Williamsport 
Dake, Chauncey M. Pittsburgh 
Dake, David M. Pittsburgh 
Dake, Jabez Percy Pittsburgh 
Dare, Charles V. Chester 
Detwiller, Henry * Hellerton 
Detwiller, John J. Easton 
Dickson, P. x Allegheny 
Dininger, C. x Reading 
Doolittle, J. F". X Wilkes-Barre 
Dornberg, A. G. Mifflinburg 
Downing, William * Downingtowii 
Eckhart, Dr. x Allegheny 
Ehrmann, B. F. Harrisburg 
Ehrmann, Christian Carlisle 
Ehrmann, Francis Carlisle 
Ehrmann, Frederick Carlisle 
Ehrmann, Ernest J. Liverpool 
Ehrmann, Louis Carlisle 
Elliger, C. Germantown 
Elliott P. X Allegheny 
Entriken, Sarah A. x West Chester 
Everhart, O. T. * Goldsboro 
Eustace, Andrew Summit Hill 
Faulkner, Robert * Eric 
Eager, John M. * x Harrisburg 
Faulkner, P. * Erie 
Fell, Ezra Norristown 
Farmin, M. x Edinborough 
Fehrenthal, Major, Allentown 
Ficard, x Bethlehem 
Floto, John Henry* Allentown 
Foote, J. A. x Wellsboro 
Foster, George S. East Liberty 
Freytag, Eberh;ird Bethlehem 
Friese, Michael Carlisle . 
Gardiner, A. P. Carbondale 
Green, Jonas 
Gritfith, Jethro J. Manayunk 



1850 Gross, James Eldridge Darby 

1857 Grosch, B. C. x Andersonburgh 

i860 Brumbein, William, Anneville 

1852 Guernsey, William F. Frankford 
18.36 Haeseler, Charles Lebanon 

1857 Haeseler, H. A. x Pottsville 

1857 Hardmeyer, Dr. x Allegheny 

1857 Hark, J. x Nazareth 

1865 Harvey, Joseph F. Lewisburg 

1853 Hawley, Liverus B. Phoenixville 

1837 Helffrich, John Kutztown 
1857 Helffrich, H. x Weisenburgh 
1857 Heigel, M. x Strasburgh 

1856 Herron, James A. Pittsburgh 

1857 Hindman, David R. Cochranville 

1840 Hoffman, Herman H. Pittsburgh 

1848 Hoffman, Charles Pittsburgh 
1856 Houghton, Milo G. Pittsburgh 
1835 Huber, Peter Allentown 

1856 Ingham, A. jNI. Lawrenceville 

1857 Ingham, G. W. x Troy 
1857 Irvine, W. x Bellefonte 

1856 Irons, Alexander ^[arietta 

1857 Island, W. P. x Shamokin 
Jacobson, Dr. Bethlehem 

i860 Johnson, William H. Marysville 

1852 Johnson, Isaac D. Kennett Square 

1858 Jones, Joseph E. * West Chester 

1853 Jones, Stacey Darby 
1857 Kern, J. x Siegersville 

1842 Leech, J. Stuart * Downingtown 

1857 Lefevre, J. H. x Paradise 

1854 Lintz, Henry S. Chestnut Hill 

1838 Lippe, Adolph Reading 

1841 Lovejoy, Ezekiel * Towanda 

1833 ]\Iansa, Edward. Buffalo Township 

1849 Marsden, John H. York Sulphur Spg. 

1857 Martin, C. L. x Allentown 

1858 Malin, George W. Germantdwn 
1857 ^fasser, J. P. x Sunbury 

1848 Alarvin, S. Springfield 

1838 :May, Robert * . Warwick 

1857 May, N. x Holmesburg 

1S57 McClure, D. x Shippensburg 

i8s7 -\Ieal, T. I. x Germantown 

1850 Miller, C. Carlisle 

1853 Moore, Francis R. Pittsburgh 

1840 ]\Iorris, Joseph P. ^Mansfield 

1841 Okie, Abraham H. Allentown 
Owen, W. F. * C'ni-'ca"tville 

1848 Ober, Benjamin Wilkes-Barre 

1849 Penniman, William * Pittsburgh 
1857 Pellichody. Dr. x Birmingham 
1848 Porter. David C. New Castle 
1857 Pitcairn, R. x Allegheny 

1850 Pierce. Thomas ^. Norristown 

1852 Pratt, Leonard Towanda 

1853 Pratt, Theodore L. Canton 
185T Pratt, David S. Towanda 

1855 Pretch, Dr. C. Hollidaysburg 
1853 Preston, Coates Chester 

1835 Pulte, Joseph H. Cherryville 















Rankin, John S. Allegheny City 
Randcl, John M. Reading 
Reading, John R. Somerton 
Reed, J. K. x Conshohocken 
Records, Dr. x Bristol 
Reichhelm, Gustavus Pittsburgh 
Reisner, Mr. J. C. Lebanon 
Reinhold, C. G. Lewistown 
Rhees, Morgan J. Hollidaysburg" 
Ring, Hamilton Columbia 
Richter, A. x Williamsport 
Roberts, E. W. x Harrisburg 
Roche, Manning B. Upper Darby 
Romig, John Allentown 
Romig, W. X Allentown 
Rousseau, Louis M. * Pittsburgh 
Rutter, John C. Bloomsburg 
Sargent, Rufus Reading 
Saynisch, Lewis * Blossburg 
Seeger, Joseph 
Scheurer, P. Hanover 
Schultz, J. T. X Claytonville 
Schultz, Jonas Y. Colebrookdale 
Schucking, Proctor Chambersburg 
Schmidt, Jacob 

Shields, D. x Sewickly Bottom 
Shearer, John H. Wellsboro 
Shaw. Alexander R. Chambersburg 
Searles, Samuel New Castle 
Seymour, N. x Erie 
Silby, Dr. x Erie 
Skeeles, I. S. x Albion 
Skiles, Francis W. Pittsburgh 
Smedley, Robert C. Oxford 
Smith. T. K. X Carlisle 
Smith. F. S. 

Simpkins, S. * Slate Lick 
Speth. Dr. * Lewistown 
Souci, J. M. X Canton 
Starkey, George R. Reading 
.Stewart, Isaac * Butler 
Stevenson, Thomas C. Carlisle 
Sutton, J. L. Lancaster 
Taudte, Frederick Birmingham 
Towner, Enoch, Jr. x Rome 
Towner, Enoch x Towanda 
Thorne, Joshua Norristown 
Tyson, Henry Reading 
Valentine, P. E. Cochranville 

Waage, Dr. x Quakertown 
Weed, Theodore J. Phoenixville 
\A'est, Edwin Honesdale 
Wesselhoeft, William Bath 
White. Newell * New Castle 
Williams, George C. West Chester 
Williams, Theodore S. Germantown 
Williams, Alban * Phoenixville 
Willis. A. X Harrisburg 
Wood, James B. West Chester 
Wood, Orlando S. Phoenixville 
Yeager, M. x Hilltown 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Early Introduction of Hahnemann's System in the West and Southwest — Virginia 
Societies — Allentown Academy bears Good Fruit — The Pioneer in Virginia a 
Layman — The Caspari Brothers — Campos — Hardy^ — Hobson — Atwood — Hughes — 
Other Early Practitioners in the Old Dominion. * 

In 1835, at the end of the first epoch of homoeopathy in the United States, 
its practice was confined to New York and Pennsylvania. During the years 
between 1835 and 1844, which may be called the second epoch of American 
homoeopathy, it had been introduced in Virginia by a lay practitioner in 1830.' 

It is our purpose in this chapter to relate something of the story of the 
rapid progress of homoeopathy in this state, and to show the influence of 
Allentown Academy in the dissemination of the doctrine of Hahnemann. From 
the time when Reichhelm went over the Allegheny mountains, the progress of 
the system of mild medication was indeed marvelous. It will be remembered 
that the Mississippi river was the dividing line between settlement and wil- 
derness. It was a period of immigration in the unknown west. Travel was by 
rivers or canals or roads, and even by trails. Cincinnati in 1835 had a popula- 
tion of but 31,000. In 1837 the population of Chicago was. estimated at 8,000, 
with 120 stores, 12 public houses, three newspapers, fifty lawyers and thirty 
phvsicians. In Louisville the population in 1840 v/as but 21,000. Iowa was 
still a territory. When Reichhelm went to Pittsburgh that city had a popula- 
tion of about 30,000. But the growth of this new country was marvelous, and 
the growth and expansion of homoeopathy throughout the land must be to the 
mind of the thinker a most conclusive proof of its truth. 


It was not until half a century had passed after homoeopathy had been 
introduced in Virginia that the state medical society began its existence. The 
Halinemann Medical Society of the Old Dominion was organized at Richmond 
in 1880, but of its history during the first thirteen years of its existence 
little is known. The first officers were Dr. Joseph V. Hobson, president ; Dr. 
James H. Patton, secretary. The society met annually for several years, after 
which there were occasional lapses and interest in its afifairs seemed to decline. 
A reorganization, however, was effected in the latter part of 1893, and on 
December 13 a number of physicians met in Danville and re-established the 
society on a basis so secure that it has since continued and been the means of 
accomplishing much good work for the welfare of the profession in the state. 
The officers elected in 1893 were Dr. M. F. Douglas, president; Drs. Noah 
Jackson, George A. Taber and Millson R. Allen, vice-presidents ; George F. 
Bagby, secretary ; Charles B. Young, treasurer ; Drs. A, A. Bancroft, George 
F. Bagbv, Noah Jackson, H. C. Corliett, W. T. Holiart, W. B. Prvor Jones, 


W. S. Lyon, W. P. Moncure, Charles R. Moore. Clinton Maynard, N, H. Rid- 
dick and E. Cone Williams, censors. 

The West Virginia Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized May 
19,. 1898, at Wheeling, and its first officers were 'Dr. M. L. Casselbury, presi- 
dent; Drs. C. ^I. Roger and J. M. Fawcett, vice-presidents; Dr. C. A. Rob- 
erts, secretary; Dr. C. H. Wilsey, treasurer; Dr. John W. Morris, necrologist. 
The second meeting was held at Sisterville, October 11, 1898. This society 
is in active existence and holds its annual meetings in different cities. 


Virginia was the third state into which homoeopathy was introduced. 
About 1830 a lay practitioner established himself at Norfolk, and his name was 
pronounced Kuper. He remiained for a year or two. The two brothers, Adolph 
and Edward Caspari, who were students at the Allentown Academy, were 
some time between 1832 and 1838 residents at Norfolk. 

In 1838 Dr. F. T. Campos went to Norfolk and in 1839 comrnenced to 
practice homoeopathy. He is sai'd to have graduated in medicine in Lisbon, 
Portugal, and to have practiced several years in Brazil. He enjoyed a good 
reputation as man and physician, and made many cures by the new method. 
He was active in the epidemic of yellow fever during the summer and winter 
of 1855. He died in 1857. 

Dr. Thomas I. Hardy practiced in Norfolk at the same period as Campos. 
In Smith's "Homoeopathic Directory" for 1857 both names are given. Dr. 
Hardy died October 31, 1886. 

Dr. Robert Shield Perkins, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College 
of Philadelphia in 1872, commenced practice in Norfolk and is still there. 

In 1858 Dr. Joseph Virginius Hobson began the practice of homoeopathy 
in Richmond. He was a son of Joseph and Mary Mumford Hobson and was 
bom in Cumberland county. Va., November 11, 1810. His father removed to 
Powhattan county, purchasing the estate of Blenheim, where Joseph's boyhood 
was passed. He graduated from Hampden-Sydney College in 1828, and 
entered as a student of medicine with Dr. Thomas Nelson of Richmond. He 
graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1832, and began practice at 
Cartersville, Va. He spent the years 1839-40 in Paris in study. Returning, 
he settled at Lynchburg in 1840, and went to Powhattan in 1847, remaining in 
practice there until 1858. In 1856 his attention was drawn to homoeopathy 
by Henderson's works and by the cure of a case by Dr. John F. Gray, and 
this led to investigation and adoption of the homoeopathic school in his prac- 
tice. In 1858 he removed to Richmond, but at the outbreak of the war he 
went to Blenheim, resuming practice in Richmond at the close of the war. In 
1890 advancing years caused him to retire from practice and he returned to 
Lynchburg, where he remained until his death, October 10, 1895. 

Dr. Aaron H. Atwood went to Richmond in the fifties from New Hamp- 
shire. He had introduced homoeopathy into Manchester in 1845 ^^d was in 
partnership with Dr. Emil Custer, but ill health caused him to go to Virginia, 
where he died. 

Dr. Alfred Hughes began the practice of homoeopathy in Wheeling in 
1 85 1. He was born there September 16, 1824. His great-grandfather, Felix 
Hughes, came from Ireland and settled in Loudon county in 1732. He had 
four sons, one of whom, James, grandfather of Alfred, was a famous hunter. 
He settled in Green county. Pa., then in Virginia, and married a Miss Dur- 


ham of Jefferson county, in 1772. At his death he owned large tracts of land 
in Virginia, Kentucky and Indiana. He was among the first white settlers in 
that region. He left three spns and a daughter. One son, Thomas, married 
Mary Odenbaugh of Winchester. Their seventh son was Alfred. Young 
Hughes graduated at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 
1853. He married Mary Kirby Adrian of Wheeling, November i, 1849, ^^^ 
began to practice homoeopathy at Wheeling amid common prejudice and a 
hard fight, but succeeded in vindicating his cause. When the cholera of 1854 
appeared, he labored night and day, being the only homoeopathic physician in 
the city, and he met with great success in its treatment. Homoeopathy was 
thus firmly established. During the war of 1861-1865, he espoused the cause 
of the south, and was arrested for disloyalty in 1861. He was held a prisoner 
at Camp Chase, near Columbus, Ohio, for eight months, when he was exchanged 
for a brother of Dr. Pancoast of Philadelphia, and was allowed to go with his 
family to Richmond. He at once began practice and again had to fight for 
homoeopathy, but soon secured a good clientage. He was elected to the legis- 
lature of Virginia, remaining a member until the fall of Richmond. On Decem- 
ber 18, 1865, he removed to Baltimore, where he built up a practice. He 
died in that city about 1876. 

Dr. Walthall located in Richmond. Dr. Arcoli, an Italian, also settled in 
that city. Dr. J. H. Patton, a graduate in 1870 of Hahnemann Medical College 
of Philadelphia, located at Richmond soon afterward. 

In 1857 Drs. J. B. Doudall and R. H. Stabler were located at Alexandria ; 
Drs. C. H. Connelly and F. Pitcher at Fairmount ; M. L. Casselburg and A. 
C. Miller at Morgantown ; F. S. Campos, T. I. Hardy and Dr. Walthall at 
Norfolk; Dr. Daniel Jaimey at Purcel's Store; Dr. I. P. Clayton at Pierce- 
town ; Drs. A. L. Bilisoly, L. A. Bilisoly and V. B. Bilisoly at Portsmouth ; 
Drs. A. H. Atwood, J. F. Gardiner and J. B. Walthall at Richmond ; and Drs. 
Blum and A. Hughes at Wheeling. 

In 1870 there were but two homoeopathic physicians in Richmond, Drs. 
R. Gardner and William Q. Mansfield, and in the whole state there were but 
thirteen. In 1875 Dr. Thomas Hardy and Dr. Robert Shield Perkins were in 
practice at Norfolk ; Dr. Eldridge Lipj)incott was located at Petersburg ; Dr. 
L. A. Bilisoly was at Portsmouth, and Drs. Joseph Virginius Hobson and 
James H. Patton were at Richmond. In 1886 Drs. William L. Morgan and 
Charles B. Young were at Lynchburg; Drs. Thomas Hardy, Robert S. Per- 
kins, Henley N. Riddick, Frank P. Webster, were at Norfolk ; Drs. William B. 
Pryor Jones and M. J. Lincoln were at Petersburg; Dr. L. Augustus Bilisoly 
at Portsmouth ; Drs. James H. Patton, George L. Stone and George A, Taber 
were at Richmond. 

In 1899 there were thirty-one homoeopathists in Virginia, of whom eight 
were located in Richmond, viz. : Drs. George F. Bagley, Harry S. Corey, John 
W. Hobart, A. L. Marcy, S. Abagail Roope, George L. Stone, George A. Ta- 
ber, Williams E. Cone. In 1904 there were thirty homoeopathic physicians in 
the state. 

HoiJia'opafJiic physit:iaiis in llri^iiiia prcz'ioiis to i860. The date preceding 
the name indicates the }ear the physician began the practice of homoeopathy. 
The character * indicates that tlie ])ractitioner originally was of some other 
school ; the character x indicates that physician practiced medicine before the 
date given. • 



1854 Atwood, Aaron H. Richmond 1857 
1857 Bilisoly, Antonio L. Portsmouth 1858 

1855 Bilisoly, L. Augustus Portsmouth 1840 
1857 Bilisoly, V. B. x Portsmouth 1853 
T857 Blum, Dr. x Wheeling 1850 
1853 Casselbury, M. L. Morgantown 1830 
1857 Connelly, C. H. x Fairmount 1853 
1857 Clayton, I. P. x Piercetown 1857 
1857 Doudall. J. B x Alexandria 1852 
1833-4 Caspari, Adolph Norfolk 1857 
1839 Caspari, Edward Norfolk 1857 
1839 Campos, F. T. Norfolk 

Gardiner, J. F. x Richmond 
Hobson, Joseph H. Lynchburg 
Hardy, Thomas I. Norfolk 
Hughes, Alfred Wheeling 
Janney, Daniel Purcels Store 
Kuper, Dr. Norfolk 
Miller, Alexander C. ^^lorgantown 
Pitcher, F. x Fairmount 
Randel, John Massey Norfolk 
Stabler, R. H. x Alexandria 
Walthall, J. B. x Richmond 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Gradual Inlrodnction of Homoeopathy in the West — Cope, the Pioneer of the New 
System in Ohio — Beckwith's Recollections of Sturm^Pulte, the Pioneer and 
Founder of a Great School of Medical Learning — Cholera Plague of 1849 and Later 
Years — Homoeopathy Attacked by the Old Enemy — Early Homoeopaths in Cincinnati 
and Cleveland — Attempts to Establish a Medical College — Eclectic Medical Institute 
Establishes a Chair of Homoeopathy — Reminiscences of Early Practitioners. 

Next in the order of states brought under the beneficent influence of the 
homoeopathic system of medicine was Ohio, the "Buckeye" state, where the 
doctrine is said to have found lodgment in 1836 under the ministrations of one 
Dr. Cope, of whom httle appears to be known except that at the time men- 
tioned he was practicing in the vicinity of Plymouth in Richland county, and 
that he was credited with being a high potentist, administering only a single 
pellet and repeating the dose at the end of fourteen days, if the case required 
such "radical" treatment. Yet tradition says that the worthy doctor accom- 
plished some remarkable cures and acquired a considerable practice in the region 
in which he was the pioneer. Tradition has it, too, that sometime during the 
first half of the last century a German doctor was settled in Delaware county, 
and treated his patients with "very little pills, and whose habit was in typhoid 
cases to give the patient one dose, and then return at the end of a week to 
observe how it was working." This method smacks strongly of homoeopathic 
methods of three-quarters of a century ago. and there is little doubt that the 
"German physician" whose name is not now recalled was some faithful fol- 
lower of the strict Hahnemannian doctrine as then understood and practiced. 

The history of homoeopathy in the "Buckeye" state — every loyal Ohioan 
is proud of the synonym — from first to last is a subject of interesting study, and 
is remarkable in that the first disciple of the new doctrine planted its seed in 
the state only ten years after it had been brought to America by Hans Burch 
Gram. Ohio herself had laid aside the territorial character and entered the 
sisterhood of states only a little more than thirty years before, and few indeed 
of the counties in that now great commonwealth were more than sparsely set- 
tled, while the commercial cities for which the state i-s now noted were then 
little larger than villages. When the age of the state itself is considered, dat- 
ing from 1803, and the advent of the first representative of the Hahnemannian 
school of medicine a little more than thirty years afterward, the inference is 
natural that homoeopathy entered Ohio during the formative period of its his- 
tory and that the subsequent growth of each was in even step until both became 
firmly planted on solid foundations. But in the civil and political history of Ohio 
there were many events which contributed to its progress, while in the early 
history of homoeopathv in the same jurisdiction every conceivable obstacle was 
thrown in the way of homoeopathic practitioners in the vain endeavor to oppose 
the progress of tlie school the disciples of Hahnemann had chosen to represent; 


yet even in this period of adversity the httle host of homoeopathic pioneers 
was not without friends, and an educational home was ofifered them in the 
house of the eclectic school in Cincinnati. The chair of homoeopathy in the 
Eclectic Aledical Institute was not long continued, but its establishment was an 
evidence of friendship and good faith ; it was a foundation sufficiently strong to 
build upon, and the representatives of the homoeopathic school, preferring to 
act within their own principles, soon afterward set about the task of founding 
a college for themselves. Their first endeavors were not rewarded with the 
degree of success they deserved, but the mistakes of early experience served as 
beacon-lights to guard agaitist their repetition in later years. And the purpose 
was well served, for in 1849 ^ college of homoeopathic medical instruction was 
founded in Cleveland, the second institution of its kind in America. It has 
endured to the present time, and has accomplished as much good work in the 
propagation of the homoeopathic gospel in the west as any similar school in 
the land. The Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, as now known, sec- 
ond in seniority only to Hahnem.ann of Philadelphia, was established in 1849 
on an original foundation, and was not the outgrowth of any institution in the 
east, although some historians have traced its origin to old Allentown Academy. 

In the course of time other medical colleges were founded in Ohio, a few 
of them to fall by the wayside or to merge in those more strongly supported, 
and at the beginning of the twentieth century there are two principal homoe- 
opathic colleges in the state, one in Cleveland and one in Cincinnati. The his- 
tory of each of these is made the sttbject of extended mention in another depart- 
ment of this work. 

In this connection it is interesting to note the gradual increase in the num- 
ber of homoeopathic physicians in Ohio. In 1836 the pioneer, a layman, led 
the way. Twenty years later, in 1857, the number was 120; 1875, 422; 1885, 
498; 1899, 968; and in 1905 it is estimated that there are in the homoeopathic 
ranks in Ohio a total of one thousand practitioners. 

Ohio has been both faithful and prolific in the work of homoeopathic soci- 
ety organization, and in that respect ranks w'ith the foremost states of the 
union. A brief allusion to the more important of these societies is proper in 
this connection, not for the purpose of exhaustive narrative but as a necessary 
part of an interesting record. 


A society of homoeopathic physicians' was organized in Cleveland as early 
as 1846, which was just ten years after the system had been introduced in the 
state. Reports of the organization and meagre reports of the society are found 
in the " American Journal of Homoeopathy," Vol. i, p. 46, and also in the 
Michigan " Journal of Homoeopathy " for June, 1849. The old society was 
continued only a short time, and then was dissolved. The next attempt at per- 
manent organization was made in 1851, at a meeting held in Columbus on 
September 23 of that year, v/hen the work previously begun was improved 
upon and made more complete. The customary constitution and by-laws were 
adopted, and the society took the name Ohio College of Homoeopathic Physi- 
cians. The first officers were Drs. O. A. Blair, president; J. H. Coulter of 
Columbus and John Tifift of Norwalk, vice-presidents ; C. A. Leuthstrom of 
Columbus, secretary ; G. St. C. Hussey of Portsmouth, corresponding secre- 
tary ; C. D. Williams of Cleveland, H. P. Gatchell of Cincinnati, J. W. Dennis 
of Portsmouth, Jacob Bosler of Dayton and L. K. Rosa, censors. In 1852 and 


1853 meetings were held in Cleveland, the next year in Columbus, but none 
were afterward held until 1864, when the homoeopathic physicians of the state 
met in convention in the capital city of the state, revived the dormant organi- 
zation, and brought into existence the Homoeopathic Medical Society of the 
State of Ohio. The officers tlien elected were as follows : Dr. A. O. Blair of 
Cleveland, president ; Drs. E. C. Witherill of Cincinnati and W. W. Webster of 
Dayton, vice-presidents ; Dr. Charles Cropper of Cincinnati, secretary ; Dr. C. 
C. White of Columbus, treasurer ; Drs. A. Shepherd of Springdale, G. H. Blair 
of Columbus, Charles Osterlin of Findlay, T. P. Wolson of Cleveland, Lewis 
Barnes of Delaware, T. M. Miller of Stubenville and E. C. Beckwith of Zanes- 
ville, censors. At first the society met annually at Columbus, but later adopted 
the rule of meeting in different cities. The society was incorporated in 1878. 
Membership, about 275. wSince 1865 transactions have been published annually. 

In this connection, also, ' it is proper that some mention be made of the 
several sectional, district and local medical societies of the state, although the 
record of necessity must be brief, and limited to mention of the name, field 
of operation and date of organization of each. The record follows : 

Homoeopathic Medical Society of Eastern Ohio, organized April 2. 1873, by- 
union of the Homoeopathic Medical Society of the Seventeenth Congressional 
District (organized August i, 1866) and the Homoeopathic Medical Associa- 
tion of Summit and Portage Counties (organized June, 1871) ; Northwestern 
Ohio Homoeopathic Medical Society. June, 1889; Ohio Valley Medical Society, 
1901 ; Miami Valley Homoeopathic Medical Society, June 14, i860; Seven- 
teenth Congressional District of Ohio Medical Society, August i, 1866; Sum- 
mit and Portage Counties Homceopathic Medical' Society, June, 1871 ; the 
Cleveland Academy of Medicine and Surgery, 1872 ; Cleveland Academy of 
Medicine, February 4, 1891 ; Cleveland Medical Association, about 1865; 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Maternity Society, October 12, 1891 ; Columbus Clin- 
ical Club, June 2, 1890; Cincinnati Homoeopathic INIedical Society, 1862; Cin- 
cinnati Homoeopathic Eyccum, October 28, 1889; Cincinnati Homoeopathic 
Society ; Cuyahoga County Homoeopathic Medical Society, November, i86s ; 
Dayton City Homoeopathic Medical Society, 1879; Homoeopathic Medical 
Society of Eastern Ohio, April 2, 1873 ; Hahnemann Society of Cincinnati, 
April 10, 1855; Homoeopathic Association of Cincinnati, 1849; Homoeopathic 
Club of Cincinnati, December, 1885; Loraine and Medina County Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society, July 18, 1868; Lucas County Homoeopathic IMedical 
Society, i860; Miami County Homoeopathic Medical Society, June 14, i860; 
Montgomery County Homcieopathic Medical Society, November 6, 1868; 
Muskingum Valley Homoeopathic Medical Society, 1867; Northeastern Ohio 
Homoeopathic Medical Society, 1864; Perry County Homoeopathic Medical 
Society, October 26, 1870; Philadelphos Society; Round Table Club, August 
28, 1889; Summit County Homoeopathic Oinical Society, January 15, 1885; 
Toledo Clinical Societv, 1884; Union Homoeopathic Medical Society of North- 
ern Ohio, June 6, 1868. 


Tile establishment of homoeopathic hospitals in Ohio was an important ele- 
ment of the early endeavor of the medical profession, and engaged the attention 
of lionKtopathic ]iractitioners almost as early as the efforts in organizing medi- 
cal societies. This subject is of mucli importance in the history of homoeopathy 


in the state, but the extent to which it demands consideration in this place is 
questionable, inasmuch as the principal institutions of this character are in a 
lari^e measure a part of the life of the homrjeopathic medical collej^^es, particu- 
larly in the large cities of Cleveland and Cincinnati. 

Ihe Cleveland Homoeopathic Hospital, the first organized hospital in 
Cleveland, Ohio, v/as opened in May, 1856, by S. R. Beckwith, M. D., who was 
the surgeon for the Lake Shore and the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati 
railroads. It was established as a private surgical hospital to accommodate 
those injured by the railroads; but was open to all surgical cases. It was 
situated on Lake street, and accommodated twenty patients. George H. Bet- 
tely, M. D., was the house surgeon. 

In i860 St. Vincent's Hospital was completed and opened for the recep- 
tion of patients. Physicians and surgeons of both schools being permitted to 
treat patients therein, there seemed no necessity for the separate maintenance 
of the hospital on Lake street, and con"sequently it was closed. St. Vincent's 
Hospital was under the control and management of the sisters of a Catholic 
order and for five years remained the only hospital in Cleveland. In 1865, 
however, there was set on foot a project for the establishment of a Protestant 
hospital, and in May of the next year a committee of three, consisting of Dr. 
D. H. Beckwith, Mr. Horace Brockaway and Mrs. S. F. Lester, was formed 
for the purpose of obtaining a building suitable for hospital purposes. 

A large and roomy building at 83 Wilson street was selected and pur- 
chased at a cost of $8,000. An organization was effected and a board of 
trustees formed, and these gave the name of Wilson Street Hospital to the 
building. Of the trustees, one-half were chosen by adherents of the old school, 
the remainder by those of the homoeopathic school. The board of trustees was 
composed of Mrs. Samuel Williamson. Mrs. A. B. Stone, Mrs. Mary Severance, 
W. S. Stanley, T. W. Pelton, Mrs. Daniel P. Rhodes, Mrs. Peter Thatcher, 
Mrs. L. M. Hubbey, Jacob Lowman and H. C. Blossom. The medical and 
surgical staff represented both schools of medicine and consisted of Drs. A. 
Maynard, A. A. Brooks, H. F. Cushing, D. H. Beckwith, B. P. Brown and 
George H. Blair. 

Within a very few weeks a group of ladies interested in the work col- 
lected sufficient funds to pay for the building and its thorough equipment for 
hospital purposes. For some time complete harmony reigned in the medical 
staff, but differences began to show themselves, with the result that early in 
1867 the president, Mr. H. B. Hurlburt, for the adherents of the old school 
of medicine, made to those who favored the new school a proposition to either 
buy or sell their interests in the hospital. The homoeopathic adherents with- 
drew from the hospital and later united with the Cleveland Protestant Homoe- 
opathic Hospital, which was opened for patients November 3, 1869. 

The trustees of the Wilson Street Hospital, now adherents of the old school 
of medicin<?, adopted the following resolution : " Resolved, That in the future 
no homoeopathic phvsician or surgeon shall be allowed to treat any patient, 
free or pay, in this hospital." This resolution was in force for nearly twenty 
years, its immediate effect being the uniting in a strong bond of friendship 
the homoeopathic physicians and their clientele. 

The previous year Humiston Institute had been purchased for college 
and hospital purposes, at a cost of $35,000. This hospital was under the con- 
trol of the homoeopathic school of medicine, but patients therein had the privi- 


lege of any treatment they preferred, thus giving physicians of the old school 
the right of entry. 

After five years of successful operation the trustees, deeming it advisable 
to seek a new location, purchased the property where the hospital now stands 
on Huron street, February 4, 1873. This building was opened for the recep- 
tion of patients, but within a very short time, however, it was found to be 
inadequate to the demand made upon it, and in May, 1878, the hospital asso- 
ciation decided upon the erection of a new structure. As a means to this end, 
the ladies' association united with the board of lady, managers of the City Hos- 
pital and gave a great charity fair and loan exhibition, the proceeds of which 
were to be divided between the hospitals. This was a great success, the citizens 
of Cleveland having come forward with enthusiasm, loaning their fine paint- 
ings, statuary and works of art in the effort to get together a collection to 
attract and interest the people. The collection gathered was so fine that the 
city virtually put it in charge of the police and fire departments, so that no 
harm might com.e to it. The net proceeds amounted to $12,816.54, half of 
which was awarded the homoeopathic hospital. 

In June, 1878, the trustees appointed a building committee, consisting of 
George PL Warmington, Dr. D. H. Beckwith, Edward Bingham and Capt. A. 
Bradley. Excavations were begun in April, 1879, and so rapidly did the 
work progress that during the following year, September 29th, the hospital 
was dedicated and opened to receive patients. 

The new building acted as a stimulus in many directions, the effect being 
shown by many actions which attested to the loyalty and generosity of the 
citizens of Cleveland toward homoeopathy and homoeopathic institutions. The 
work of the hospital increased to such a degree during the next decade that 
additional accommodations were found to be imperative. It was not, however, 
until 1894 that provision was made for a new building. This was completed 
by the first of April, 1895. It is a large four-story building connected with the 
main building by a covered gallery, and is very fully utilized for the hospital 
needs. In it are the sleeping rooms for nurses and a number of employees, one 
entire floor being taken up by patients. The basements contain laundry, 
sterilizers, store rooms, and mortuary. 

During the past ten years the hospital has more than doubled its work. It 
is now entirely out of debt and has an endowment of $20,000; the estimated 
value of the property owned by the hospital corporation is $150,000. Those in 
charge of the work realize that the present building is entirely inadequate to 
the demands made upon it, so that it will be but a short time until new build- 
ings and a new location must be sought. 

The Ohio Hospital for Women and Children, Cincinnati, is the direct 
outgrowth of a free dispensary which was opened in Cincinnati, June ii, 
1879, by Drs. Ellen M. Kirk and Martha M. Howells. assisted by thirty-five 
philanthropic women, who united in an organization for its support known as 
the Free Dispensary Association for Women and Children. The clinics were 
increasingly large and out of them grew the need of a hospital. This need 
stimulated the members to determined effort and on October 11, 1881, the Free 
Dispensary for Women and Children became the Ohio Hospital for Women 
and Qiildren by an act of incorporation. May 9, 1882. A house affording suit- 
able accommodations in West Ninth street was rented, equipped and formally 
opened as a hospital the following June. In a few years this house proved too 
small for the growing work and a permanent home was purchased for twenty 



thousand dollars in December, 1888. This commodious house, No. 549 West 
Seventh street, was opened March 4. 1889. The object of this institution has 
been to offer to women an opportunity to consult homoeopathic women physi- 
cians, and to women physicians clinical advantages and experience. The train- 
ing of nurses has been a prominent feature since 1887. Some three thousand 
patients have been received in its private rooms and wards. The hospital dur- 
ing three years has received several bequests and is supported outside of its 
income from private patients by annual dues from members of its association, 
donations, etc. A free dispensar\- has always been an adjunct of the hospital 
and thousands of the needy of the city have shared its benefits. 

The medical staff consists of the fol- 
lowing physicians : Ellen M. Kirk, dean ; 
Mary E. Minor, Sophia P. Georgi, Ida E. Mc- 
Cormick, Ella E. Huntington, Bertha Van 
Houten Anthony, Florence M. Pollock. 

The general management of this hospital for 
women by women is vested in a board of man- 
agers as follows : Mrs. Robert Hosea, presi- 
dent; Mrs. J. D. Park, vice-president; Mrs. 
Wm. N. Hobart, second vice-president; Mrs. 
E. D. Albro, secretary; Mrs. T. B. Colher, 
treasurer; Dr. Ellen M. Kirk, dean; Mrs. Ellen 
Clarke, Mrs. E. G. Carpenter, Mrs. G. W. El- 
lard, Miss Lida Galigher, Mrs. J. J. Hooker, 
Mrs. W. P. Harrison, Mrs. Taylor Latta, Mrs. 
Langtrie, Mrs. A. S. Lowenberg, Mrs. G. W. 
Oyler, Mrs. C. D. Robertson and Miss Fanny 
E. Turner. 

The Toledo Protestant Hospital, an institution under homoeopathic medi- 
cal supervision, is the result of a movement begun in 1874, and which reached 
fruition in 1877, when its rooms were opened for patients. It was incorpo- 
rated December 12, 1876, and is under the medical and surgical supervision of 
the Lucas County Homoeopathic Medical Society. Originally the hospital staff 
was chosen from both schools of medicine, but the allopaths refused to attend 
an institution w^her.e homoeopathy was permitted to be practiced and severed 
their connection with it ; upon which the hospital w^as placed under homoe- 
opathic medical supervision, but the representatives of that school have been 
considerate of allopathy, and have admitted its representatives to the privi- 
leges of the institution. 


Dr. William Sturm, it is said on excellent authority, began the practice 
of homoeopathy in Cincinnati in 1839, which event gives him precedence in 
the long and honorable line of homoeopaths who followed him in the field 
in after years. He was born in Saxony in June, 1796, and was educated in 
medicine in Germany, a pupil of Hahnemann, the founder of the homoeopathic 
school. Sturm is said to have been a man of liberal education, and in medi- 
cine his success in the treatment of cases of an acute character gave him an 
extensive practice and proclaimed his name and fame throughout the Ohio 
river valley. 

The second disciple of homoeopathy in Cincinnati was Dr. Joseph H. Pulte, 

Ohio Hospital for Women and 
Children, Cincinnati. 


who took lip the practice of medicine in Cincinnati in 1840, an incident of 
travel having impelled him to change his determination to visit his brother in 
St. Louis and undoubtedly to- practice medicine in that city ; and this was a 
fortunate resolution on Pulte's part for the development of homoeopathy in 
Ohio, for this great exemplar of the Hahnemannian doctrine was a man of 
learning, a physician of repute, and a citizen whose every walk in life was 
<:orrect. And Pulte in later years was the founder of the great college of homce- 
opathic medical instruction in Cincinnati which bears his name and most 
worthily promulgates the doctrines he first expounded in that city more than 
three score years ago. The life and services of Dr. Pulte are subjects of men- 
tion in the history of the college referred to, hence need no further commen- 
tary in this place. 

In .1849 Asiatic cholera laid its scourge upon the west, and during its prev- 
alence Pulte with a few other capable homoeopaths proved that medicines in 
attenuated doses administered according to the law of Hahnemann could in a 
great measure lessen its ravages ; and while certain physicians and ministerial 
editors were inclined to cavil at the success of the homoeopaths, the people 
accepted the fact and the new doctrine found favor throughout the entire 
region. This period in our history in Ohio was marked with what is known as 
the "cholera pamphlet war" in Cincinnati. The plague first appeared in that 
city in 1849, ^^'^'^^ from the first the allopaths made reports to the authorities, 
while the homoeopaths, not knowing the requirements, failed to do so ; and 
for this the}'^ were brought to bar. Pulte and Ehrmann, homoeopaths, were 
tried before the mayor, but were dismissed, the health board not being law- 
fully organized. However, after this affair both Pulte and Ehrmann made 
public their practice and its results during the continuance of the epidemic. 

At that time in Cincinnati there lived a minister, who also was an editor 
of a religious p^per called the "Methodist Expositor," and who with his other 
attainments was an allopathic physician. He appeared to have been some- 
what exercised in his mind regarding the followers of Hahnemann and their 
practice in Cincinnati, and in his paper he attacked the report of Pulte and 
Ehrmann, and also attacked homoeopathy in general, using language and 
expressions more bitter than befitted a man of the cloth. In one of his lamen- 
tations he quoted scripture : "If the trumpet give an uncertain sound who 
shall prepare himself to the battle." The worthy editor entitled his articles 
"Hoi-.ioeopathic Trumpet," and they were answered by Pulte and Ehrmann in 
a determined yet more christianlike spirit. After this controversy had con- 
tinued some time an association of citizens was formed, called the Homoe- 
opathic Association, and a committee from it was appointed to investigate the 
matter and report. This committee comprised Alphonso Taft, B. F. Barrett, 
George Carlisle, Nathaniel L. Sawyer and George Crawford. After making 
a careful examination of the various cases treated, the committee reported at 
a meeting of the association held in October, 1849, ^^^'^ exonerated Drs. Pulte 
and Ehrmann from blame or discredit, at the same time recommending that 
the reverend medico-editor "promptly correct what he finds to be incorrect in 
his published statements of this subject." 

The homoeopathic journals of the time, Shipman's " Northwestern Jour- 
nal of Homoeopathia," the " Quarterly Homoeopathic Journal," of Boston, the 
" Southwestern Homoeopathic Journal," and " Review and the American 
Journal of Homoeopathy," all pu1)lished editorials. The pamphlets were widely 


circulated, and there is no doul)t that the outcome was largely of benefit to 
homoeopathy in the west. 

Contemporary with Dr. Pulte in the early history of homoeopathy in Cin- 
cimiati was Dr. Benjamin Ehrmann, another of the Allentown graduates. He 
had drifted west, following the tide of emigration, and located at Chillicothe, 
and in 1848 becoming acquainted with Pulte was by him persuaded to go to 
Cincinnati, where they formed a partnership. 

Dr. F. A. W. Davis went to Cincinnati in 1846 to spend the summer. He 
met Pulte and was induced to study homoeopathy. During the cholera epi- 
demic he did great service, opened a free dispensary and treated a great many 
poor people gratuitously. He afterward went to Tennessee. 

James G. Hunt, JM. D. 

Dr. James George Hunt was another of the early practitioners in Cin- 
cinnati. He had become a homoeopathist during the cholera epidemic of 

Dr. Adam Aliller practiced homoeopathy in Cincinnati about 1850 and soon 
afterward went to Ilhnois. 

Another of the earlv homoeopaths in Cincinnati was Edwin C. Witherill,. 
who was born in New Hampshire in 1821, and when nine years old his par- 
ents moved to Auburn, X. Y. At sixteen he made a voyage to Liverpool, antl 
on his return taught in the public schools and studied medicine, receiving his 
diploma from, a medical school in New York city. He practiced in Auburn 
and Canandaigua, and then was appointed to the chair of anatomy and physi- 
ology in the Western Homoeopathic College at Cleveland. Before accepting 


this position he spent some time in the hospitals of London and Paris. He 
was a professor in the college from 1850 to 1853. Later on he went to Cin- 
cinnati where he remained in practice until his death, October 30, 1865. 

Dr. Jesse Garrettson began the practice of homoeopathy in Cincinnati in 
1849. ^^ f'i^d i" that city. July 3, 1876. His brother, Dr. Joseph Garrettson, 
was with him during- the later years of his life. 

Dr. George W. Bigler located in Cincinnati in 1850. He was a native o£ 
Harrisburg, Pa., and originally was an allopathic physician, but becoming 
convinced of the truth of homoeopathy he adopted it and became a prominent 
practitioner in Ohio. He was of the Swedenborgian faith, a member of the 
American institute and also of the state and county homoeopathic societies. 
He died at his home in Cincinnati. April 28, 1871. 

Dr. William Peck, an allopathic physician of Cincinnati, adopted homoe- 
opathy in 1849. He was the son of Benjamin and Sarah (Bachelor) Peck, 
and was borrr in Sutton, Mass., April 6, 1798. He graduated from Brown 
University in 1820. He opened an office in Providence, R. L, and on May 
21, 1823, married Jane, daughter of Dr. Samuel Thane. Two years later he 
removed to New Rochelle, N. Y., where he practiced until 1831, when he 
located in Cincinnati. Dr. Ira Barrows, his cousin, of Providence, R. L, 
induced him to become a homoeopath. He joined the institute in 1850. and 
was on his way to the meeting in 1857, when in a collision on the Erie railroad 
on June 3, he was instantly killed. Dr. George B. Peck of Providence is 
his nephew. 

Dr. Price, another allopathic physician of Cincinnati, became a convert 
about 1849. 

Homoeopathy was introduced in Cleveland by Dr. R. E. W. Adams in 
1843. f^6 remained there a few years and then went to Illinois. In 1844 Dr. 
Daniel O. Hoyt went to Cleveland, associating himself with Dr. Adams. Dr. 
Hoyt was a graduate of Dartmouth College, and practiced allopathy for several 
years before he went to Cleveland, where he took up homoeopathy. He prac- 
ticed for over thirty years in Cleveland, and died August 10, 1874, aged 
eighty-seven years. 

Dr. John Wheeler, the third homoeopathic physician in Cleveland, com- 
menced to practice in that city in 1845. He graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1817 and practiced as an allopath in Troy from 1818 to 1845, when he 
became a convert to homoeopathv. In 1845 he located in Cleveland and re- 
mained there until his death, February 12, 1870, aged seventy-nine years. Dr. 
Wheeler was one of the best known and beloved of the earlier Cleveland physi- 
cians. It was largely through his persuasions that Dr. David Herrick Beckwith 
was converted to homoeopathv. Dr. Wheeler was for many years president 
of the Cleveland Hospital College. 

Dr. Edward Caspari practiced for a time at Ravenna in 1843. He after- 
ward went to Louisville, Ky. 

Dr. Schlagel, a Gorman phvsician, located at Amherst in 1844, and from 
that place his nractice extended to Oberlin, Elyria and other towns. 

Dr. Alexander H. Burritt located at Burton in 1840. He was born in 
Trey, N. Y.. April 17, 1805. His father, Dr. Elv Burritt, was a practitioner in 
Troy for nearly thirty years. His partner was Dr. Robbins. Alexander stud- 
ied medicine with his father, and graduated at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons in New York in the spring of 1827. He practiced allopathy in 
Washington county until 1838, aliout which time his friend and relative. Dr. 



John F. Gray, induced him to investigate the homoeopathic system and exam- 
ine its merits. He visited New York to witness the success of Gray and Hull, 
and soon became satisfied with the new medical doctrine. In a few months he 
located in Pennsylvania and was the pioneer in Crawford county, where he 
devoted himself to the study of the new system. He practiced at Conneaut- 
ville and then went to Burton. In 1850 he was appointed to the chair of 
obstetrics in the Western Homceopathic College, but ill health caused him to 
resign his professorship. He afterward removed to Canandaigua, N. Y., and 
thence to New Orleans, where he remained until his death. He was still in 
practice in 1876. 

Dr. David Shepherd l)egan practice in Bainbridgc in 1845, where he 

John Wheeler, M. D. 

had a large farm and combined both occupations. He died in June, 1887, aged 
seventy-nine years. 

Dr. Alpheus Morrill located at Akron in 1846, remaining there two years, 
after which he went to Columbus to practice. An attack of intermittent fever 
compelled him to remove, and he went to Concord. N. H., where he passed 
his life. He died in 1868. Dr. Crosby, his partner, was also obliged by sick- 
ness to leave Akron and go east. 

Dr. B. W. Richmond located at Chardon, Dr. Stevens at Windsor, and 
Dr. H. Plimpton at Painesville, in 1845. 

Dr. G. W. Barker opened an office in Cleveland in 1848 and a few months 
later Dr. Thomas Miller became his partner. Soon afterward Dr. Barker went 
to Detroit and Dr. Miller to Missouri. 


In 1847 ^^1'- CJcrhard Saal was practicing homoeopathy in Springfield. 
He was educated in Germany and came to America in 1846. In 1852 he went 
to Cincinnati and became partner of Dr. E. C. Witherill. In 1872 he held the 
chair of clinical medicine in Pulte College. He died May 4, 1875. In 1852 he 
published in the "' American AJagazine of Homceopathy " a series of articles 
on kinesitherapy. 

Dr. Jacob Liosler commenced to practice honujeopathy in Dayton in 1848, 
and. assisted in organizing the state societies. He died at the age of seventy- 

Dr. Henry L. Sook began the practice of homoeopathy in 1853 at Pom- 
ero}-. He says : " The first homoeopathic medicine I ever saw, and I believe 
the first time 1 ever heard of it, was in 1844. A friend of mine had brought 
a small case and book from Ithaca, N. Y. Of course, like other simpletons, I 
attempted to make sport of the little pills, but afterward being convinced of 
their superiority, studied the system in opposition to all friends and relations 
excepting the one first named. I had a course of lectures at Cleveland the 
winter of 1852-53 and commenced the practice. After eight years I returned 
and graduated." After remaining three years at Pomeroy he went to Steu- 
benville. In 1869 he located at Newark, and joined the institute that same 

Dr. N. H. Maiiter began the practice of homoeopathy at Elyria, the county 
town of Lorain county, in 1848. He had been practicing medicine about twen- 
ty-five years. In 1852 Dr. H. P. Gatchell made a trip through Ohio, visiting 
the physicians who were interested in homoeopathy and writing a series of edi- 
torial letters to the " American Magazine of Homoeopathy and Hydropathy," 
of which he, with Dr. Pulte, was joint editor. One of his articles says: " Dr. 
Manter, one of the oldest physicians in that section, has been practicing medi- 
cine in Elyria for some twenty or twenty-five years. Of a superior educa- 
tion, literary and medical, he soon obtained an extensive practice. But hav- 
ing been attracted by the reputation of homoeopathy some two or three years 
since, to give it an examination, and having derived some benefit from it in his 
own person, he has abandoned his former destructive practice, and now demon- 
strates by superior success the merits of homoeopathy." Dr. Manter died 
about 1866 or 1867. Dr. Rosa, Jr., was at that time his partner. 

Dr. John Tifft, of Norwalk, practiced allopathy for many years, but in 
1852, through the influence of Dr. Horatio Robinson of New York, he took up- 
homoeopathy. Dr. D. H. Beckwith was his partner at Norwalk for three 

Dr. J. Beeman, who had been an eclectic physician in Birmingham, became 
a homoeopath in 1851. He said: "In testing the homoeopathic law and in 
availing myself of its valuable application when tested, I have only acted in 
accordance with the principles inculcated in my medical education. I received 
that at an eclectic college from professors who were free to investigate, whose 
maxim was to 'prove all things, and to hold fast that which is good.' Their 
graduates, therefore, unlike the graduates of allopathic schools in general, 
were untrammelled, (joverned by the principles there taught, I have ever felt 
free to receive truth from every source. Nor have I sufifered myself to be blind- 
ed by the influence of custom or the desire for popularity. I have respected no 
error because it is old — I have rejected no truth because it is new. Antiquity 
or popularity count for nothing with me in estimating the value of systems of 

^T' )m' ( ii' IK ).\i(i':(ji'ATiiv 

(•ii\r'i"(':u !.\ 

1 c.Mci-".! I'AT.M \ I x OHIO — (fox'i I xri:i) ) 


Purpose of the Homccopathic Society of Cincinnati — Hill of the Eclectic Medical Insti- 
tute of Cincinnati Converted to Homoeopathy — Shepherd, the Pioneer in Hamilton 
County — Reminiscences of Early Physicians — Pulte, the Founder. Scholar and Phy- 
sician — The Western College of Homoeopathic Medicine. 

The period from 1840 to 1852 in the history of Ohio homoeopathy is 
important. The Homoeopathic Society of Cincinnati was con-'ixiscd larp^ely of 
laymen and had a thousand members whose purpose w^ns to vindicate homoe- 
opathy and to uphold the truth reoarding the cholera epidemic : to petition the 
assembly of 1849 ^o^ ^" ^^ct establishing- a homoeopathic college; to promulgate 
the lectures by Storm Rosa in 184Q; to organize a college at Cleveland in 
1850; and to promote the advancement of the system throughout the towns of 
the state. On September 2. 185 1. a convention of the homoeopathic physicians 
of Ohio was called to meet at Colttmbus and organize a state society. The 
occasion witnessed several interesting events. Dr. Benjamin L. Hill, who had 
been a member of the faculty of the Cincinnati Eclectic Institute, avowed his 
conversion to homoeopathy and gave his reasons, which were afterward pub- 
lished in a series of articles in the " Magazine of Homoeopathy." Dr. Hill was 
born December 8. 1813. For some years he was professor of anatomy and 
surgery in the Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, and was one of the 
founders of the Western Homoeopathic College at Cleveland. He was profes- 
sor of the principles and practice of surgery in that school, and also gave a 
course of lectures in the St. Louis Homoeopathic College in i860. He was 
the author of a \vork on eclectic surgery, published in iS^^o, and in conjunction 
with Dr. J. G. Hunt, published a work on homoeopathic surgery, issued in 
Cleveland in 18^5. In 1859 ^''^ published a small domestic book called " Epi- 
tome of the Homoeoi;)athic Healing Art.'' which became popular and which 
passed through eighteen editions. . In 1863 he was appointed bv President Lin- 
coln, consul to Xicarngua. where he passed one year, when his health became 
impaired and he returned. He also served two terms in the Ohio legislature. 
He removed from Cincinnati to Berlin in 1852. and practiced until a short 
time before his death, when he went to Marysville. California, where he died. 
May 13, 1871. 

The pioneer homoeopath of Hamilton cotmty was Dr. Alfred Shepherd. 
He g^raduated at the Eclectic Medical In.stitute in March. 1849, settled at 
Springdale, and commenced the practice of homoeopathy. He was the only 
homoeopathic physician at that time between Cincinnati and Dayton. A few 
years later he removed to Glendale. He joined the American Institute of 
Homoeopathv in 1865. His death occurred in May, 1891. 

F. H. Rheiwinkle succeeded Dr. B. F. Ehrmann at Chillicothe in 1849, 
and practiced homceopathy there two years when he abandoned medicine for 

Dr. Adolph Bauer, one of the Allentown coterie who practiced for a time 

Seven Old Fellows. 


at Lynn township, Pa., and graduated from the academy, was born and edu- 
cated in Germany. He located in Cincinnati in 1848, where he acquired a 
large practice and where he passed his Hfe. He died suddenly October 13, 
1867, aged 61 years. He joined the American Institute of Homoeopathy in 

Isedorich Ehrmann, brother of Benjamin, was lx)rn in Jaxsthausen and 
received his medical education in Germany. He arrived in New York in the 
spring of 1833, settling at first at Carlisle, Pa. He later went to Baltimore, 
Md. In 1857 he was in practice in Buffalo, N. Y., and afterward located 
in Cincinnati. He died June 7, 1890. 

J. W. Leech was for a time located at Xenia. In i860 he settled in 

Ephraim Craig Beckwith was born in Bronson, Huron county, Ohio, De- 
cember 6, 1824. In 1851 he attended his first course of lectures in the medical 
department of Michigan University. In 1853 he graduated at the Geneva, 
N. Y., Medical College. The next year he located at Marietta, Ohio, in part- 
nership with Dr. A. J. Sawyer. In 1856 he married Fanny Forest. After ten 
years of practice he removed to Zanesville where he remained for twelve 
years. In 1873 he took charge of the sanitarium at College Hill, Ohio. This 
position on account of ill health he relinquished in 1874 and went to Columbus, 
where he remained in practice mitil his death, November 21, 1880. He was 
a member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy and of the state societies. 

Arthur T. Bissell located at Toledo in 1848. He was professor in the 
Western College in 1852. He removed to New York and engaged in manu- 
facturing. S. S. Lungren settled at Toledo in 1862 and took Dr. Bissell's 
office apartments. Dr. Lungren died March 6, 1892. 

In 1849 ^^- John Gilman located at Cleveland, where he remained but a 
few years. With several others he started the " Northern Ohio Medical and 
Scientific Examiner." It was not long continued. 

In 1852 Dr. Kyle, an old school graduate, was practicing homoeopathy at 

Dr. George Hill, brother to Benjamin, graduated from the Western Homoe- 
opathic College. February 26, 1853. He located at Berlin Heights where he 
practiced until his death. 

Dr. E. W. Cowles commenced the practice of homoeopathy at Cleveland 
in 1845. He was a graduate of Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia 
and a convert to homoeopathy. He had been practicing since 1832, or earlier, 
as an allopath. 

Dr. Robert Albert Snow was the first homoeopathic student in Cleveland, 
studying with Dr. Wlieeler. After graduating he went to New York. 

Dr. Henry Wigand located at Ravenna in 1846, later went to Sandusky, 
from there to Springfield, and later located in Dayton. In 185 1 he published 
the Dayton '" Heraid'of Health." 

Charles D. Williams located in Cleveland in 1846. He aided in the organ- 
ization of the homoeopathic college and was professor of principles and practice 
of homoeopathy. He went to St. Paul, Minn., in i860. 

In August. 1850, Lewis Dodge came from Detroit and located in Cleve- 
land, and later filled the chair of materia medica in the college. 

William Webster was born in Monroe county, Ohio, January 12, 1827. 
His father. Dr. Elias Webster, was a pioneer homoeopathic physician. He 
had been an allopath in Pennsylvania, and later in Butler county, Ohio. He 



was a descendant of Noah Webster, the lexicographer. His mother, Mary 
Kain, was the daughter of an Ohio pioneer. Dr. Webster was educated at the- 
Ohio Wesleyan University, and also at Farmer's College, where he graduated 
in 1848. He then entered the Cincinnati Eclectic Institute, graduating in 1851. 
He moved to Middletown, Ohio, where he began the practice of allopathy,, 
but he had listened to the lectures of Dr. Rosa, and they had impressed him. 
He made trials of homceopathy, and in two or three years adopted the new sys- 
tem.. Dr. Webster remained nine years at Middletown, but in 1858 went 
to Dayton. At that time there were but two homoeopathic physicians in Day- 
ton, Dr. Bosler and Dr. Wigand, and Webster bought out Wigand. He- 
remained in Dayton the rest of his life. He had three sons, two of whom 
are physicians. He was a member of the institute and of the state and county 
societies. His death occurred May 22, 1894. 

Dr. Horatio P. Gatchell was a graduate of Bowdoin College in Brunswick, 
Maine. He studied for the ministry and as late as 1843 '""^ was a preacher of the 

gospel. He subsequently studied med- 
icine, and in 1849-50 was a professor 
in the Eclectic Medical Institute of 
Cincinnati. At that time he was in- 
vestigating homoeopathy. In 1850 he 
became associated with Dr. Pulte in 
the "American Magazine of Homoeop- 
athy." In 185 1 he became professor 
of pathology and practice in the 
Cleveland Homoeopathic College. In 
1865 he was connected with the Hahn- 
emann Medical College of Chicago. 
He established a sanitarium at Ken- 
osha, Wis., and later removed to Ashe- 
ville, N. C, where he remained until' 
his death, March 27, 1885. In May, 
1852, Dr. Gatchell writes: "When 
last year I wrote you from Painesvillc 
I was here as a visitor, now I write 
from under my own rooftree ; then I 
was engaged in private practice in Cin- 
cinnati ; now I am laying the founda- 
tions of an infirmary upon one of the 
most salubrious spots in the western- 
Dr. George William Barnes graduated at the Western Homoeopathic Col- 
lege in 1852. In 1869 he went to California. 

Dr. Hamilton Ring graduated at the Homoeopathic Mcvlical College of 
Pennsylvania in 1851. He then located at Urbana. He writes: "Homoe- 
opathy had few supporters in Urbana in the beginning of 1852, three or foui" 
families only being prepared to rely upon it in cases of severe sickness. Two 
physicians had been here for very short periods a year or two before, but had 
not found the encouragement to remain they wished. During 1852 my income- 
from practice was but $300; in 1853 only $450. From year to year the prac- 
tice has steadily increased, except during the war period, when the field was: 
in charge of two men who neglected the interests of practice. With the excep- 

Alfrcd Shepherd, iM. D. 


lion of the period between 1857 and 1865, durini; which period 1 practiced 
homoeopathy at Port Gibson, Miss., I have resided in L'rbana." Dr. Ring died 
on November 12, 1884. 

In 1854 or 1855 Dr. T. W. Cuscaden, a graduate of the Eclectic Medical 
Institute, located in Lebanon, Warren county, and was the first homoeopathic 
physician in that locality. Although it was said that he could not remain, 
he did so until his death in 1861. Dr. Charles Cropper went to Lebanon in 
January, 1861, remaining there until 1863, when he went to Cincinnati. He 
practiced there until 1869, when he returned to Lebanon. He was born at 
Lexington, Ky.. September 16, 1826, graduated from Eclectic Medical Insti- 
tute in 1854. In 1864 he founded the " American Homoeopathist," which was 
published three years. 

r.enjamin Ehrmann was a native of Wurtemburg, Germany, born in the 
village of Jaxsthausen, March 3, 1812. His father and grandfather were physi- 
cians and both practiced medicine in his native village. As has been stated, 
he came to America when a young man, attended lectures in Philadelphia, 
graduated at Allentown Academy, and then located at Harrisburg, where he 
married. Later on he determined to follow the western emigration and lived 
for a time at Chillicothe, where he practiced for a short time in 1848, but becom- 
ing acquainted with Dr. Pidte, he was persuaded to remove to Cincinnati and 
there formed a partnership with Pulte. Then came the terrible epidemic of 
cholera in 1849 and the two made a reputation most enviable, despite of the 
envy of the opposing medical school that sought to destroy the "ignorarit Ger- 
man fanatics." Ehrmann was one of the early members of the American Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy, joining in 1846. He was a Swedenborgian, as were 
many of the older homoeopathists. His last illness was of short duration and 
he died March 15. 1886, in his 75th year. He left six children, of whom two 
sons became practicing physicians in Cincinnati. 

James George Hunt was born in Cincinnati September 2, 1822. He 
attended Woodward College, Cincinnati, and Yale College. He studied medi- 
cine with Dr. F. V. Morrow, the founder of the Eclectic Medical College of 
Cincinnati. On graduating he was offered the professorship of chemistry in a 
medical school recently established in Memphis, but declined it and became 
partner with Dr. Morrow in the spring of 1849. The same year he married 
Sarah E. Palmer., During the prevalence of the cholera epidemic. Dr. Hunt 
made his first experiments in homoeopathy, and his success was such that he 
soon began its practice. In 1855, with Dr. B. L. Hill, he pubhshed a book 
on the homoeopathic practice of surgery, which had ^ ready sale. The same 
year he was elected to the chair of surgery in the Western "College of Homoe- 
opathic Medicine. He was for a time connected with " The Homoeopathist," 
a journal started by Dr. Cropper. In 1872, wath Dr. Alonzo Bishop of Ithaca, 
N. Y., Dr. Hunt established a sanitarium at the White Sulphur and Tar 
Springs, near Cloverport, Ky. He died a few years later. 

William Owens commenced to practice homoeopathy in Cincinnati in 
1849. He was born in Warren, Trumbull county, April 24, 1823; went to 
Cincinnati in 1837; attended Woodward College, and then entered a drug 
store. He volunteered for service in the Mexican war and was in several bat- 
tles. At the close of the war he returned to Cincinnati and began to study 
medicine, graduating in 1849. In the fall of that year he began the practice 
of liomoeopathy and became demonstrator in the institute. Later, he held the 
same position in the Western College of Homoeopathy at Cleveland. In 1855 



he took charG:e of a water cure establishment at Granville. In i86i he raised 
a company ni cavalry and was appointed first lieutenant, and later was pro- 
moted captain. He also acted as assistant surgeon and quartermaster. After 
the war he returned to Cincinnati to practice. On May 12, 1853, he married 
Sarah E. Wilcox of Cincinnati. June i, i865> he was appointed a pension 
examining surgeon for Hamilton county. He was also professor of anatomy 
in Puite Medical College. 

Dr. Storm Rosa was born in Coxsackie. Green county, N. Y., July 18, 
1 79 1. He studied medicine with Dr. Doubleday, of Catskill, Dr. Taw Green, 
of Chenango county, and Dr. Clyde, of Broome county, N. Y. After three 
vears study he was examined by the board of censors of Senaca county, and 

William Owens, M. D. 

was granted a license March 9, 1816. Pie then located in Madison, Ohio, prac- 
ticed there until October, 18 18, when he removed to Painesville. While in 
Madison he married Sophia Kimball, by whom he had two children, Lemuel 
K, and Catherine Rosa. Lemuel became a homoeopathic physician. In 1841 
Dr. Rosa began to investigate homoeopathy at the suggestion of friends who 
had been using homoeopathic medicine with success. He received the assis- 
tance of Dr. Barlow, of New York, and Dr. Pulte, of Cincinnati, who supplied 
him with books and medicines. In 1843 he formally adopted the system. Dr. 
E. M. Hale thus writes of him : " When the Eclectic Medical College of Cin- 
cinnati was organized, it was understood by the legislature that chartered it 
and the original faculty that it w-as to be organized upon the broadest basis of 
ture eclecticism. Drs. Morrow, Plill, Gatchcll and other able men were mem- 
bers of the faculty, and Dr. Rosa was selected bv the h(inKTeopathists of Ohio 



as a suitable per.Min to occupy the chair of theory and practice of homoeopathy. 
His labors in that ctjlle^e mark an era of homteopatliy in the west. They gjave 
an impetus to the system that is felt even to this dav. He began one course 
of lectures, which had the effect of converting not only one-third of the class, 
but two of his most prominent eclectic colleagues in the faculty. Drs. Hill and 
Gatchell. This was a result not relished by the eclectic school and Dr. Rosa 
was deposed from his position." 

The trustees formally abolished this chair August 22. 1850. A trustee 
published a letter to the " American Journal of Homoeopathy " for October, 
1850, in which he said that as there 
were many errors in homoeopathy, 
and as the students were already 
overburdened with study, and as the 
professors were quite competent to 
teach the doctrines of homoeopathy 
as much as necessary, a special 
homoeopathic professorship was of 
no utility, especially as there had 
been considerable opposition in the 
ranks of the homoeopathic school. 

When the Western College of 
Homoeopathic Medicine was opened 
in Cleveland in the fall of 1850, Dr. 
Rosa was tendered the chair of ob- 
stetrics and diseases of women, 
which position he occupied for sev- 
eral years. When the St. Louis 
Homoeopathic College was estab- 
lished he was offered the chair of 
theory and practice, but declined. 
He presided over the first meeting 
of homoeopaths held in Ohio, at Bur- 
ton, and there were but nine phy- 
sicians present. Dr. Rosa died at 
Painesville, May 3, 1864. 

Lemuel K. Vosa was born in 1827. He graduated at the Eclectic Medical 
Institute of Cincinnati, and soon afterward, 1849, associated in practice with 
Dr. Adam Miller of Cincinnati, with whom he remained a year. In the spring 
of 1850 he became associated with Dr. H. P. Gatchell. His health was now 
feeble, he having for some time been subject to pulmonary hemorrhage. He 
returned to his" father's home and attempted to practice with Dr. Manter, 
of Elyria, but was again obliged to give it up. He died February 29. 1854, 
aged twenty-seven vears. 

Dr. David Herrick Beckwith was born at Bronson, Feb. 13, 1826, and 
read medicine with Dr. John Tifift, of Norwalk, from 1846 to 1849: attended 
lectures at Cleveland Medical College in 1847-48, and graduated from the 
eclectic and homoeopathic departments of the Eclectic Medical Institute of 
Cincinnati in 1849. ^^ 1850-51 he attended the first course of lectures at the 
Eastern College of Homoeopathic Medicine, and received an honorary degree 
in the latter vear. He became a partner with Dr. TiiTt at Norwalk. remaining 
there until 1852, when he removed to Marietta, being the first homoeopathist 

Storm Rosa, M. D. 

U H. BKCKwn-H. M. I). J. C. SANnKKS. M I. ! rank Kra.-t. M. D. H. F. B.GOAr. M. D. 

J. R. HORNER. M. IJ. <- "■ ^2VAY, M. n. 

U H. Vi. IS, M, D. 
H. B. Van Norman. M D. <>• ^ I'ai.mkr, M. I) 

W. A. Phiu.ihs, M. D. H. H. Baxter, M. D. 

H. D. Bishop, M. D. 

G. J. Jones. M. D. 



there. In 1853 '^^ located at Zanesville, and in 1861 settled in Qeveland. 
During the first two years of practice he used allopathic medicines largely, 
testing homoeopathy. His attention was first called to it while a student. In 
the Cleveland Lyceum the topic was presented : "Resolved, That Homoeop- 
athy is the greatest humbug of the age." Dr. Beckwith was appointed on 
the negative side, which compelled him to investigate the principles of the 
new school. He consulted Drs. John Wheeler and C. D. Williams, who loaned 
him homoeopathic books and assisted him in understanding the doctrines of 
Hahnemann. The debate lasted for five hours and was decided in the nega- 
tive. In 185 1 and 1852 Dr. Beckwith, with others, who had entire control of 
the county buildings, tested thoroughly the comparative merits of homoeopathy 
and allopathy in scarlet fever and dysentery. The result was so much in 
favor of homreopathy that the old use of drugs was abolished. Dr. Beck- 
with is a representative man among the Ohio homceopathists. He is a mem- 
ber of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, an organizer of the state 
society and member of various county societies. He ' is still in practice in 

In the year 1846 the first homoeopathic pharmacy in Ohio was opened 
in Cleveland by B. H. Bartlett, at the corner of Superior street and public 
square. In 1845, J- ^- DeSilver opened a pharmacy in Cincinnati. He was 
agent for the Leipsic pharmacy. In July, 1849, Dr. H. F. Davis opened a 
pharmacy in the same city and at the same time conducted a free dispensary 
for cholera patients. He sold out to Dr. Parks in the summer of 185 1. In 
the Cincinnati " Journal of Homoeopathy " he advertises that " having bought 
Dr. Davis' pharmacy and entirely resigned out-door practice will prepare 
prescriptions at the pharmacy.'' This pharmacy was sold in 1863 to G. W. 
Smith and A. F. Worthington, who dissolved partnership in 1873. In Febru- 
ary, 1892, Boericke & Tafel bought out Mr. Worthington. Dr. S. Bailey 
opened a small pharmacy in Toledo in 1865, and Dr. G. Wolfif conducted a 
pharmacy at Zanesville in 1886. A Mr. Hernig had a pharmacy at Wheeling 
at one time, and T. L. A. Greve had one in Cincinnati. 

William Fiske conducted a homoeopathic drug store in Cleveland about 
1850, and later took John Hall as partner. On January i, 1853. ]\Ir. Fiske 
left the firm and Mr. Hall continued the business for a time and was then 
succeeded by his son, John B. Hall. In 1865 he sold out to Drs. D. H. Beck- 
wuth and N. Schneider. On January i, 1867, Dr. T. P. Wilson entered the 
firm. In 1866, Dr. Beckwith bought the pharmacy, taking as partner Mr. 
L. H. Wilte, who in 1869 bought out Dr. Beckwith and became sole pro- 

In 1851, Drs. B. Ehrmann, Adam Miller and G. W. Bigler established 
^' The Cincinnati Journal of Homoeopathy." It was issued by the Society of 
Homoeopathic Ph} sicians in Cincinnati. 

Homoeopathic physicians in Ohio previous to i860. The date preceding 
the name indicates the year the physician began the practice of homoeopathy. 
The character * indicates that the practitioner originally was of some other 
school ; the character x indicates that ph}sician practiced medicine before the 
■date given. 

1843 Adams, R. E. W. Cleveland 1857 Bauer, Ad., Jr. x Cincinnati 

1857 Appleby, Dr. x Dayton 1847 Barker, G. W. Cleveland 

1858 Arnott, Mrs. C. Amherst 1857 Bartow, A. C. x Lancaster 
1840 Bauer, Adolph Cincinnati 1845 Bartlett, B. H. Cleveland 



185 1 






185 1 
185 1 



1 840 

Barber, Dr. x Zanesville 

Barnes, George W. Mount Vernon 

Barnes, L. x Delaware 

Barry, Mrs. E. H. x Cleveland 

Beach, S. A. 

Beeman, J. 

Beckwith, David H. Cleveland 

Beckwith, Ephriam C. Cleveland 

Beckwith, I. B. Norwalk 

Beckwith, Seth R. Cleveland 

Beck, W. X Cincinnati 

Bigler, George W. Cincinnati 

Bigelow, F. X Toledo 

Bissell, Arthur F. Toledo 

Blair, Alonzo O. x Columbus 

Blair, Giles S. * Galion 

Blair, George H. Columbus 

Blakeney, J. T. x Somerset 

Bliss, A. A. X Columbus 

Bottsford, O. K. x Wellsville 

Bosler, Jacob x Dayton 

Boyle, Dr. x Dayton 

Brainard, Jehu Cleveland 

Brush, A. X Cincinnati 

Burritt, Alexander H. Burton 

Bush, R. B. X Cadily 

Bryce, Dr. 

Cain, William Ravenna 

Caspari, Edward Ravenna 

Chase, H. H. x Painesville 

Coman. Isaac W. Jefferson 

Cope, Dr. Plymouth 

Cook. Helen 

Coburn. S. H. x Adrian 

Coulter, James H. x Columbus 

Gushing, Charles F. Cleveland 

Connolly, P. J. x Massillon 

Cowles. E. W. Cleveland 

Crosby, Dr. x Akron 

Cropper, Charles Cincinnati 

Cuscaden, T. W. Lebanon 

Davis, Frederick A. W. * Cincinnati 

Davis, H. F. Cincinnati 

Davis, H. J. X Cincinnati 

Davis. John Greenfield 

Dawayer. A. I. x Norwalk 

Detweiler. Wm. M. River Styks P. O. 

Dennis, J. W. 

De Silver 

Diller, J. M. x Ashland 

Drake, S. L. x Cleveland 

Dodge, Lewis Adrian 

Ehrmann, Benjamin F. Chillicothe 

Ehrmann, L * Cincinnati 

Edson, Mrs. S. A. x Cleveland 

Fall. John C. * Springfield 

Ferris, O. * Upper Sandusky 

Flowers, F. L. * New Lexington 

Fuller, Dr. x Fairfield 

Fulton, S. J. x Toledo 

Garrettson, Jesse Cincinnati 

Garrcttson, Jos. x Cincinnati 












85 T 



Gatchell, Horatio P. * Cleveland 
Gaylord, Edward P. Toledo 
Gilman, John Cleveland 
Gilson, E. D. x Ohio City 
Gray, W. W. x Cleveland 
Goff, Philip H. Geneva 
Goodrich, W. B. x Hiram 
Gorgas, Charles R. * Wooster 
Gross, E. F. x Marion 
Harris, Dr. x Mansfield 
Hawk, J. A. X West Lebanon 
Hamisfar. C. H. * St. Marys 
Herrick, C. B. 
Hering, H. x Steubenville 
Hill, Benjamin L. * Berlin Hts. 
Hill, George L. Berlinville 
Hollingsworth, Z. Oregon 
Holcombe, William H. * Cincinnati 
Hoyt, Daniel O. * Cleveland 
Howells, X Urbana 
Hunt, James G. Cincinnati 
Hussey, C. St. C. 
Johnson, J. M. x Cleveland 
Kinsell, D. R. 
Keys, D. C. x Oberlin 
Koch, W. X Zanesville 
Kissey, J. x Oregon 
Kramer, D. T. x Sandusky 
Kyle, Dr. 
Leech, J. W. 

Leach, William C. x Xenia 
Linton, J. G. x Hamburgh 
Macy, Benjamin C. * Elyria 
Massey, Isaiah B. * Sandusky 
Manter, N. H. Elyria 
Miller, Adam * Cincinnati 
]\liller, Thomas * Cleveland 
Myers, Jacob x Ashland 
Morrill, Alpheus * Akron 
Niess, J. X Canton 
Northrup, D. W. x Sherman 
Oesterlin, Charles * Findlay 
Owens, William * Cincinnati 
Parks, John M. x Cincinnati 
Peckham, George F. * Rawsonville 
Pearson, Clement Wellsville 
Pearson, William x Dayton 
Prentiss, A. N. Jefferson 
Peck, William Cincinnati 
Plymouth. A. H. Painsville 
Podzoe, Father Somerset 
Price, William x Cincinnati 
Prowell, Dr. 

Pritchard, J. A. * Eaton 
Pulte, Joseph H. Cincinnati 
Prctsch, Curt Wellsville 

Rheiwinkle, F. H. Chillicothe 
Ring, Hamilton Urbana 
Richmond, R. W. Charlton 
Rodger s, George B. * Chagrin Falls 
Rosa, Storm Painesville 



iS^y Rosa. Lemuel K. 

1X54 Rush, Robert B. Springfield 

iS_|6 Saal. Gerhard Springfield 

1X55 Sanders, John Chapin Cleveland 

1X57 Sapp, G. W. X Tiffin 

1X57 Sachse, H. S. x Chillicothe 

1X43 Schlagel, Amherst 

1X57 Sceale, Dr. x Cincinnati 

1857 Schueler, G. x Cleveland 

1857 Schell, D. X Canton 

1849 Shepherd, Alfred Springdale 

1845 Shepherd, David * Bainbridge 

1857 Smith, H. L. x Mount Vernon 

1857 Smith, E. W. x Higginsport 

1844 Snow Ralph A. Cleveland 

1853 Sook, Henry L. * Pomeroy 

1854 Spangler. R. W. Chillicothe 
Stanley, Nelson 

1851 Starr, Calvin Springfield 

1857 Steemm, C. W. x Piqua 

184s Stevens, D. Windsor 

1839 Strum, William Cincinnati 

1857 Stockton. C. L. x Painesville 

1857 Straw. J. X Cincinnati 

1857 Stohl. F. X Ganges 

Stokes, Dr. 

1857 Storm, I. W. X Cincinnati 

1857 Storm, George x 

857 Sturges, J. J. X Cleveland 

857 Sweeney, E. I. x Nelson 

8^7 Swany, I. x Charlton 

857 Teller, E. R. x Newark 

857 Thompson, W. x Solon 

852 TifTt, John Norwalk 

853 Townsend, Enoch W. * Warren 
857 Turrell, G. x Cleveland 

857 Turrell, G. Y. x Cleveland 

855 Vail, George W. * Arlington 

857 Watson, J. X Lexington 

853 Wakeman, John A.* Portsmouth 

853 Webster, William * Middletown 
857 Werner, J. x Canton 

845 Wheeler, John * Cleveland 
857 Wheelan, G. x Columbiana 
857 Wheat, J. N. x Oberlin 

857 Whitney. Sullivan x Cleveland 

854 White, Cornelius C. Marion 
847 Whipple. A. Dry Ridge 

852 Witherill. Edwin C. Cincinnati 

857 Wilson, Thomas P. Lanesville 

840 Williams, Charles D. * Cleveland 

855 Wilmot, Silas G. * Rawsonville 

846 Wigand, Henry Ravenna 
857 Wolfard, H. L. x Wooster 
857 Wooley, P. H. X Newburgh 
857 Worley, H. P. x Cleveland 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Condition of Medicine in Louisiana in Martin's Time — The Southern Honitieopathic 
Medical Association — Charity Homoeopathic Hospital — Dr. Joseph Martin, the Pio- 
neer Homoeopath in Louisiana — Taft, the Second Practitioner — Reminiscences of 
Other Early Homoeopathic Practitioners. 

Authentic historical accotmts state that homoeopathy first found lodgment 
in Louisiana in 1836, in which year the system was also introduced in the 
states of Ohio and Maryland. The people of the far south took kindly to the 
new doctrine, and welcomed its pioneers with the warm impulses of their na- 
tures ; and while the allopathic school refused to countenance the disciples of 
Hahnemann, they did not carry their opposition to the extreme length of bit- 
terness with which they greeted the homoeopaths in many of the states farther 

The story of the planting and subsequent growth oi homoeopathy in Lo'Uis- 
iana is not wholly unlike that of other states, yet for some reason not easy 
of explanation the school never acquired great or even proportionate strength 
in the region under consideration, and this despite the fact that the physical 
afflictions of mankind in the south, the peculiar maladies with which the 
southerners have been periodically visited, yield more readily to homoeopathic 
treatment than to that of the old school. This has been proven time and again. 
The people, too, always have been ready to welcome the general outspreading 
of homoeopathy, but the young practitioners fresh from the college have set 
their faces in another direction, choosing the more densely populated states 
and the large commercial centers as the field of professional activity. In 1878, 
twenty-five years after Martin, the former French ship surgeon, first treated 
in New Orleans with the little doses, there were only seventeen homoeopathic 
practitioners in the state, and ten years later the number had decreased to 
eight. In 1904 there were twenty-six homoeopathic physicians in the state, 
twelve in New Orleans and fourteen in the sparsely settled parishes outside 
of that city. 


In 1880 the less than twenty homoeopathic practitioners of the state met in 
the city of New Orleans and organized a medical association under the name 
of Hahnemann Medical Association of Louisiana. This body soon became 
decadent and was succeeded in 1885 ^7 the Southern Homoeopathic Medical 
Association. The latter society has enjoyed a continuous existence to the 
prese-it time, although a re-organization was affected in 1890. The annual 
meeting is held in New Orleans in January, with bi-monthly meetings for 
ordinary purposes in the same city. The membership in 1903 was twenty- 
two physicians. 

Societe Hahnemaimienne De La Novelle Orleans was oroanized some- 

HISTORY OF H0^[n<:Olv\THV 1S»' 

time between 1858 and i860. It published a monthly paper called " L'llo- 
moion," which, like the society itself, was soon discontinued. 

The Charity Homoeopathic Hospital of New Orleans was founded in 
1892 by the homoeopathic profession and its friends in the city, and was 
the direct outgrowth of a refusal of certain hospital authorities to permit 
homoeopathic treatment of a patient in that institution. The incident hap- 
pened in 1891, and the new hospital was established in March of the next 
year. It was a worthy enterprise, founded for an equally commendable pur- 
pose, yet its life was short, due to a want of proper interest in its affairs, 
hence its " passing " was only a natural consequence. 


Homoeopathy was introduced in Louisiana about the same time as in 
Ohio. Dr. Joseph Martin, a physician connected with the French navy, vis- 
ited New Orleans and became enamoured of that brilliant city. Returning to 
France, he was converted by Dr. Tournier, who practiced homoeopathy in 
Lyons as early as 1834. Alartin returned to America and located in New 
Orleans in 1836. Dr. Flolcombe says Martin was the first man who practiced 
homoeopathy in the southern states, and that he practiced in New Orleans 
until his death, in 1861. The next pioneer was a layman named Formel, who 
had been an old soldier of the " Empire " and who practiced with great zeal. 

The French and American people were at that time entirely separated 
from each other, and the American residents knew but little of the French 
practitioners. The first homoeopathic physician who established a practice 
among the Americans was Dr. Robert Glass, of Flopkinsville, Ky., who from 
1840 to 1844 spent the winters in New Orleans and practiced the system of 
Hahnemann. About the same time two German physicians, Drs. Kiefer and 
Luyties, were for a short time in practice. 

In 1845, ^^- Gustavus M. Taft, of Hartford, Conn., went south. He 
was born in Dedham, Mass., December 7, 1820; read medicine with Dr. Josiah 
F. Flagg, of Boston; graduated at the University of New York in 1842, and 
began practice in Hartford, being the second practitioner of homceopathy in 
that city. His health failed and he went to New Orleans in November, 1845. 
Dr. Holcombe says he was an elegant and accomplished gentleman, a thor- 
oughly educated physician, and to fascinating address he added the, charm of 
fine personal appearance. He acquired an immense business, and his sudden 
death, August 10, 1847, ^^'^s regarded as a public calamity. Dr. Taft was 
one of the original members of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. 

Another of the early homoeopathists was Dr. Alexander Hamilton Bur- 
ritt, who went to New Orleans in July, 1854, and of whom further mention 
is rnade in the history of early homoeopathy in Ohio. Another noteworthy 
practitioner was Dr. L. V. M. Taxil, who had been an allopathic professor in 
France. He located in New Orleans previous to 1857, and in 1859 estab- 
lished a French monthly journal, " L'Homoion, " an organ of Hahnemannian 
doctrine. While attending professional duties Dr. Taxil was severely injured, 
having been run over by a street car, from the effects of which he died. Aug- 
ust 6, 1864, aged sixty-eight years. Dr. Taxil received his medical degree 
from the Western Homoeopthic College m 1858. 

Another of the French homoeopathists was Dr. Louis Caboche, who set- 
tled in New Orleans about 1856. He also published a paper, " Le Practicien 
Homoeopathique", a monthly commenced in 1857 and continued one year. In 


1861 he edited " L'Homoion, " which was the organ of the Societe Hahne- 
mannienne of New Orleans. He died of typhoid fever in November, 1863, 
aged seventy-two years. 

Alexis Leon was born in Philadelphia in April, 181 5. After practicing 
a few years in that city he removed to New Orleans, where he remained twelve 
years. He was practicing homoeopathy previous to 1851. He went to New 
Orleans about 1844 and left there in 1856 for New York, where he established 
himself in practice. Under the direction of Dr. E. E. Marcy, he gave him- 
self treatment and greatly recovered his health. During the summer of 1866, 
the fear of cholera in New York caused the physicians to be overworked and 
Dr, Leon was affected. In August he was taken ill and died at Long Branch, 
N. J., September 2, 1866. He joined the American Institute of Homoeopathy 
in 1846. 

Dr. J. Vail was practicing homoeopathy in New Orleans as early as 1853. 
In a letter he said: "We had in 1853 and 1854 five homoeopathic physicians 
in full practice; this year (1855) we have four more. For the three years the 
yellow fever prevailed here our loss has been six per cent. " 

The homoeopathic pioneer in Mobile was Dr. James Gridley Belden, who 
was born in Moscow, N. Y., September 22, 1822. He took a course at Har- 
vard Medical School, studied a year with Dr. Winslow Lewis, of Boston, 
two years with Dr. Taft, of Hartford, Conn., and graduated at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in New York in March, 1846. The same year he 
went to Mobile, Alabama, remained there a year and then located in New 
Orleans. His attention was called to homoeopathy by seeing its good results 
in the cases of friends, and making a study of it, he soon became convinced of 
its truth and openly adopted it in practice. In 1852 he married Arabella 
Trent, of Buffalo, N. Y. He died July 6, 1896, at New Orleans. 

In 1855 Dr. Richard Angell went to New Orleans to take charge, in con- 
junction with his son, of the Orphans' Home. He bought out Dr. Luyties' 
pharmacy the same year. He was born in London, England, March 16, 1804. 
After a year devoted to the study of pharmacy he attended the Middlesex 
Hospital, then under the supervision of his uncle, Thomas Chevalier, surgeon 
to George IV. Afterward he came to America, locating in Washington, D. 
C, where he studied medicine with Drs. Sewall and McWilliams of Columbia 
Medical College, from which he graduated in March, 1826, having held for 
three years previously the position of pharmaceutist and house surgeon in 
the Corporation Asylum and Hospital. He engaged in country practice in 
Mississippi until 1843, when he went to Louisville, Ky. While there he be- 
came a homoeopathist and adopted it in his practice. His wife's ill health 
compelled a return to the south in 1847, ^^'^^ ^^^ practiced in Huntsville, Ala., 
until 1855, when failing health unfitted him for active work. He then went 
to New Orleans and died there June 10, 1879, at the age of seventy-five years. 

Dr. Samuel Minter Angell was the son of Richard Angell, and was born 
in Jefferson county. Miss., August 2, 1833. He began the study of medicine 
with his father at Huntsville, Ala., and attended lectures at the Cincinnati 
Eclectic Medical Institute in 1854-55. The next year took a course at the 
Medical School of Louisiana (Tulane University). In 1856-57 he attended 
the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 
1857, and he also graduated from an allopathic college at Louisville, Ky. He 
settled in New Orleans in practice with his father in 1858, and the partnership 
lasted for twenty years until the father's death. During the yellow fever 


epidemic of 1878. Dr. Aiip:cll became well known for his successful treat- 
ment. He died in New Orleans, October 5, 1895, leaving a widow, two 
daughters and two sons. 

Dr. Adolphe Cartier, an old school practitioner of New Orleans, became a 
convert to homoeopathy about 1845. I" Sinith's " Homoeopathic Directory " 
for 1857 the names of A. Cartier, F. Cartier, Dr. Bailey, L. A. Bianchini, F. 
W. Ferris and J. Alathieu are given as practicing homoeopathy in New Or- 
leans. Dr. D. S. Oliphant was practicing in New Orleans in* 1857. An in- 
teresting letter from him may be found in the " Family Journal of Homoeo- 
pathy" for October, 1854, regarding the yellow fever in Mississippi in 1853. 
At that time Dr. Oliphant was living in Natchez. He says : " During the 

Wm. H. Holcombe, M. D. 

height of the epidemic I remained at Natchez assisting in attendance on the 
more critical cases of }ellow fever occurring in homoeopathic families. For 
several years I had abandoned medical practice on account of feeble health ; 
and had not the urgency of the case impelled me, I should have remained an 
indifferent spectator of the struggle between the several schools of medicine. 
But the calls of my friends for aid at this trying crisis forced me to active 
duty; and gratitude to Dr. Davis for his kind attention to me personally dur- 
ing a relapse of yellow fever, mduced me to give him all the aid I could as 
nurse and assistant in his cases. " In the midst of this duty Dr. Oliphant was 
called to Jefferson county, thirty-six miles distant, where the epidemic was so 
severe that the planters had banded together for mutual aid. The few homoeo- 
pathic families living there preferred that treatment, and it was their appli- 
cation to Drs. Davis and Holcombe that induced Dr. Oliphant to go there. 



The one man whose name always will be associated with the growth of 
homoeopathy in the south, the Hering of southern homoeopathy, is William 
Henry Holcombe, physician, author, poet, humanitarian. He was born in 
Lynchburg, Va., May 29, 1825. His grandfather was Colonel Philemon 
Holcombe, who ran away from Hampden College and enlisted at the begin- 
ning of the revolutionary war, serving through it. He was an officer in 
Harry Lee's famous regiment and acted as aide-de-camp to General LaFay- 
ette at the seige of Yorktown. 

Dr. Holcombe's father was Dr. William J. Holcombe. a successful physi- 
cian of Madison, Ind., with whom the young man studied medicine. He at- • 
tended one year at Washington College, Va., and had just prepared to enter 
the junior class at Yale College when his parents liberated their negroes 
and removed to Madison. He took a scientific course in Washington 
College, Lexington, Va., attended medical lectures at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1845-47, and graduated there in the latter 
3'ear, After practicing three years with his father in Madison, he 
went to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he resided from 1850 to 1852. While 
there he became a convert to the teachings of Swedenborg, and also to homoeo- 
pathy. He practiced in Natchez, Miss., from 1852 to 1855 and then he re- 
moved to Waterproof, La. In 1864 he v/ent to New Orleans and lived in that 
city until his death, excepting a short time spent in Cincinnati in 1886. In 
1852 he married Rebecca Palmer, of Cincinnati, who was interested in medi- 
cine and was seen in the doctor's office nearly as frequently as himself. He 
was a voluminous writer both of medical articles and books. He also published 
several volumes of poems and one novel. His first pamphlet, " The Scientific 
Basis of Homoeopathy, " was issued in 1851, and was of great value in mak- 
ing converts to the new medical system. The manuscript of his last book, 
"The Truth About Homoeopathy, " was found in his desk after his death. In 
1853, during the yellow fever epidemic. Dr. Holcombe and Dr. F. A. W; Davis 
were appointed physicians to the Mississippi State Hospital, and although 
powerful efforts were made in the legislature to expel them from office the 
committee which investigated the matter reported favorably and they were 

Dr. Holcombe became a member of the xAmerican Institute of Homoeo- 
pathy in i860, and also was a member of various other medical societies. His 
books on non-medical subjects were " Our Children in Heaven, " " The Sexes 
Here and Hereafter, " '•' In Both Worlds, " " The Other Life, " and a work 
of poetry called " Southern Voices. " Dr. Holcombe died November 28, 1893. 

Another of the pioneers of homoeopathy in Louisiana was Dr. James D. 
Bratt, son of Edward Bratt, of Pittsburgh, Pa., and a graduate in 1852 of the 
HonKxoi)athic Medical College of Pennsylvania. IJe died September 22, 185s. 

In the directory of 1857 ap])ear the names of Dr. Booth, at Newell's 
Ridge; Dr. Couel, ac Catahoola Parish; Dr. L. H. Dorsay, at Kirk's Ferry; 
Dr. Gab, at Carrollton ; Dr. Postlcthwaite, at Carroll Parish ; Dr. L. Stempel, 
at Star, and Dr. Wirz, at Milliken Bend, but no data are obtainable of them. 

In T853 Dr. Luyties established a homoeopathic pharmacy in New ( )'■- 
leans, and in 185s sold out to Dr. Richard Angell. In 1856 Drs. Leon and 
Burritt established a pliprniacv in New Orleans and carried on business fo'- a 
short time. Dr. dc YWlvucuvv kept a small pharmacy in the city for six 



months. About 1860 l^r. J. A. D'Hemicourt opened a pliarmacy, which was 
closed in 1875. after his death. In Xovcmber, 1877, I^'Ocricke & Tafel estab- 
lished a branch pharmacy in the city and placed it under the charge of 
Mr. T. Engelbach. who on A larch i, 1884. bouj^^ht and has since continued it. 

A French society was formed in Xew Orleans in 1858, and was con- 
tinued for a short time. The New Orleans Relief Association was continued 
during the yellow fever epidemic of 1878. It furnished food, nurses and 
homoeopathic medicines to the sick. The Hafmemann Medical Association of 
Louisiana was organized in 1880, but was discontinued in 1885. 

Homoeopathic physicians in Louisiana previous to i860. The date pre- 
ceding the name intlicates the >ear ihe physician began the practice of homceo- 
pathv. The character * indicates that the practitioner originally was of some 
other school ; the character x indicates that the physician practiced medicine 
before the date given. 

1844 Angell, Richard * New Orleans 1858 

1857 Angell, Samuel M. Xew Orleans 1857 

1857 Bailey, Walter * New Orleans 1840 

1846 Belden, James G. * New Orleans . 1^52 

1857 Bianchini, L. A. x New Orleans 1840 

1857 Booth, Dr. X Newells Ridge 1S46 

1852 Bratt; James D. Waterproof 1853 

1840 Burritt, Alexander H. New Orleans ; "57 

1857 Burritt, Mrs. x New Orleans r '36 

1850 Cartier, Adolphe * New Orleans '"57 

1850 Cartier. F. New Orleans 1857 

1856 Caboche, L. New Orleans i 57 

1857 Couel, Dr. x Catahoola Parish '-^44 
1857 Dorsey, L. H. x Kirks Ferry ' -8 
i860 D'Hemicourt, J. A. New Orleans i 57 
i860 Delcroi.x. P. New Orleans i 'j 
1857 F"erris, F. W. x New Orleans 

Formel, Dr. New Orleans 
Gab. Dr. .x Carrollton 
Glass. Robert New Orleans 
Holcombc, William H. * New Orleans 
Kiefer, Dr. New Orleans 
Leon, Alexis New Orlean^ 
Luyties, Dr. New Orleans 
Mathieu, J. x New Orleans 
Martin, Joseph New Orleans 
Oliphant, D. S. x New Orleans 
Postlethwaite x Carroll Parish 
Stempel, L. x Star P. O. 
Tait. Gustavus M. New Orleans 
Taxil. L. V. M. New Orleans 
Vail, J. X New Orleans 
Wirz. H. X Alilliken Bend 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

The Maryland Homceopathic State Medical Society — Other Societies — Fehx R. Mc- 
Manus. the Pioneer — His Life and Experiences — Schmidt, the Prussian Convert — 
I^aynel, the German, and Busch, the Saxon — Cyriax, Hardy and Geiger — List of 
Early Practitioners. 

The pioneer of homoeopathy in Maryland was a native of the state and, 
withal, a physician of excellent ability, perfectly conscientious, and of suffi- 
cient determination of character to withstand the opposition of the forces of 
the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty, as the oro^anized allopathic profession 
in the state always has been known. 

Dr. Shower's historv of the Southern Homoeopathic Medical College and 
Hospital of P)altimore m another chapter of this work gives an interesting 
account of early homoeopathv in Baltimore, and also presents a faithful nar- 
rative of the conditions existing in tlie state when the first homoeopaths en- 
tered the field. In 1875 there were fifty-seven homoeopathic practitioners in 
Maryland, thirty-five of whom were in Baltimore. ' 


The society of the name above given dates its history from the year 
1887, and was the outgrowth of the Medical Institute of Homoeopathy, estab- 
lished in 1882, while the latter was the direct successor of the still older Mary- 
land Homoeopathic Society of Baltimore City, which was incorporated in 1875, 
and was a state society notwithstanding the local character implied by its 
name. The society last mentioned was organized in Baltimore on December 
16, 1875, at which time a constitution was adopted, and officers were elected as 
follows : Dr. Elias C. Price of Baltimore, president ; Dr. Thomas F. Pomeroy 
and Dr. Fl. R. Fetterhoff, both of Baltimore, vice-presidents ; Dr. H. A. Un- 
derwood of Baltimore, secretary ; Dr. Jacob Schmidt of Baltimore, treasurer ; 
Dr. J. B. Crane of Bel Air, George Fechtig of Flagerstown and Dr. A. A. 
Roth of Frederick, censors. The society held annual meetings with fair reg- 
ularity until 1882, and was then dissolved. On November 15 of the same 
year a meeting of homoeopathic physicians of the state was held in Baltimore 
and organized the Maryland Institute of Homoeopathy, with these officers: 
Dr. Elias C. Price of Baltimore, president ; Dr. George T. Shower of Balti- 
more, vice-president ; Dr. O. Edward Janney of Baltimore, secretary and 
treasurer; Dr. Eldridge C. Price of Baltimore, historian; Drs. Flora A. Brew- 
ster, A. R. Barrett and William B. Turner, censors. This society met semi- 
annually in Baltimore and continued its existence until April 11, 1887, when 
it adjourned sine die. It was immediately succeeded bv the present society, 
which dates its history from the day mentioned. The first officers were Dr. 
Joseph Lloyd Martin, president; Drs. N. W. Kneass and E. Sears, 



vice-presidents; Dr. Irving Miller, secretary; Dr. Thomas Shearer, treasurer; 
Drs. N. W. Mark, E. S. Conlyn and H. Wilbur, censors. This society has 
maintained an active and useful existence to the present time, and numbers 
about seventy-five members. 

The Baltimore Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized at Baltimore 
September 24, 1874, and was continued until 1883, when it was dissolved. 

The Medical Investigation Club of Baltimore was organized November 
5, 1881, with five members, for the especial purpose of promoting the investi- 
gation of medical and scientific subjects, and social intercourse of those who 
united with it. In this respect the club had fulfilled an important mission in 
the homoeopathic professional life of Baltimore and generally has been the 

Thomas Shearer, M. D. 

means of accomplishing much good. Its methods are wholly democratic and 
its meetings are occasions of social enjoyment. 

The Homoeopathic Clinical Society of Maryland and the District of Co- 
lumbia was organized October i, 1890, a union of the Homoeopathic Society 
of Maryland and the Homoeopathic Medical Society of the District of Co- 

The Maryland Homoeopathic Hospital of Baltimore was opened October 
9, 1890. Its history is sufficiently mentioned in connection with that of the 
college of which it forms a part. 



Dr. Felix R. McManus, to whom is accorded the honor of having first 
carried the gospel of Hahnemann to the Marylanders, was born in Baltimore, 
i\[ay 30, 1807. He was educated chiefly at Georgetown University, and later 
was a student in medicine at the Baltimore Infirmary. He took his degree 
in medicine at the University of Maryland in April, 1829, and began practice 
in Baltimore in that year, but in 1837 the (to him) unaccountable loss of a 
patient so disturbed his mind m regard to the settled rule of pr'actice of that 
school that he instinctively turned ni another direction in the hope of arriving 
at some satisfactory conclusion respecting the evident mistakes of that school's 
methods, and at the same time to provide himself with more rational and sane 
means of cure. It was then that his attention was called to homoeopathy by 
one of the Catholic clergy ; he was led to investigate, and investigation brought 
him into a new light in the world of medicine. 

'* I claim the honor of having been the first physician of Maryland who 
attempted such investigation, " said Dr. McManus in writing the story of 
homoeopathy in iiis native state. And again he says : " Homoeopathy here, as 
well as elsewhere, had a ' hard road to travel,' as, in all other places, nothing 
but its success could vindicate its adoption; and now it enjoys a proud and en- 
viable position." 

This most worthy pioneer of homoeopathy lived to good old age, and died 
in his native city March 3, 1885. He was a charter member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy, and for manv years was a conspicuous figure in the 
assemblages of his professional brethren. The story of his early experiences 
ahva\s found willing listeners, and he was looked upon as the father of his 
school in Maryland as long as he lived. At a meeting of the institute held at 
Milwaukee in 1880 he narrated the history of his early practice and of his 
conversion to homceopathy, and the published accounts of his story have been 
drawn upon to ilkistrate in this chapter something of the life of the practi- 
tioner of Hahnemann's doctrine during the second quarter of the last century. 

Dr. McManus frequently expressed regret that there was so little organ- 
ization among his professional brethren m Maryland, and in one of his public 
addresses he annoimced that the state was without either college or hospital 
and that no homteopathic publication was issued from within its borders. 
The worthy old veteran lived, however, to participate in the organization of a 
flourishing state society and to witness the establishment of others ; and had 
he lived five more years his desire to witness the establishment of a college 
of homoeopathic medical learning would have been gratified, for in 1890 th.-: 
Southern Homoeopathic Medical CoJlege and Hospital was founded and 
entered upon its useful career. This institution, however, is made the subject 
of more extended mention in another department of this work. 

Dr. McManus frequently narrated the story of his conversion to homoe- 
opathy. He secured Hering's " Domestic Physician, " with thirty or forty 
remedies, and bought a box containing one hundred and seventeen remedies, 
prepared, as he supposed, in Leipsic. He mentioned several cures with the 
thirtieth potencies, of which he once spoke as follows: " I saw an announce- 
ment in a paper of a homreopathic physician by the name of Radclifife, and 
at that time I had a very singular case, and I did not know what to do with 
it. It was a case that 1 defined to be neuralgia, rheumatic pain or rheuma- 
tism. The neuralgia was intermittent neuralgia. The lady was nineteen years 


of age, very sensitive in her organization and in her nervous system. Every 
day at two o'clock after an intermission of six weeks, she was taken with what 
she called a needle pain. She felt as if a needle were stuck into her heart, 
and that was immediately followed by a convulsion which lasted from thirty 
minutes to two or three hours. I commenced the treatment on the tonic plan ; 
I commenced with sulphate of qumine. Still the pain came on at two o'clock. 
1 gave the medicine faithfully for two or three days but it had no result. 
Then I resorted to a preparation of arnica flowers and a solution. Finally I 
anticipated the paroxysm by sinapisms anteriorly and posteriorly. These 
were applied to the heart. I thought by the time we began to irritate the sur- 
face it would produce some effect ; this was counter irritation. I thought 
by this plan I might break up the paroxysms. I did not know what to do. 
I saw this advertisement and said. I do not know Dr. Radcliffe ; nobody can 
tell me who he is ; I will go and see him. I went and told him the object of 
my visit. I asked him if he had ever treated such a case. He said, * No.' 
He was a very intelligent man and very agreeable in his presence, bearing and 
conversation. He listened to my story patiently and after hearing me said, 
* Doctor, I think a dose of spigelia the thirtieth will cure that case.' ' One 
dose of spigelia,' said I, 'you do not mean the Maryland pink root?' 'Yes,' 
he replied, ' I will give you a dose.' It was then ten o'clock in the morning. 
' What will I do with it? ' said I. His reply was: ' You put this powder on 
the tongue of th.e patient.' I saw him pour out the pellets in a little sugar of 
milk. I had the curiosity to take up the bottle ; it bore the mark, ' Spigelia, 
30.' I left the house and thought to myself that man must be a fool, and 
yet he told it to me with that kind of assurance that would baffle suspicion. I 
thought, if this dose of spigelia will cure her, I will try it. I went to see the 
young lad> about ten o'clock and I put the powder of spigelia on the end 
of her tongue. I thought to myself it was a real piece of folly, but I told her 
I would come again in the afternoon. I was very busy, but told her I would 
go to the 'house about five o'clock. Now^ you must recollect that this patient 
had not missed a paroxysm for six weeks. Her mother met me at the door. 
She was standing on the portico and she raised her hand and said : ' Mary 
missed her pain to-day.' 

" 'Missed her pain. Had she any spasm?' 'Not at all, come in.' 

" I Avent in. The girl was sitting up. The first thing I did was to feel 
her pulse. ' Well, Mary, how do you feel? ' She answered, ' I feel better than 
I have for a long time. I think it is because I missed this pain.' 'Had you 
no symptom of it? ' ' No, ' she said, ' I never had any 'premonition at all, until 
it came like a needle sticking in my heart. But to-day I had nothing of it.' 
I looked at the girl and 1 looked at myself. What conclusion could I come to? 
It must be the effect of the spigelia. I waited without seeing Dr. Radcliffe 
until the morrow, and at five o'clock I went to see the girl, who felt remark- 
ably well. That night I went to see the doctor. ' Well, ' he said, ' did that 
powder have any effect upon that young woman?' 

■■ I said, 'Really I do not know how to answer that question. I called at 
four or five in the afterno-Dn and the girl had neither pain, spasm nor con- 
vulsion, and I called to see her this afternoon and she had neither the one nor 
the other.' 

■■ ' \\'ell, sir, vou told me that if I would cure that case — and I have cured 
it with one dose of medicine — that you would believe in homoeopathv.' ' Well, 
doctor, if 1 tell vou that I believe, vou will sav that I am a verv visionarv 


man. How could one dose cure that girl after I had done so much? How 
could one dose do it ? ' He replied, ' the dose of spigelia that I gave was 
what the girl's case required, and what you did amounted to nothing.' " 

Notwithstanding the fact that Dr. McManus rightfully laid claim to 
pioneership in the practice of homoeopathy in Maryland, his honor in that 
respect must be shared with Rev. Jacob Geiger, a Maryland pastor of German 
extraction and Pennsylvania parentage and birth, who had frequently been 
brought under the beneficent teachmgs of Allentown Academy and thus ac- 
quired a fair understanding of the principles of Hahnemann's school of medi- 
cine. In 1836, contemporary with Dr. McManus, Rev. Geiger took up the 
practice of medicine in connection with the pastoral charge of his flock, and 
continued both until the time of his death in 1848. This allusion to Pastor 
Geiger's medical endeavors is important when it is mentioned that nine of his 
descendants were graduates of homoeopathic colleges and practitioners of 

In this connection also it may be stated that Dr. Shower's history of the 
Southern Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital credits one Dr. Schwartz 
with being the first regular homoeopathic physician in the city of Baltimore, 
and 1837 as the year of his beginning practice. However, he stayed in the 
city only one vear. Much that is interesting in relation to early homoeopathy 
in Maryland may be found in Dr. Shower's narrative. 

Dr. Jacob Schmidt located in Baltimore in 1843. He was born in Kreutz- 
nach, Prussia, June 29, 181 3. He was educated in the government gymna- 
sium, and at nineteen entered the engineer corps. At the expiration of his 
time of service, and after an examination, he was promoted to the rank of 
officer in the reserve corps of the Prussian army. In 1836 he came to the 
United States, where he found employment in the department of coast survey. 
Prostrated bv illness in Philadelphia, he was attended by Dr. F. Hussmann, 
assistant to Hering, and by him was persuaded to abandon his profession and 
study medicine. He was received into the Hering household, where for three 
years he studied, at the same time attending lectures at the University of 
Pennsylvania. In 1843 he received the degree of the Allentown Academy. 
The next year he assisted in organizing the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy. About this time he married a sister-in-law of Dr. Hering, Johanna 
Hussmann, and being invited bv Dr. Haynel, he went to Baltimore, where 
he established a practice and where he resided until his death March 20, 1880, 
aged 67 years. In 1867 he received the degree of the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania. 

Another of the Baltimore pioneers was Dr. Adolph Ferdinand Haynel. 
He had been a personal student of Hahnemann's. Speaking of the journey 
of Hahnemann from Leipsic to Coethen, Hartmann says : "I was not with 
them, having left Leipsic. Hahnemann took two of his pupils with him, 
Dr. Haynel and Dr. Mossdorf. Haynel led the life of a true nomad ; was at 
Berlin at the first invasion of the cholera ; 'then at Merseberg; finally visited 
me in 1830 in Leipsic, where he provided himself with a large stock of homoe- 
opathic medicines with the intention of going to North America." Dr. Haynel 
died at Dresden, August 28, 1877, aged 81. He was an inmate of Hahne- 
mann's family for more than ten years, and proved a number of remedies for 
him. About 1835 he came to America, and resided first in Reading, Pa., 
then in Philadelphia. In 1845 lie lived in New York and still later at Balti- 
more, from whence he returned to Furope several years previous to his death. 


Grey sa)s tlial lia\nel established himself in Ijaltimore as a homoeopathist as 
early as 1838. 

Dr. Lewis Btisch was born in Gotha, Saxony, in 1808, and practiced allo- 
pathy there from 1829 to 1831, and homoeopathy from 1833 to 1836. He then 
left Germany, came to America, and landed at Baltimore. He practiced there 
a short time and then he went to Adams county, Pa. He was located. at 
Hollidaysburg as early as 1842, remained there until 1859. He went to Hunt- 
ington county, and from thence to Altoona. 

Dr. E. C. Bernard Cyriax was born in Gotha, Germany, August 11, 1820. 
He graduated in medicine in 1837, at Gotha, and went to America in 1843, 
locating in Baltimore. Here he was led to examine homoeopathy, and finally 
to accept it; after 1846 he practiced it openly. In 1847 he went west, locat- 
ing in Springfield, 111. He practiced with Dr. F. Kuechler, the firm being 
the pioneers of homoeopathy in that locality. In December, 1848, he returned 
to Baltimore, w^here he remained until 1857, when he again went to Illinois, 
locating in Atlanta, Logan county. In 1861 he removed to Cleveland, Ohio. 

Dr. James E. Hardy was born in Norfolk, Va., October 31, 1842. He 
graduated' at the University of Edinburgh, returned to America, and in 1868- 
69 attended lectures at the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, from 
which he graduated. He then returned to Baltimore to practice. 

Rev. Jacob Geiger introduced homoeopathy in Carroll county in 1836, 
and Dr. Radclifi'e introduced it in Washington county in 1841. 

The first hom.oeopathic pharmxacy in Baltimore was opened by John 
Tanner in 1850. Dr. Tanner in connection with his pharmacy also practiced 
medicine. He had been cured by homoeopathy when a young man after the 
allopaths had given him up. He went to Leipsic in 1840, establishing a 
homoeopathic pharmacy there. Ten years later he went to Baltimore. He 
sold to Dr. Amelia A. Hastings, a woman graduate, and in April, 1865, she 
sold to Dr. Elias C. Price. He kept the establishment two and a half years, 
then selling to Dr. Boone, who in turn sold to Dr. F. E. Boericke in 1868. In 
T869 the proprietors were Boericke & Tafel, who have since continued the 

Homccopathic physicians in Maryland previous to i860. The date pre- 
ceding the name indicates the year the physician began the practice of homoe- 
opathy. The character * indicates that the practitioner originally was of 
some other school ; the character x indicates that the physician practiced medi- 
cine before the date given. 

1S57 Arnold, Dr. x Baltimore 1853 Lungren, Samuel S. * Hagerstown 

1857 Buckner, Dr. x Baltimore 1846 Martin, Joseph L. Baltimore 

183.3 Busch, Louis * Baltimore 1836 McManus, Felix R. * Baltimore 

1846 Cyriax, E. C. Bernard * Baltimore 1856 McManus, F. S. Baltimore 

1861 Doran, Charles R. * Hagerstown 184S Middleton, John D. Baltimore 

Dysen, R. Nanjemoy 1857 Miller, Dr. Baltimore 

1835 Ehrmann, Francis Hagerstown 1850 Rayborg, C. H. Baltimore 
1840 Ehrmann. Frederick Baltimore 1841 Radcliffe, Dr. Washington Co. 

1836 Geiger, Jacob (Rev.) Cumberland 1852 Randel, John Massey Randelia 
1854 Geiger, Theodore S. Manchester 1839 Schmidt, Jacob Baltimore 

1851 Geiger, Charles A. Manchester 1838 Tanner, John Baltimore 

1851 Hammond, INIilton * Baltimore 1857 Welner, M. x Baltimore 

1820 Haynel, Adolph F._ Baltimore 1857 Wisman A. x Fredericktown 

1857 Howe, Dr. x Baltimore 1857 Worman, A. D. x Fredericktown 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

The First Prescriber of Homoeopathic Doses in Connecticut — Early Planting and 
Subsequent Growth of Homoeopathy in the State — Societies and Hospitals — The Tay- 
lors, Father and Son — New Milford First to have a Homoeopathic Physician — The 
I'afts in Hartford — John Schue — Introduction of the New System in the Counties — 
Pioneers, Early Practitioners and Reminiscences — List of Old Practitioners. 

The doctrine of homoeopathy first gained a foothold in Connecticut in 
1837. when Dr. Federal Vanderburgh on a social visit to New Milford was 
called to professionally attend the wife of an old school physician. This was 
the beginning of the new system in the region under consideration, and the 
immediate results of Vanderburgh's treatment was the recovery of his patient 
and the conversion of her husband to the teachings and practice of Hahne- 
mann, which previous to that time he had ridiculed. As evidence of the sub- 
sequent growth of the homoeopathic system in the state it may be said that 
in 1857, twenty years after Vanderburgh's missionary effort there, forty-two 
physicians of that school were in practice. In 1876 the number had increased 
to sixty-three, in 1875 to eighty-four, in 1882 to one hundred and nineteen, 
and in 1904 to one hundred and fifty-three ; and to-day there is no county 
and hardly a single town that has not at least one homoeopathic physician. 
And this is not all ; in less than fifteen years after Vanderburgh's first cure, 
the hardly more than two score homoeopathic practitioners took steps to organ- 
ize their forces for mutual protection and advantage and proceeded to form 
a state medical society. 


The first society of homeopathic physicians in Connecticut was formed 
in Hartford, November 17, 1851, and was known as the Connecticut Institute 
of liDmrieopathy. At this meeting seven pioneers of the new system were 
in attendance. They were Drs. Jeremiah T. Dennison, of Fairfield ; W. W. 
Rodman, of Waterbury ; W. C. B,ell, of Middletown ; C. H. Skiff and E. T. 
F^oote, of New Haven; and C. A. Taft and George S. Greene, of Hartford. 
Dr. Dennison was elected president, Dr. Rodman vice-president. Dr. Greene 
secretary, and Dr. Skiff' treasurer. At the same time the constitution and by- 
laws were presented and adopted. At a meeting held June 10. 1864, a reor- 
ganization was effected, and the society was incorporated under the name of 
Connecticut Homoeopathic Medical Society. A new constitution was adopted 
in 1880. Since 1891 the annual transactions have been published, as also have 
several of the important addresses by presidents. On November 18-19, 1901, 
the society celebrated its semi-centennial at Hartford. Addresses were made 
by distinguished physicians of various states, and the occasion was otherwise 
enlivened with social entertainments. In 1904 the membership of the society 
numbercil one hundred arid five. 


'Die New Haven Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized Febru- 
ary 24, 1887, at the residence of Di. C. B. Adams in the city of New Haven. 
The societv is not incorporated. 

Grace Homoeopathic ^Medical Society of New Haven was incorporated 
June 21, 1889, and at once became an active organization in promoting the 
interests of the homoeopathic profession in Connecticut, 

Grace Homoeo])athic Hospital at Hartford, the first institution of its kind 
in the state, originated in a movement started in 1888 and consummated in 
the formal openmg which took place in September, 1892. The hospital asso- 
ciation was incorporated by the legislature in 1888, and the state appropri- 
ated $20,000 for the benefit of the hospital on condition that a like sum be 
raised by subscription. This was accomplished, and with the fund thus created 
the trustees purchased the old Mallory property on West Chapel street. The 
building was arranged for its new occupancy, and was furnished through the 
agency of the women's hospital board, the society of the King's Sons and 
Daughters and the Ladies' Aid Society. The hospital property is valued at 
$100,000. The institution is supported' by state aid, pay patients and volun- 
tary contributions. The training school for nurses w^as established in 1895, 

As has been stated, the first homoeopathic prescription in Connecticut 
was made by Dr, Federal Vanderburgh. In 1837 Dr, George Taylor's wdfe 
was threatened with consumption, and her husband and other physicians had 
prescribed remedies without relief. About that time Vanderburgh, an old 
friend of Dr. Taylor's, visited New Milford, and learning of the sickness of 
Mrs. Taylor, proposed prescribing homoeopathically for her. Dr. Taylor, an 
allopath, at last consented to this, and contrary to his expectation, his wife im- 
proved and eventually was restored to heaith. Dr. Taylor then began to 
investigate homoeopathy and to test it until about 1839 or 1840, when he be- 
came a convert to its practice. He was born in New Milford in 1802, and 
graduated from the medical department of Yale College in 1824, at once 
beginning practice in his native town. When his allopathic friends realized 
that he was practicing the new medical system, he was dismissed from the 
medical society and further consultations with him were refused. He was 
the first homoeopathic physician in Connecticut, and practiced for many years 
in New Milford. 

Charles Taylor, the son of George Taylor, graduated at Geneva Medical 
College and in 1852 practiced with his father at New Milford. He repre- 
sented his town in the general assembly four years and held other offices. He 
died July 4, 1890. 

Hartford was the second town in Connecticut in which homoeopathy w^as 
introduced. In 1842 Dr. Gustavus M. Taft located there. He was born in 
Dedham, Mass., December 7, 1820, read medicine with Dr. Josiah Flagg of. 
Boston, and later with Drs. Hull and Gray of New York. He graduated at 
the University of New York in 1842, and at once began to practice in Hart- 
ford. His health failed and he went south, locating in New Orleans in Novem- 
ber, 1845. He died of yellow fever August 10, 1847, aged twenty-seven 

Dr. Cincinnatus A. Taft, brother of Gustavus M. Taft, graduated from 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York in 1846, and settled in 
Hartford the same year. He had studied with his brothers and was the third 
homoeopathic physician to locate in Hartford and the seventh in the state. He 
became one of tlie leading physicians of Connecticut. He died June 26, 1884. 


Dr. John Schue,. the next of the Hartford pioneers, was a native of Ger- 
many, born in 1815, and came to New York in 1839. He entered the office of 
Drs. Hull and Gray to learn English and study homoeopathy. He graduated 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1842, practiced in New York 
until 1844, then went to Hartford and formed a partnership with Dr. Gus- 
tavus M. Taft. He remained there m practice until his death, September 25, 
1856. He joined the institute in 1846. Dr. Schue lost his wife in 1855, 
which so depressed him that he himself died soon afterward. ■ 

Dr. Gardner S. Browne commenced to practice in Hartford about 1867, 
and died there December 29, 1876. He was a graduate of the University of 
New York. Dr. George Starr Green graduated at the University of New 
York in 1848. He became partner with Dr. A. Cook Hull in Brooklyn, where 
he began the practice of homoeopathy in 1849. He removed to Hartford, 
January i, 1851. Dr. Harvey Cole came from Pittsfield,' Mass., and located 
in Hartford in 1868. Dr. James D. Johnson opened an office in Hartford in 
1869. Hg was a graduate of Bellevue Hospital Medical College. Drs. Irving 
M. Lyon and S. Giles Tucker were in practice there in 1870. Dr. M. P. Hay- 
ward, a graduate of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, also 
practiced in Hartford for a short time, going thence to Ohio. In 1856 Dr. 
H. T. Brownell and Russell Caulkins were located in Hartford. In 1857, there 
were six homoeopathic physicians m the city; in 1870, seven; in 1882, eleven, 
and in 1904, nineteen. 

Dr. Edward Wilberforce Kellogg was born at Avon, Conn., November 
29, 1840, and at the age of twelve years went to Philadelphia to attend school. 
He returned home in a few years and entered the high school at Collins- 
ville, from which he graduated. At this time he had no thought of medicine, 
but was devoting his attention to musical study. Early during the war of 
1861-65, he enlisted, and while awaiting orders near New London, he was 
offered a position as hospital steward at Fort Trumbull. Dr. Isaac G. Por- 
ter was surgeon at this hospital and young Kellogg was associated with him 
for three years as assistant and pupil. He was honorably discharged in 
November, 1865, and then entered Bellevue Hospital Medical College, but 
after a year matriculated at the New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 
where he graduated in 1867. He located at Danbury, remained there one year 
and then went to Southington, where he practiced until 1871. In May, 1871, 
he removed to Hartford. On March 7, 1867, he married Hilah A. Dart of 
New London. In 1857 there were in Hartford, Drs. Gardner S. Browne, F. 
Brownell, H. T. Brownell, Russell Caulkins, George S. Green and Cincin- 
natus A. Taft. 

The pioneer homoeopath in New Haven and the fourth physician of that 
school in the state, was Dr. Charles H. Skiff, who was born at Spencertown, 
Columbia county, N. Y., May 17, 1808, and graduated at the Berkshire Medi- 
cal School, September 5, 1832. He married Rachel McKinstry of Livingston, 
N. Y., October 17, 1833. He began the practice of homoeopathy in Spencer- 
town in 1840, and removed to Albany in 1842. He went to New Haven in 
1843 ^i^d remained there until his death, December 11, 1875. 

Dr. Daniel W. North rup was the fourth homoeopath in the state, having 
begun practice at Sherman, Fairfield county, in 1843. I^r. Daniel Holt, an- 
other pioneer in New Ha.ven, was born at Hampton, July 2, 1810. He was 
educated at Ashford and Amherst academies and in 1831 entered the scien- 
tific department of Yale. Later on he studied medicine with Dr. Hiram Holt 


of Pomfret, and graduated from the Yale Medical School in 1835. He located 
at Glastonbury, where he acquired an extensive practice. He received a 
prize from the Connecticut Medical Society for an essay on scarlatina, and 
was author of several noteworthy papers. In 1845 he was appointed to prepare 
a paper for the state medical society. Homoeopathy soon attracted his atten- 
tion and he employed the opportunity to demonstrate its absurdity. After care- 
ful study, and experimenting- with its remedies, he became convinced of its 
truth, and then published his essay " Views of Homoeopathy or Reasons for 
Examining and Admitting it as a Principle in Medicine." This was pub- 
lished in New Haven in 1845. During this year he went to New Haven and 
studied homoeopathy with Dr. Skiff, and afterward practiced it, making fre- 
quent trips to New York to consult with Gray, Hull, Vanderburgh, Joslin, 
Wells and others. Because of his change in faith he was expelled from the 
New Haven Medical Association, but afterward three of his prosecutors 
adopted homoeopathv. In 1845 Dr. Holt went to Lowell, Mass. 

Dr. Elial ToddFoote was born in Greenfield, Mass., in May, 1796. He 
studied medicine with Dr. Samuel Guthrie of Sherburne, N. Y., and was 
licensed by the Qienango County Medical Society in 181 5. He went to Chau- 
tauqua county, locating in what was afterward Jamestown, but which then had 
no name. In June, 1818, he was chairman of a meeting of physicians of 
the county called to organize the Chautauqua County Medical Society, and 
was the first president of that body. In 1827 he became a permanent member 
of the New York Medical Society. Before he left New York Dr. Foote had 
become interested in homoeopathy as practiced by Dr. Alfred W. Gray, brother 
of Dr. John F. Gray, and he became a homoeopath in 1840. It is not known 
just when he located in New Haven. He became a member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy in 1850. When the Connecticut Homoeopathic Med- 
ical Society was reorganized in 1864 Dr. Foote delivered the inaugural ad- 
dress, which was largely historical regarding homoeopathy in the state. He 
died at New Haven November 17, 1877. 

Charles Cheney Foote, son of Dr. Elial Foote, was born in Jamestown, 
N. Y., September 6, 1825, graduated at Union College in 1849, read medicine 
with his father, and in 1850 attended medical lectures at the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons of New York. He also attended lectures at Jefferson 
Medical College of Philadelphia, graduating there in 185 1. He began to 
practice in New FTaven, and for two years was associated with his father. 
He died November 9, 1871. 

Dr. Paul C. Skiff was in practice in New Haven in 1870. He was a 
graduate of Yale. Dr. Charles W. Skiff, his son, graduated from the New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College in 1861, practiced with his father in 
Brooklyn, and returned with him to New Haven in 1862. He remained but 
a short time in practice. In 1861 Dr. W. W. Rodman located in New Haven. 
In 1857 there were but four homoeopaths in that city; in' 1870, six; in 1878, 

Dr. Oscar Sceitz began the practice of homoeopathy in New London in 
1845. Dr. Nathaniel Otis Harris practiced there from, 1854 to 1857, when he 
went to East Haddam. He graduated at the New York L^niversity Medical 
College in 1854 and went at once to New London, remaining until 1857, when 
he located in East Haddam. He studied homoeopathy with Dr. J. T. Evans. 

In 1847 Dr. Lucien H. Morton opened an office at Bridgeport and was 
the homoeopathic pioneer m Fairfield county. He was a graduate of Berk- 


shire Medical College. Dr. Charles Taylor practiced in Bridgeport for one 
year and went to New Milford. 

In 1859 ^^- Charles E. Sanford went to Bridgeport from Bristol. He 
was born in North Haven, May 31, 1830, and gradnated from Yale Medical 
School in 1853. He studied mecUcine with his brother-in-law, Dr. G. A. 
Moody of Plain ville. After graduation he returned to Plainville, entering into 
partnership with his preceptor and remained there two years. In 1855 he 
married Anna F. Neale and about that time entered mercantile pursuits in 
New York, but soon returned to his profession. During his stay in New York 
Dr. Sanford became acquainted with homoeopathy and was impelled while 
living with an old friend in Brooklyn to investigate, resulting in his complete 
conversion to its principles. In 1870 Dr. Sanford wrote: "My present ad- 
dress is Bridgeport, where I have resided since 1859. Previous to that time 
1 practiced medicine in Plainville and Bristol. 1 began to practice homoe- 
opathy in 1858." 

Dr. James H. Osborne was located at Bridgeport in 1870. He gradu- 
ated from the New York Homoeopathic College in 1867. Dr. Oliver Brew- 
ster Taylor graduated at Harvard Medical School in 1842, and began the 
practice of homoeopathy in 1848 at Dana, Mass. In 1849 ^"^^ went to i'dan- 
chester, where for many years he was the only homoeopathic physician. 

Dr. William Campbell Bell was an early practitioner at Middletown. He 
was born in Chester, Mass., September 6, 1806, and attended school at Ches- 
ter and Westfield academies. He studied medicine in Chester under Drs. Hor- 
ace Ballard and T. K. DeWolf, and afterward with Dr. T. Childs at Pitts- 
field. He attended medical lectures at Woodstock, Vt., and at Pittsfield, Mass., 
graduating from the Berkshire Medical College in 1833. He began allopathic 
practice at Austerlitz, N. Y., and after ten years adopted the homoeopathic 
system. In 1850 he located at Housatonic, Mass., where he remained six 
years, then he removed to Middletown, where he. remained for over forty 
years. In 1833 he married Charlotte Maria Boise, of Chester. Dr. Bell re- 
tired from practice in the spring of 1891 and went to live at Blandford, Mass., 
where he died October 12, 1894. Drs. G. W. Burroughs and G. B. Smith 
practiced in Middletown for a time. Dr. Aaron S. Osborne and Julius Gnod- 
inger were practicing in Middletown in 1878. 

Dr. George Pitkin Cooley was practicing homoeopathy in Bristol as early 
as 1854. He was born in Manchester, November 28, 1830, the son of Dr. 
William Cooley of Hartford county. In 1850 he became a student of Dr. 
Gustavus A. Taft of Hartford, attended lectures at the New York Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, and at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Penn- 
sylvania during the session of 1853-54. He received a special degree from 
that college in 1862. In 1854 he entered into practice at Bristol, but after 
four years removed to New Britain, where he located permanently. In April, 
1865, he married Lucy A. Peck of New York. 

Dr. James H. Austin practiced homoeopathy in Bristol as early as 1850. 
He was born in Suffield, Conn., in 1824, began the study of medicine when 
about twenty years old, and graduated at the Berkshire Medical College in 
1847. He located at Bristol in 1.848, and for ten years was faithful to the 
medical system in which he was educated. He is said to have embraced 
homoeopathy about 1858. He died March 2^, 1873. In 1870 Dr. Edward P. 
Woodward was in practice at Bristol. 

Dr. Asa W. Brown located at Mvstic Bridge, New London countv. in 


1855. He was born in Sterling:, Windham county, Conn., September 28, 1813, 
studied at Brooklyn Academy, j^raduated at the Western College of Homoe- 
opathic Medicine in 1853. practiced two years at Centreville, R. I^ and then 
settled at Mystic Bridge, where he remained until 1873, when he removed 
to Providence, R. I. 

Rev. Moses Hill introduced homoeopathy in Norwalk, Fairfield county, 
in 1855. In 1870 Dr. Mosman was the only homoeopath in Norwalk, and in 
1875, Dexter Hitchcock and Nathan A. Mosman were practicing there. In 
1882, A. H. Baldwin, G. S. Comstock and Dexter Hitchcock were practicing 
in that city. Dr. Mosman graduated in medicine in New York in 1861, and 
soon afterward located at Norwalk. In 1879 ^""^ went to New York city. 
Dr. Dexter Hitchcock graduated from the New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College in 1873, settling soon afterward in Norwalk. He joined the institute 
in 1873. He has for manv vears been referred to as "Dr. Hitchcock of Nor- 

Dr. William E. Bulkeley was for many years associated with the history 
of homoeopathy in Danburv'. He was born in Colchester, Conn., October 9, 
1796. At the age of eighteen he went to West Virginia, taught school, and 
studied medicine with a prominent physician of that region. Having earned 
enough money to pay his way he attended medical lectures at Yale College. 
Dr. Bulkeley practiced as an allopath four years in Berkshire county, Mass., 
and twenty years in Hillsdale, Columbia, county, before he located in Dan- 
bury, and about 1853 began the practice of liomoeopathy. He joined the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy in 1859. ^^ remained in Danbury until 
his death, June 14, 1870. In 1870 his son, Dr. J. C. Bulkeley, was associated 
in practice with him. 

In 1857, Dr. R. W. Rockwell wa's practicing in Danbury. In 1875 there 
were in practice in that city, Drs. William Bulkeley, Rev. D. M. Hodge and 
Sophia Penfield ; in 1882, Drs. Bulkeley, S. M. Grifitin, Sophia Penfield and 
O. L. Jenkins. Dr. Rockwell went to Danbury in 1856, and afterward re- 
moved to Brooklyn. 

Dr. Henry E. Stone, a graduate of Castleton Medical College in 1847, 
removed from Otego, N. Y., to Fair Haven, New Haven county, in 1857. 
He was born in Danbury, July 20, 1820, and in 1840 his family went to Otego, 
N. Y. In Otego,- Dr. Solomon Green, a leading physician of the place, 
became interested in young Stone and induced him to study medicine. Hav- 
ing graduated at Castleton, he commenced practice at Otego with his pre- 
ceptor. His attention was directed to homoeopathy by Dr. I. S. Huett, of 
JMilwaukee, and for two or three years he investigated and finally embraced 
its methods. Remaining in Otego until the spring of 1856, he sold his prac- 
tice to Dr. Warren and located in Fair Haven, Conn., where he afterward 
resided, and where he <lied January 27, 1886. Dr. Stone married Amanda 
Cunningham of Otego, September 3, 1851. 

Dr. Lester Keep had been practicing homoeopathy in Fair Haven prior 
to 1857. I^e was born in Lee, Mass., September 6, 1797, was educated there, 
and fitted for college by Rev. Alvan Hyde. In the fall of 1821 he entered Will- 
iams College, but soon afterward financial troubles made it necessary for him 
to earn his way. until in his junior vear when certain students, he among' 
them, were caught at "college pranks," and were suspended for three weeks. 
Pie then abandoned his college course and entered the office of Drs. Child and 
Batclielder. of I'ittsficld. and lu'came a member of the Berkshire ^Medical 


Institution, a branch of Williams College, then in its second year. There he 
remained three years, supporting himself by services to the college and assist- 
ing his preceptors who were of the faculty. While awaiting the means to 
graduate he received an offer of assistance from Dr. Luther Ticknor, of Salis- 
bury, in return for services that he could render in practice. Dr. John Del- 
amater being called to the chairs of anatomy and surgery in the Medical Col- 
lege at Fairfield. N. Y., induced Keep to go with him as demonstrator and 
prosector. At this school he graduated in 1828. For a year afterward he 
associated with Dr. Jefferson Church, of Springfield, Mass., but left him to 
attend Dr. Tully's lectures on materia medica and therapeutics at the Yale 
Medical School.. Dr. Keep settled in Fair Haven, and while his practice was 
growing he opened a pharmacy and maintained it in connection with the vil- 
lage postoffice for several years. Business matters occasionally called him to 
New York, and on one of his visits there met an old friend, Dr. Ticknor, who 
had become a homceopath, and through whose ministrations Keep himself 
was induced to abandon the old school of practice for that founded by Hahne- 
mann. This was in 1839, ^^ which time Dr. Keep was a member of the New 
Haven County Medical Society, the New Haven City Association of Physi- 
cians, and a fellow of the Connecticut State Medical Society. He sold his 
drug store, resigned from the societies, and announced himself a homoeopath. 
He joined the American Institute of Homoeopathy in 1848. He continued to 
practice in Fair Haven until i860, when he moved to Brooklyn. In 1873 he 
suffered an attack of apoplectic paralysis, and though he largely recovered from 
the stroke, he did not aeain return to active practice. He died August 20, 
1882. Drs. J. Lester Keep and S. H. Keep are sons of Dr. Lester Keep's 
second marriage. 

Dr. G. Herrick Wilson, a graduate" of the Berkshire Medical College in 
1849, after practicing in North Adams and Conway, Mass., located in West 
Meridan. Conn., in 1857. In 1869, Dr. E. C. Newport, a graduate in 1868 
of the New York Homoeopathic Medical College, went from Holyoke, Mass., 
to West Meriden. About the same time. Dr. L. E. Phelps, from Michigan, 
opened an ofiice there. In 1882 Drs. C. J. Mansfield, E. A. Wilson and G. 
H. Wilson were in Meriden, and in 1857 Dr. W. N. Dunham was located 

Dr. Henry Isham introduced homoeopathy into New Britain before 1857. 
He died in 1868, and in the next year Dr. Charles Vishno, a graduate in 1866 
of the New York Llomoeopathic Medical College, located there, but afterward 
went to Hartford. In 1875, Drs. G. P. Cooley, Leander P. Jones, L. M. 
Smith and J. S. Stone were located in New Britain. In 1882, Drs. Cooley, 
Goodrich, Seymour and Stone were practicing there. 

Dr. William Woodbridge Rodman introduced homoeopathy into Water- 
bury. Lie was born in Stonington, Conn., in April, 1817, graduated at Yale 
in 1838, and entering Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia received his 
degree there in 1844. In November of that year he began practice in Water- 
bury, but in 1848 became convinced of the truth of homoeopathy by careful 
study and practical use of its remedies, and adopted it in his practice. He 
was in consequence expelled from the Connecticut Medical Society. In 1861 
he removed to New Haven. 

Dr. Flam Clark Knight graduated from the Berkshire Medical College 
in 1845, and located at Slatersville, R. I. His conversion to homoeopathy and 
introduction to Waterbury are best told in his own words (1870) : "My 


attention was called to homoeopathic practice during the last year of my medi- 
cal studies by coming in contact with two homoeopathic students in the same 
class with myself. But I gave no serious attention to the subject till 1852. 
About this time the old school medical journals were constantly ridiculing the 
new system of practice. I thought to myself if there was no better arguments 
against homoeopathy than mean ridicule, and silly at that, there must be some- 
thing in it, and I would examine for myself. Accordingly I applied to Dr. 
Amory Gale, then of Woonsocket, R. I., and asked his advice and assistance, 
which he readily gave by lending me books and otherwise. After about a 
year of studv and experimental practice, I removed to Middleborough, Mass., 
early in 1853. There I was the first one to locate and successfully introduce 
homoeopathy. There I found a few families who had been treated homoe- 
opathically by Dr. J. T. Harris, of East Bridgewater, and Dr. Barrows, of 
Taunton, Mass. They formed a nucleus around which I soon built up a good 

" In 1857 having a little more of the western fever than was for my good, 
I moved to Ouincy, 111, but" not finding everything to my satisfaction, returned 
to New England after about two years and a half. In i860 Dr. W. \V. Rod- 
man left Waterbury for New Haven, and the June following I took his place 
here, where I still remain. I was alone here till after the severe injuries I re- 
ceived in November, 1865. In 1867 Dr. Tripp came here and remained a little 
less than a year. He w^as followed by Dr. H. R. Brown, who remained some- 
thing over two years. x\t the present time homoeopathy is represented by 
myself and Dr. Charles Rodman." Dr. Knight was a member of the old Mas- 
sachusetts Fraternitv. He joined the American Institute of Homoeopathy in 
1867. He died suddenly at Woodbury, March 21, 1888. 

Dr. Henry R. Brown, a graduate' in 1867 of the New York Homoeopathic 
Medical College, located first at Waterbury, but soon went to Leominster, 
Mass. Dr. Charles Shepard Rodman, a son of Dr. W. W. Rodman, located 
at Waterbury in i86q. He was a graduate of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons. He was still there in 1878. but in 1882 there were only Drs. E. O. 
Gregory and George P. Swift practicing homoeopathy in that city. South- 
ington, Hartford county, was represented in homoeopathy by Dr. Lucy A. 
Hudson as early as 1856. In 1866 Dr. Timothy D. Wadsworth, a graduate 
in 1866 of the New York Homoeopathic Medical College, located there, re- 
moving to St. Louis, Mo., in 1868. He w-as succeeded by Dr. Edward W. 
Kellogg. Dr. Noah Bvington was practicing there in 1870. In 1882 Dr. 
James H. Osborne and C. H. Peterson were the only homoeopaths in that city. 

In 1856 Drr,. S. M. Fletcher and A. Frank w-ere in practice at Norwich, 
New London county. Subsequently Dr. Fletcher went to Westerly, R. I., and 
Dr. Frank to Milton, Vt. Dr. Jerome Harris practiced at Norsvich and went 
from there to Woonsocket. In 1865 Dr. Anna Manning graduated at the 
New York Medical College for Women, and located at Norwich for a short 
time. In 1867 Dr. Herbert IMartin Bishop, a graduate of Yale, w^ent to Nor- 
wich. He was born in New London. January 15, 1844. studied with Dr. O. 
Sites and graduated at Yale Aledical School in 1865. He was commissioned 
assistant surgeon of the First Connecticut cavalry, and was in service through 
the last campaign of the war. Returning, he determined to study homoeopathy, 
and after attending lectures at the New York Homoeopathic Medical College, 
graduated in 1867. In March of that year he settled at Norwich. In January, 
1869, he married Ella E. Spalding. He joined the American Institute of 



Homoeopathy in 1869. In 1875 there were in practice there Drs. Herbert 
Martin Bishop, Jonathan E. Linnell and Samuel Gibbs Tucker; in 1882, Drs. 
Bishop, Edward H. and Jonathan E. Linnell, John Arnold Rockwell and C. 
E. Stark. 

Dr. Albert W. Phillips located in Birmingham in 1861, the year in which 
he graduated from Hahnemann College of Chicago. He was a native of New 
York. He took the place of Dr. Horace Bowen, who formerly practiced in 

Dr. Charles W. Ensign, a graduate of the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons in 1844, located the same year at Tariff ville. He was born in West 
Hartland. He was highly esteemed among the allopathic fraternity, being a 
member of its societies until 1855, when he became a homoeopath and was then 
expelled for " quackery."' He lived in Tariffville until his death. At Strat- 
ford Dr. Geliwitz practiced for a time, then went to New York. In 1857 Drs. 
Chauncey Ayres and J. P. Mackins were in practice at Stamford. In 1875 
Drs. Ayres, George F. Foote and John F. Grififin were there; in 1882, Drs. 
Ayres, Foote, Phillips and C. E. and E. E. Rowell. Dr. Foote for fifteen 
years conducted a private asylum for the insane and for victims of the opium 

In 1857 Dr. R. B. Bruce was located at Birmingham ; Dr. S. S. Clark at 
Plainville ; Dr. Jermiah T. Denison at Fairfield ; Dr. C. Faill at Litchfield ; 
Dr. C. Gaylor at New Milford; Dr. J. E. Lucas at Thompsonville ; Dr. C. 
Northrup at Sherman ; Dr. T. Roberts at New Canaan ; Dr. William H. Sage 
at L^nionville ; and Dr. Vail at Litchfield. 

The first homoeopathic pharmacy in the state was called the Good Samari- 
tan drug store and pharmacy. It was opened in Hartford by Dr. Blake, 
who sold to Dr. Preston, and he in turn to Dr. George Curtis. On September 
5, 1881, Dr. Curtis sold to William C. Messenger, who conducted the store 
for three years. In 1857 Dr. Gardner S. Browne conducted a pharmacy in 

Honiocopatliic physicians in Con-nccficnt preznons to i860. The date pre- 
ceding the name indicates the year the physician began the practice of homoe- 
opathy. The character * indicates that the practitioner originally was of some 
other school ; the character x indicates that the physician practiced medicine 
before the date given. 

1857 Ayres, C. x Stamford 1857 

1850 Austin, James H. * Bristol 1855 

1843 Bell. William C. * Middletown 1857 

1857 Bulkeley, J. C. x Danbury 1856 

1837 Bulkeley, W. E. * Danbury 1851 

Burroughs, G. W. Middletown 1840 

1857 Bruce, R. B. x North Bennington 1857 

1857 Browne, Gardner S. x Hartford 1857 

1856 Brownell, H. T. x Hartford 1857 

1857 Brownell, F. x Hartford 

1853 Brown, Asa W. Mystic Bridge 1853 
Bowen, Horace Birmingham 

1856 Caulkins, Russell x Hartford i849 
1850 Cole, Harvey Hartford 1854 

1854 Cooley, George P. Bristol 1857 

1857 Clark, S. S. x Plainville 1855 
1850 Denison, J. T. * Fairfield 1845 
1854 Dunbar, William N. IMeriden 1857 

Erving, J. F. x Hitchcockville 

Ensign, Charles W. * Tarriffville 

Faill, C. X Litchfield 

Fletcher, Samuel M. Norwich 

Foote, Charles C. New Haven 

Foote, Elial Todd * New Haven 

Frank, A. x Norwich 

Gaylor, G. x New Milford 

Geliwitz, G. x Stratford 

Gnodinger, Julius 

Green, George S. * Hartford 

Griffin, S. M. 

Harris, Jerome * Norwich 

Harris, Nathaniel O. East Haddam 

Hayward. Milton P. Hartford 

Hill, Moses (Rev.) Norwalk 

Holt, Daniel * New Haven 

Hudson, Luc}'^ A. x Southington 



i.S^7 l-^Iiam, Henry x Now llritain 

Jenkins, (). L. 

i<S,vj Keep. Lester * l-'air Haven 

tS5j Knight, Elam C. * Waterbury 

I1S57 Lueas, J. E. x 'i'iiompsonville 

I.St 3 Linnell, Jonatlian E. * Norwich 

1865 Lyon. Irving \V. * Hartford 

1857 Mackins, J. P. x Stamford 

1857 Northrop, C. x Sherman 

1S42 Northrop, Danirl W. * Sherman 

1844 Norton, Lucian H. I'.ridgeport 

1846 Osgood, David * 

•,H^7 Pratt, A. x Clicsler 

1857 Rnl)erts, T. x New Canaan 

1857 Rockwell, R. VV. x Danbury 

1848 Rodman, William W. * Waterbury 

1856 Sage, W. H. 3 Unionville 

1845 Sceitz, Oscar New London 

1858 Sanford, Charles E. * Bridgeport 

1841 Skiff, Charles H. * New Haven 

1842 Schue, John Hartford 

1850 Stone, Henry E. * Fair Haven 

7846 Taft, Cincinnatus A. Hartford 

1842 Taft, Gustavus ^L Hartford 

1837 Taylor, George * New Milford 

1848 Taylor, Oliver B. * Manchester 

1856 Vail, Dr. x Litchfield 

1856 Wilson, Grove H. x * West ^^eriden 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, j\[. D. 

How the Seed was First Sown in the Old Bay State — New York Furnishes (he Pioneer — 
Gregg and Flagg, the Standard Bearers — Their Followers and Proselytes — The 
Homoeopathic Fraternity of Massachusetts — Its Organization and Membership— The 
Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society — Brief Allusion to Homoeopathic In- 
stitutions, and the Pioneers of the Profession in the Several Counties of the Com- 

In 1838 homoeopathy secured a foothold in three states in which the 
teachings of the school, although heard of, had not before been given practical 
investigation by qualified practitioners. These states were Massachusetts, 
A^ermont and New Jersey, and in at least two of them the doctrine of Hahne- 
mann soon extended to the most remote counties and was represented by 
physicians of unusual ability. In Massachusetts, the state here under consid- 
eration, the planting of the homoeopathic seed was accomplished in much the 
same manner as in other states, and was the result of enforced conviction 
rather than original desire on the part of the pioneers to practice under its 
teachings. This honor in Massachusetts is accorded to Dr. Samuel Gregg, 
who, under the influence of Vanderburgh of New York, forsook the old 
method of practice and allied himself to the new school of medicine, which 
then had existed on this side of the Atlantic hardly more than ten years. 

Vanderburgh in New York was a splendid champion of the system of 
Hahnemann and one of its ablest exponents. He, too, was a convert, and in 
later years was instrumental in proselyting many other old school practitioners 
and bringing them within the homoeopathic fold. In Massachusetts his first 
convert was Gregg, and in the old Bay state the new disciple took up the 
good work and in turn spread the gospel of Hahnemann even into its remotest 
parts; not easily, however, and not without hardships and sacrifices, coupled 
with the severance of former friendships; for we are told that Samuel Gregg 
was a popular personage in the old profession, that his associates and fellows 
were men of influence in the social and political world, and when he turned 
away from their school they, too. tiu-ned from him and no longer admitted 
him to their councils, but in sorrow rather than in wrath. Yet Gregg plodded 
along in the new road he had chosen, blazing the way, for he was the pioneer 
in a new field. In 1839 he was joined by Flagg, and then by Wild and Spooner 
and Cutler and Clark until there was gathered together a sufficient number of 
exemplars to form the little society they called the Homoeopathic Fraternity 
of Massachusetts. This was done in March, 1841, and from that time the 
state has not been without a homcEopathic medical society. 

The original society with its membership of six was the nucleus of the 
Massachusetts Homteopathic Medical Society, which came into life in 1851, 
and of whicli mention is made in this chapter. 

The members of the Homoeonatliic Fraternity of Massachusetts during 

His'l'om' oi- H()Mn':(~)i'.\Tiiv 211 

the ten years of its existence were Samuel Gre.c^.c^, Josiali F. Flap,j:^. John Y\ 
Spooner, Charles Wild, Willianii W. Cutler, Luther Clark, Christopher Minot 
Weld and Francis Clark, 1841 : William Wesselhoeft, William In.q;alls. Mil- 
ton Fuller, Daniel Swan. Georo:e Russell, Robert Capen and William Gallup, 
1842; John A. Tarbell, 1843; James M. Cumminj^s, Schleg-el, Eben Hale, 1844; 
Jehiel Abbott, George Baker, Daniel Holt, 1845; David Osgood, Isaac Colby. 
Hiram Luce Chase and Horace Dwight Train, 1846; Rufus Shackford. David 
Thayer and Christian V. Geist, 1847; J- L. Martin. Samuel W. Graves and 
George Barrows, 1848; James C. Neilson, 1850. 

Since that time Massachusetts has been a prolific mother of homoeopathic 
societies, and each offshoot from the parent body has done good, work in 
spreading the doctrine and elevating the character and dignity of the princi- 
ple it represents. 


Massachusetts was early in the field with the work of organization. In- 
deed, if records are reliable, it was onlv two years after the system was planted 
in the state that a few homoeopathic physicians assembled at the house of Dr. 
J. P. Spooner in Dorchester in 1840 and organized the fraternity to which 
reference is made in a preceding paragraph : and this action was the founda- 
tion of the state society of later years. The fraternity dates its history from 
December 25, 1840. and at a later meeting at the house of Dr. Wild in Brook- 
line, on Jaiauary 7, 1841. the subject of permanent organization was consid- 
ered, although the constitution was not formally adopted and signed until 
I'Vbruary 16 following. This action gave real life to the Massachusetts 
Homoeopathic Fraternity, and on the occasion mentioned ofificers were chosen 
to direct the affairs of the society. Meetings were afterward held with fair 
regularity, and the fraternity continued to grow in strength and usefulness 
until its membership has so increased that stronger and more formal organi- 
zation became necessarv. At the monthly meeting held March 18. 1856. a 
committee reported that a petition signed by fifty-one phvsicians had been 
presented to the legislature asking for an act of incorporation for an organiza- 
tion to be known as the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

The act prayed for seems not to have been the result of united action 
of the fraternity body, but of a majority of its members acting independently 
and with the approval of the organization. However, the act was passed and 
became a law May 19, 1855, ^^^ at a subsequent meeting held by the frater- 
nity December 9. 1856, the old pioneer sccietv passed out of existence and 
was succeeded by the present state organization. The new society held sev- 
eral informal meetings to settle upon a plan of permanent organization, and 
on September 24, 1856, elected its first officers as follows: Dr. Samuel Gregg 
of Boston, president ; Dr. Charles Weld of Brookline and Dr. William Wes- 
selhoeft of Boston, vice-presidents ; Dr. G. W. Swazey of Springfield, corre- 
sponding secretary ; Dr. David Thaver of Boston, recording secretary ; Dr. 
William F. Jackson of Roxburv, treasurer ; Dr. George Russell of Boston, 
librarian ; Drs. C. M. Weld, of Jamaica Plain, and B. H. West, Luther Clark, 
Milton Fuller and L. M. Barker, of Boston, censors. 

For more than sixty-five years the Homoeopathic Medical Society of 
Massachusetts has been regarded as the mother organization of the profes- 
sion in New England, and has exercised an influence for good in the councils 
of other societies in that commonwealth and also in other states east of the 



Hudson river; and its influence and voice in the directive affairs of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Homoeopathy have been welcomed and appreciated by the 
great number of homoeopathic, physicians constituting that national body. On 
December 22, 1890, the society celebrated its semi-centennial anniversary, and 
made the occasion one of importance in the homteopathic history of Massa- 
chusetts. Since 1867 the society has published annual transactions; one of 
the earlier volumes contains old records and many interesting historical data. 
The society also has published numerous pamphlets, addresses, directories, 
and valuable reports and statistics on homoeopathic registration. The ]Dres- 
ent membership is about three hundred and seventy-five practitioners, and 
every one a physician of good moral and professional standing. 

Among the other homoeopathic societies, some of which are no longer 
in existence, mention may be made of the Boston Academy of Homoeopathic 
Aledicine,, organized November 30, 1858,- and consolidated in May, 1873, with 

Westloro Hoimx>(^ijathic Asylum tor Insane. 

the [Boston Homoeopathic Society, then taking the name of Boston Homoe- 
opathic Society; The Boston Homceopathic Society, organized in 1868; the 
Bristol County Homteopathic Medical Society, organized October 3. 1866; 
the Essex County Homreopathic Medical Society, organized at Lynn May 
I, 1872; the Hughes Medical Club of Boston, organized October 23, 1878; 
the Lowell Hahnemann Club, organized November 22. 1881 ; the Massa- 
chusetts Surgical and Gynaecological Society, organized in Boston December 
6, 1876; the Middlesex South Homoeopathic Society, organized at Newton 
January 12, 1876; the Organon Society of Boston, organized December 8, 
1887; the Plymouth Countv Homoeoj-jathic Medical Society, organized March 
3, 1887; the Homoeopathic Medical Society of Western Massachusetts, organ- 
ized at Greenfield May 23, 1878; the Worcester County HonKeoj^athic INledi- 
cal Society, organized June 2"], 1866; the Boston Gynaecological Club, organ- 
ized March 23. 1881. 


Tn treating of hospitals and other kindn'd institutions in Massachusetts 
these annals can furnish only brief mention. Th;it which demands first atten- 
tion is of a distinctive!}- pul)lic cliaracter, not a private nor yet a specially 

MIS r( )\<\ ( )!•■ IK ).\i(]-:( )i'.\ riiv 2i:-5 

hoiiKL'opathic insLitnlidii, allhcnii:;!! tlic Ici^^islativc ])o\ver of the commonwealth 
gave its mechca! (lepaitnient in charge of homreopathic physicians. 

The institution to which aHusion is thus made is that known as the West- 
horo Asylum for the Insane, which dates its foundation from an act of the 
general court of Massachusetts, passed June 3, 1884, although the asylum 
as a means of administering to the physical and mental needs of its charges 
through the medium of the homoeopathic system of medicine was not formal- 
1\ ii])(.ned until December 6. 1886. Since that tim(> it has been under homoe- 
ojKithic medical supervision, and reports show that under the system at least 
cis good results are accomplished as under any other school .of medicine in 
Dn\- similar institution in this state or elsewhere. 

Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital. In the order of seniority among 
the distinctively homoeopathic hospitals of the state that known as the Mas- 
sachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital is entitled to first mention, and traces its 
history back to the days when the old fraternity was in the full vigor of its use- 
ful career. At a meeting held January 22. 1850, the fraternity resolved itself 
into '■ a committee of the whole for the purpose of ascertaining the mind of 
the public regarding the establishment of a homoeopathic hospital in the city 
of Boston." Nothing, however, was accomplished at the time, nor even five 
years later, when, at a meeting held January 30, 1855, ^ committee was ap- 
pointed to prepare a petition to the general court for a charter for a homoe- 
opathic hospital to be located in the city before inentioned, although the act 
prayed for was passed (May 19, 1855) and an organization was efifected 
under the incorporation. The officers then chosen were Dr. Charles B. Hall, 
president ; Drs. Dexter King, Edward Mellen, A. W. Thaxter and Francis B. 
I'"ay. vice-presidents ; Dr. George Bancroft, secretary ; and Dr. John P. Jewett, 

Failing in an endeavor to enlist state aid for the proposed hospital, the 
trustees instead of attempting to maintain such an institution with all its 
attendant expense, wisely determined to limit their operations to a dispen- 
sary foundation, and to that end secured the incorporation (May 28, 1856) 
of the Homoeopathic Medical Dispensary, which was carried on with gratify- 
ing results for several years. Again, in 1861 an attempt was made to found 
a hospital, but the disturbed condition of the country on account of the im- 
jienrling war made persistent efifort impracticable ; and in consequence of 
these earlv embarrassments it was not until January 2T,, 1871, that the hospital 
was in fact opened. Various means, especially festival enterprises, were 
adopted to create funds, and the ultimate success which crowned the labors 
of the founders was in a great measure clue to the Ladies' Aid Association, 
and the " great fair " held in 1872, which netted the institution about $76,000. 
A ]iermanent home for the hospital was found near the Boston University 
School of ^Medicine, in a imilding which once was a female medical college. 
Tn 1890 the legislature a])i)ropriated $120,000 for the erection of new build- 
ings. The hospital is maintained with the interest on invested funds, volun- 
tary contributions and pay ])atients. The nurses" school was opened in 1885. institution is said to be the largest hospital in America under homoe- 
opathic management. 

The Flampden Homoeopathic Hospital at Springfield was founded largely 
throus^h the influence, of Dr. John H. Carmichael and the benevolence of Mr. 
and Mrs. Daniel 1'. Wesson, the latter of whom s'ave their former residence 
in High street for hospital purposes Following the offer and gift the hospita- 


associaticni was incorporated, and the trnstees perfected an organization and 
accepted the property, on which within the last two years the original hene- 
factors have erected a splendid hospital building. The movement leading to 
this hospital originated in 1900, and the institution was opened for patients 
in November of that year. A nurses' school has since been established. 

The Worcester Homoeopathic Hospital had its origin in the Warren 
Surgical Hospital, opened in November, 1893, by Dr. J. IC. Warren, and the 
union of that institution with the Worcester Homoeopathic Dispensary Asso- 
ciation, the latter being a body corporate. The hospital trustees were incor- 
porated in Jwne, 1896. A training school for nurses is maintained in connec- 
tion with the hospital. 

The Newburyport Homoeopathic Hospital was founded in 1893, ^^^ is 
incorporated. In 1900 the institution was generously provided for in the 
will of the late Ann Toppan. who left it one-third of her estate. 

In this connection a brief rrtention may be made of some other of the 
hospital institutions of the state, among them the Homoeopathic Hospital for 
Children in Boston, opened in 1900; the Salem Homoeopathic Hospital, opened 
in 1900; the Baldwin Place Home for Little Wanderers, in Boston; the 
Consumptives' Home, the House of the Angel Guardian, and the Home for 
Young Women, the latter in Lowell. 

At a meeting of the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society held 
October 12, 1864, Dr. Samuel Gregg read a paper on " The Early Annals 
of Homoeopathy in Massachusetts." He said: "During the year 1837, I 
had seen in the medical journals strictures upon the small doses of a new 
system of medical practice. My attention was perhaps more willingly di- 
rected to the subject, havmg for many years been dissatisfied with my pro- 
fession. I had become tired of the uncertainty of my prescription. During 
the winter of 1837-8, I had an interesting case in a patient suffering from 
tuberculosis pulmonum in a scrofulous constitution, which I was satisfied I 
could not cure. At this time I saw two patients (in the family of Thatcher 
Magcwn, Esq., of Medford), who had received homoeopathic treatment from 
Dr. \ anderburgh, who was then in practice in New York. The allopathic 
materia medica was then being enlarged by the introduction of concentrated 
chemical preparations of drugs. As showing my entire ignorance of the 
preparation of homoeopathic medicines, I distinctly recollect saying to these 
patients, when they described the wonderful effects of the little pills, that a 
physician must be reckless who would prescribe a remedy capable of pro- 
ducing such results, in so concentrated a form. But at the solicitation of 
these friends I concliided to take my patient and consult Dr. Vanderburgh 
at New York. Although this physician did not at the time give much en- 
couragement of benefiting my patient, yet he gave me such a synopsis of the 
new school practice of therapeutics as to excite in my mind a determination 
to examine the merits of the new theory of healing. I obtained all the books 
that were then ])ublished in English translation : viz, Hahnemann's Qrganon ; 
the first edition of Hering's 'Domestic Practice,' in two very small volumes ; 
some small pamphlet expositions of homoeopathy, and the translation of 
Jahr's 'Manual,' by the North American Academy, which was then in press 
(the 'Repertory' was not then published); also the 'Archives,' of Paris 
(Archives de la Medicine Homoeopathique, Paris, 1834-38) containing the 
rej)orted cases of treatment by the homoeopathic physicians of Paris. I also 
])rncuied a few of the more general remedies, and commenced my investiga- 


tion of the ])nnci])k's ot therapeia. I soon after obtained a (jernian case of 
medicines, containins^' one hundred and seventy vials of the mother tinctures 
and first triturations. I'rom these 1 began to make mv own preparations, 
and have continued to prepare all that I have used ever since. In my early 
administration of homoeopathic medicine I was under exceeding obligations 
to Dr. Vanderburgh for counsel and assistance ; for often in my lonely ex- 
plorations I vvas troubled, ahd whenever I applied to him I was sure to re- 
ceive instruction by return of mail ; and I trust I have not been unmindful of 
it toward my juniors. Thus I continued my investigations. I had a reasonable 
share of patronage in my allopathic practice, and when I told my patients 
T had more confidence in the new system than I had in the old, they were 
willing to abide by my decision ; and after having once made the experience 
I have seldom found any one willing to return to old school treatment of 
disease. My first associate in my new adventure was my friend Dr. J. F. 
Flagg. He was not then in general practice, but had given his attention to 
dentistry. He had long suffered from dyspepsia, and in the summer of 1838, 
while on a visit at Philadelphia, he was persuaded by his friends there to 
take some medicine from Dr. Humphrey, who was then in homoeopathic 
practice. Dr. Flagg was so well satisfied with the efficiency of the reme- 
dies, that he furnished himself with what books he could and commenced 
the investigation for his own satisfaction. Not relinquishing his dentistry, 
his practice was mostly confined to a kind of dispensary practice among his 
immediate friends. Thus he continued for some months supposing himself 
alone, until, having occasion to send to New York for some medicine he was 
told he could obtain it from me. Sometime during the year 1840 Dr. J. P. 
Spooner of Dorchester and Dr. Charles Wild of Brookline, became interested 
in examining the subject of homoeopathy, at the suggestion of their mutual 
friend, Dr. Flagg. In December, 1840, we commenced associate meetings 
for mutual improvement; and in February, 1841, we adopted the constitution 
and by-laws of a regular association called the Massachusetts Homoeopathic 
Fraternity, which held meetings until a state scxriety was organized." 

Dr. Samuel Gregg was born in New Boston, N. H., July i, 1799. He 
acquired a good New England education, though not collegiate, and at eigh- 
teen was teaching school. He graduated from Dartmouth Medical School 
in 1825, practiced for a short time with Dr. John Stearns in Charlestown, 
Mass.. and then decided to go to Medford. With him in his first trip to Med- 
ford was a friend. Thatcher Magown, who went with him to call on one Dr. 
Brooks, then a practicing physician in Medford and who had been gov- 
ernor. Dr. Brooks after listening to him said : " Young man, I would not 
advise you to settle here ; there are physicians enough in this place." Dr. 
Gregg looked at the ex-governor coolly and stamping his foot answered, 
" You do not, well, then I will sta)/' He remained in Medford fifteen years, 
having a large and lucrative practice. In Noveiriber, 1840, he removed to 
Boston. He was one of the founders of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opath}- in 1844 and a prominent member, a founder of the Massachusetts 
Homoeopathic Hospital and of the various homoeopathic societies of the 
city and state. He died at Amherst, Mass., October 25, 1872. 

The next physician to adopt homoeopathy in the state was Dr. Josiah 
Foster Flagg, who was born in Boston, January 11, 1789. His father, Josiah 
Flagg. was a dentist. He entered as a student of medicine with Dr. John C. 
Warren, in i8ti. During his student life he perfected improvements in 


many suriiical instrunicnls. iK)tal)l\ the ixme forceps. In 1813 he undertook, 
with Dr. Warren, the puhhcation of a work on the arteries, the first of its 
kind ever issued. The engravings for this work were done with his own 
liand. This book had a good sale. A few years later he prepared drawings 
for Dr; Warren's " Comparative View of the Nervous System." 

Dr. Flagg graduated from Harvard Medical School in 181 5, being it is 
said particularly well educated in surgical knowledge. For some time after 
graduating he practiced at Uxbridge, Mass. He continued in practice for 
several years, when he removed to Boston and established himself as a den- 
tist. His reputation was such that his rooms were constantly filled with 
patients, and he was considered one of the most scientific and skillful men 
in his profession. Among his surgical inventions are the tooth forceps, and 
an improvement on Desault's apparatus for fracture of the femur, this 
latter being introduced by Dr. Warren into the Massachusetts General Hos- 

In 1838-9 his attention was attracted to homoeopathy by facts and exper- 
iments of such convincing character that he was obliged against his pre- 
judices to believe. After some months of careful study of the principles of 
homoeopathy, he collected the symptoms of a few cases and submitted them 
to the consideration of experienced homoeopathic practitioners in New York 
and Philadelphia, who were his personal friends, and he gave the remedies 
according to their directions. He did this for some time, not trusting to his 
own judgment, and after he had witnessed the effect of this prescribing on 
a number of well marked cases he became satisfied that there was some- 
thing more than imagination in the good results that followed. He collected 
the records of 300 cases treated by himself and the results of several were 
])u])lished. His methods of examining cases were strictly according to the' 
directions of Hahnemann. As has been stated, he was interested with Dr. 
Gregg in the advancement of homoeopathy. He died December 20, 1853. 

Dr. Charles Wild was born in Boston, januar}- 15, 1795. He graduated 
from Harvard College in 1814, completed his medical studies, and estab- 
lished himself in Brookline in 1818. He practiced there for forty years and 
then went to Providence, and only resumed his practice for a few mcMidis 
in the early part of the rebellion in order that his son. Dr. Edward A. Wild, 
afterwards brigadier general, might enter the arm\'. It was through the 
influence of his friend Dr. Flagg that Dr. Wild first investigated homoe- 
opathy in the year 1840. He died May 3, 1864. 

The fourth member of the fraternity quartette was Dr. John P. Spooner, 
who graduated at JIanover m the academic and medical departments. He 
took his medical degree in 1820 and located in Boston. In 1838 he went 
to Dorchester. His attention was called to homoeopath}- in 1839 by some re- 
markable cures that he had seen. Fle got som.e of the books and medicmes 
of that school and began to investigate. He was so well satisfied that he 
declared himself a homcjeopathist, and it was at his house in Dorchester that 
the first meeting of the homoeopathic fraternity was held. 

I )r. Gregg induced a brother practitioner. Dr. Daniel Swan, to investi- 
gate homcvopathy. Dr. Swan was born in Charlestown b'ebruary 2S. 1781. 
He graduated at Harvard in 1803, ^^^^ for a time was a teacher. He then 
began the study of medicine in Medford with Doctor (afterwards governor) 
Brooks, who on entering political life gave Swan his practice. He married 
a lad;\ of wealth and was very charitable to the poor. A favorite prescrip- 

llISTCJin- (,)l- 11().\1(]-:()1'ATHY 


tion read: '"Ivccipc, .\uri quantum sufficit," and lie was f(jnd of dispensing 
it. In 1839, intiuenced by the remarkable success of Dr. Gregg, who had a 
year before adopted homoeopathy, Dr. Swan began to experiment with homoe- 
opathic medicines and soon became a convert. He died December 5, 1864, 
aged eight\-four years. Dr. Swan commenced practice in Brighton, but in 
1816 took Dr. Brook's practice in IMedford. For several years in the latter 
part of his life he made no charges and received no fees, and when he re- 
tired from practice he gave up his rich patients and kept a few poor families. 
He bought many books on homa^opathy and collected a valuable librarv, ' 
which at his death went to the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Society. 

Medford was the first town in the state to receive the new svstem. Be- 
sides Dr. Gregg, whose history has been noted, there was Dr. Milton Fuller, 

Milton Fulkr, -M. D. 

Avho succeeded to the pi(3neer's practice in 1841 when he went to Boston. 
Milton Fuller was born in Westmoreland, X. H., January 5, 1799. He was 
a farmer's son, and when eighteen entered a store, but soon becoming dis- 
satisfied, entered Chesterfield academy to fit himself for the study of medicine. 
He remained there two years and then went to Boston, becoming a student 
under Dr. Solomon D. Townsend at the Marine Hospital in Charlestown. 
He attended lectures at Harvard Medical School and two courses by Dr. 
Ingalls of Brown Universit}-. He married in 1823 and began practice in 
Scituate. remaming there until 1841. It due to several conversations 
with his friend Dr. Flagg in 1841 that Dr. Fuller became a believer in homoe- 
opath v. He procured a tew medicines but did not dare give them. At last 


a case which he was sure nnist terminate in lung fever, inchiced him to try 
the value of aconite. The experiment resulted in a return to health in 
two days, and the result was so- wonderful that he made further experiments 
and became confirmed in the belief that this was the real method of healing. 
In 1841 he located in Medford, and in 1842 became a member of the frater- 
nity. Dr. Fuller remained in Medford until 1855, when he located in Boston. 
He was a charter member of the institute and a member of the state and 
other societies. He died March ii, 1885, at the advanced age of eighty-six 

Dr. Fuller was succeeded in Medford by Dr. Elwell Woodbury, who 
shortly after went to Chelsea, and gave up practice soon after on account of 
iU health. He died June 15, 1874. Dr. Alfred B. Stone practiced for a 
short time in Medford. He was a student of Dr. Gregg. He died suddenly 
June 3, 1855. James Hedenberg of Troy, N. Y., a graduate of Castleton 
Medical College in 1852, located at Medford, June 20, 1855, succeeding Dr. 

Dr. Flagg introduced homoeopathy in Boston, but his attention was con- 
fined to chronic cases, and the first professed homoeopathic physician to prac- 
tice activel}- in that city was Dr. Luther Qark, who was born in Waltham, 
Mass., July 30. 1810, and was educated at Harvard, graduating A. B. in 
1833, and M. D. in 1836. He practiced in Boston until 1870, when ill health 
compelled him to remove to Waltham. In 1833 he met Hennig G. Linberg, 
a learned Dane living in Santa Cruz, who was acquainted with Hering, and 
who so strongly recommended that he study homoeopathy that Dr. Clark was 
induced to examine it. He read the Organon and was tempted to believe the 
principle of similia until stopped by the ridiculously small doses. For seven 
years he remained an allopath, but in 1840 he became fully converted to the 
new school. He died at Lincoln, Mass., September 26, 1884. 

Dr. William W. Cutler was another early practitioner in Boston. He 
was a graduate of Harvard, both of the academic and medical departments. 
He joined the fraternity in 184T, and was its first secretary. After practic- 
ing homoeopathy for several years he engaged in mercantile pursuits with 
his father, Pliny Cutler. He was always an ardent advocette of homoeopathy. 

Boston received an important addition to its few homoeopathic practi- 
tioners in 1841 m Dr. William Wesselhoeft, who reached that city in Septem- 
ber, coming from Allentown, Pa., and his influence was soon felt. He at 
once took his place as a leader, and so continued during his long and import- 
ant life. 

In 184J another of the Philadelphia honireopathists located in Boston, 
Charles Frederic Hofifendahl. He was born in New Brandenberg, Mecklen- 
berg-Strolitz, Germany, June 28, 1798. At the age of sixteen he commenced 
medical studies ; at eighteen he became a student at the Austrian military 
medical trainmg school (St. Joseph's), and on finishing his course entered the 
Austrian service as assistant surgeon. He served in an infantry regiment 
and accompanied it through a campaign in Italy. While in this position he 
became interested in homoeopathy through Dr. Schmidt, the chief of the med- 
ical staff. After leaving the service he finislied his medical studies, taking 
the full degree at Berlin in 1829. After graduation he was for seven years 
physician to Hermann, Count Schwerin of Mecklenlx^rg, practicing homoe- 
opathy exclusively. In 1837 he came to America and began practice in Phil- 
adelphia, remaining there until 1840. when he went to Albany, X. Y. From 


there ho wont to Boston, whioh city ho afterwards made his liome. In 1846 
ho maintained a dispensary over Boylston market, which for two years he 
conducted successfully. H'e died April 24, 1862. 

Dr. Christopher Minot Weld of Roxbury became a member of the fra- 
ternity in March. 1841. He was bom in Boston, January 19, 181 2, graduated 
at Harvard in 1833, ^^tudied medicine with Dr. Geo. C. Shattuck and gradu- 
ated in medicine from Harvard Medical School in 1837. He began practice 
in Boston, but soon afterwards went to Jamaica Plain. In 1840 one of his 
patients went to New York to consult Dr. Gray and found complete relief 
in his homceopathic treatment. She returned entirely cured and so enthusias- 
tic that she persuaded Dr. Weld to investigate the system. To accomplish 
this more thoroughly he went to New York and passed some time with 
Gray, and in the study of Hahnemann and his tenets. He returned to 
Boston and soon announced his adherence to the new school. He practiced 
and defended homa^opathy for mure than twenty years, always living at 
Jamaica Plain. He was a charter member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy. He died March 13, 1878. 

Dr. William Ingalls became an investigator of and believer in homoe- 
opathy at the age of seventy-three. He was born at Newburyport, Mass., Alay 
3, 1769, received the degree of A. B. at Harvard University in 1790, of M. A. 
in 1794, and M. D. in 1801. He was professor of anatomy and surgery in 
Brown University and also practiced in Boston for man}c years. He retired 
from active work in 1834, and in 1843 became interested in homoeopathy. 
He was a member of the committee of the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy appointed to prepare a work on topographical anatomy. He died 
September 8, 1851. Dr. John Adams Tarbell was born in Boston, March 31, 
1810, graduated at Harvard in .1832 and soon after commenced to study 
medicine ^with his uncle, Dr. Samuel Adams of Boston. In 1833 he went 
to Paris, where he spent nearly two years in medical study. He then re- 
turned to Boston, continued his studies and received the medical degree from 
Bowdoin College in 1836, and at once began practice. He was dissatisfied 
with the uncertain methods in vogue, and had about decided to give up 
medicine when he became interested in homoeopathy. Dr. Gregg thus writes 
of Tarbell : " In the winter of 1842-3 there was a young schoolboy who 
was familiar in my ofBce, and who was also an intimate acquaintance with 
Dr. Tarbell. Occasionally he repeated some jeers upon homoeopathy from 
Dr. Tarbell. Upon inquiring who this Tarbell was, I learned that he was a 
young physician who after graduating in his profession here had spent two 
years in medical study in Paris ; made himself familiar with the French 
language : and on" his return had commenced the practice of his profession, 
but soon after relinquished it, and was giving his attention, to other pursuits. 
I complimentarily sent some expositions on homoeopathic medicine for him 
to read. After reading them, he sent them back w^ith kind regards, saying 
he had leisure and would be happy to read anything I might furnish him on 
the subject. He became interested and called upon m.e. He told me that 
soon after commencing his profession he had a particular friend who had 
typhoid fever and called on him. ' He gave much attention to the case. As 
the patient grew worse, he had counsel and the patient finally recovered, but 
he felt that he could not take such responsibility again, and gave up practice. 
After this conversation he obtained a homoeopathic library, gave his attention 
to study and practice." In 1849 Dr. Tarbell published the " Pocket Homoe- 

W-izabeth STi-ART Phelps.' Nathamm ]1 \u thohm \Vr'Ni>i:i.i. I'mi mis Ji t.i.\ Wak i. IIi^w 

Elizabkth Palmf.r Peahoijy. touiSA May Alcott. 

He.vmv Wapswohtii I.ONf.I-EI.I.nW. 
William Llovu Carkisos. Throdoki-: Parkkr. 

TnoMAs Starr Kino. a Bhons i ii..m .^ w i m « outii iih.i.inson. Thomas BaiKkv Aldkic 

FAMOUS TATROXS Ol' 1 lOM ()i;()l'.\'lin' 


opathist;" in 1832 he wrote "Sources of Health;" in 1852-3 was associate 
editor of the '" Quarterly HonKtopathic Journal." He edited I'-pps " Do- 
mestic Homctopathist," and published " Homoeopathy Simplified." h"or sev- 
eral years he had iieart troulile which caused his sudden death on Januar\ 
21, 1864. 

Dr. David Tha\er was another of the early Boston houKjeopathists. He 
was born in Ilraintree. ]\Iass., July 19, 1813. of " Mayflower '' ancestors. He 
fitted for collej^e at !'hilli]:.s (Andover) Academy, and Appleton Academy, 
Xew Ispswich. X. H. He graduated at Union College in Schenectady, X. 
Y., in 1840. Dr. Thayer thus vv^ rites : " My first connection with homoeopathy 
was in 1836, when I was a patient of two homceopathic physicians in .Albany, 
X. Y. In that year 1 began tlie .>tud>' of anatomy and physiology with our 
good Dr. Joslin of Xew York city, then an allopath, subsequently a homoe- 
opathic physician. While a student of medicine I read a few homreopathic 
books. In 1844 I bought some homoeopathic medicines of Xathaniel C. 
Peabody, pharmaceutist in Sufl^olk place, Boston, and tried them, as I had 
plenty of time to experiment and to observe the results of mv treatment. 
At this time I did not know of the existence of such a rara avis in our city 
as a homoeopathic physician, . though there were several. Gregg, Osgood, 
Tarbell, Hofifendahl. I became so much a homoeopathic physician without 
knowing one in Xew England. I Ijecame acquainted with Tarbell, Osgood 
and Hofifendahl. In the fall and winter of i84()-7 ^^- C. F. Hofifendahl 
and I opened a honKjeopathic dispensary in a room over Boylston market, 
for the gratuitous treatment of the poor (we had a flaming sign which I 
presume may now be found in the attic of the market). The first homteo- 
pathic doctor I ever called on was Dr. John A. Tarbell. I learned some- 
thing of Dr. C. F. Hoffendahl and humblv sought for information where I 
could. Was admitted a member of the old homoeopathic fraternity in 1845 
or '46. In 1847 I joined the American Institute of Homoeopathy at its meet- 
ing in Boston." 

Dr. Thaver graduated m medicine at the F]erkshire Medical College at 
Pittsneld. Mass., in 18-L3, and at once began practice in Boston. He was a 
member of the legislature several terms, for many years a coroner of Sufifolk 
county, and for twenty-five years was surgeon of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery of Boston. He died December 14, 1893. 

Dr. David Osgood was a noteworthy figure among the early practi- 
tioners. He had called on Hahnemann in 1839 in Paris with an old friend, 
the Rev. Charles Brooks, but he at the time plainly showed that he had no 
faith in homoeopathy. He was a graduate of Harvard, taking the academic 
degree in 1813, and the medical in 1816. But despite his expressed disbelief 
in his medical system during the visit to Hahnemann. Dr. Osgood was led to 
embrace homoeopathy in 1846, and became one of its most zealovis advocates. 
He died February 23, 1863. 

The homoeopathic directorv of 1857 sives the names of the practitioners 
in Boston at that tune as follows: L. M. Barker, D. F. Birnstill, Luther 
Clark, Milton Fuller, C. F. Geist, Samuel Gregg, C. F. Hofifendahl, L. Mac- 
farland. R. W. X'ewell, David Osgood, George Russell, O. S. Sanders. D. F. 
Snndyckv. Israel Tisdale Talbot, John A. Tarbell, David Thayer. William 
Wesselhoeft and Benjamin H. West. The homoeopathic physicians in Boston 
in 1861 numbered 16; in 1870. 57; 1875, 74; 1882, 124; 1899. 200. and in 
T904. 645. 


]n l'l\mouth Dr. Robert Capen was one of the earliest homoeopathic 
practitioners. He joined the fraternity in 1842. He received his medical 
degree at Harvard in 1818, and after practicing in Stoughton and North 
Middleboro. removed to Plymouth in 1829. Tn 1839 he was induced by 
Mrs. Mercy B. Jackson, who afterward became a practitioner in Boston, to 
investigate homoeopathy. In 1842 he went to Boston on account of approach- 
ing blindness. In 1843 ^"i^ was operated on for cataract', with partial relief, 
but he continued to study and in a measure to practice until his death, Novem- 
ber 6, 1853. Mrs. Jackson, being unwilling to return to allopathic treatment, 
took up the study of medicine for her own benefit. She soon found outside 
practice and after three years of gratuitous services she found it necessary to 
make professional charges. Her practice extended to the neighboring towns 
of Kingston, Duxbury, Carver. Middleboro and Pembroke. She graduated 
at the New England Female Medical College in February, i860, and settled 
in Boston the following May. Dr. Jackson was for many years a promi- 
nent practitioner in the city. She died December 13, 1877. 

The Rev. Mr. Tomlinson was for several years a lay practitioner in Ply- 
mouth. Dr. Ferdinand Gustav Oehme located there in 1866. He was born in 
Tschopau, Saxony, July 27, 1826. He graduated at Leipsic in 1852, and visited 
the universities of Prag, Vienna and Paris in 1853. Being a witness of the 
success of homoeopathy, he studied its tenets and openly practiced it in Dresden 
in 1854-55. In June, 1855, he came to the United States and located at Con- 
cord. In 1872, owing to ill health, he went to Tompkinsville. New York. 

In Northampton Dr. Charles Walker was the first practitioner of homoe- 
opathy. He was born in Belchertown in 1803, studied medicine with Dr. 
Hunt of Northampton, and graduated from Jefiferson Medical College of 
Philadelphia in 1828. He settled in Northampton and practiced for a year 
and a half, then went to Hudson, N. Y., and studied homoeopathy under Dr. 
George W. Cook. Returning to Northampton, he practiced homoeopathy 
until his death, January 17, 1855. He was succeeded by Dr. H. J. M. Cate, 
who remained imtil 1857, and then went to Milford, N. H. In 1870-75 
he was practicing at Amherst, Mass. In 1857 Dr. Osmore O. Roberts, who 
was a graduate of the Homoeopathic College of Pennsylvania in 1853 ^^^ 
who had been in practice in Milford, N. H., located in Northampton. 

fn Andover the pioneer homoeopath was Dr. Francis H. Clark, a graduate 
of Harvard in 1835. His attention was called to homoeopathy by some friends 
in New York, and in 1840 he began to practice it. In the summer of 1840 
he called on Dr. Gregg, who prepared him a case of medicines and helped 
him to get such homceopathic ix>oks as had been published in English. He 
was at that time practicing in Andover. He remained there but a few years, 
and in 1846 engaged in manufacturing in Ballardvaie. He died in 1848. 

Dr. E. Bruno De Gersdorflf succeeded Dr. Clark. He was born in Es- 
march, Germany, July 18, 1820, was educated at Jena, and graduated in medi- 
cine in Leipsic in 1846. Political troubles sent him to America. Dr. . De 
Gersdorff's father was a warm friend of Hahnemann, who had at one time 
saved young De Gersdorff's life. He came to America in 1846. His first 
location was Bethlehem, Penn., where he remained a few months. Though 
after the cure of De Gersdorflf his father was a firm believer in homceopathy 
and a prover of several medicines, the young man. infatuated with the new 
ideas on the pathology and physiology of the time, had abandoned homoe- 
opathy, but on his arrival in the Ignited States, through the influence of a for- 


mer tutor, Dr. Lino en. whom he met in Pennsylvania, and Dr. Hofifendahl, he 
was led to again adopt the homoeopathic law. Dr. De Gersdorfif died in Pleas- 
antville, N. Y., June 28. 1883. Dr. J. Howarth succeeded him in practice. Dr. 
Milton Berry practiced there for several years. Dr. J. C. W. Moore suc- 
ceeded Berry, remaining but a short time. Dr. Oliver Leech Bradford went 
from Peterboro, X. H.. in 1868 and remained there until 1876, when he located 
in Fitchburg. In 1882 Mary Briggs Harris, Frank B. Kimball and Emma 
M. E. Sanborn were practicing in Andover. 

In Roxbury the first homoeopathic practitioner was Dr. Horace Dwight 
Train. He graduated from Harvard in 1846 and in February, 1847, com- 
menced practice in Roxbury, where he remained until 1853, when he went 
to Sheffield. He died April 24, 1879. 

Dr. Albert Lindsay located in Roxbury in 1851. He was born in July, 
1822, in Wakefield, N. H. In 1846 he became acquainted with Dr. C. B. 
Matthews, of Philadelphia, and through him obtained his first knowledge of 
homoeopathy whdc living at Newburyport, Mass., and working at cabinet 
making. He was supposed to have consumption and was advised to try out- 
door pursuits. This he did, and recovered his health. Dr. F. A. Gordon 
urged him to study medicine, and he began to read with him. Soon after 
he went to Springfield, where he entered the office of Dr. G. W. Swazey. 
whose niece he had married. He attended lectures at Brunswick, Me., but 
graduated at the Philadelphia Homoeopathic College in 1851. Ill health com- 
pelled him to remove, and in 1856 he located in Laconia, X. H.. in the bracing 
air of the \\'hite mountains, where he practiced until his death, December 13, 

Dr. William F. Jackson was born in Brunswick, Me. ; graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1846: studied medicine with Dr. Wm. E. Payne, of Bath: 
graduated at Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia in 1849: practiced in 
Gardner, Me., until 1853, when he settled in Roxbury, residing there until 
his death. April 3, 1879. 

Dr. Joseph P. Paine, a native of Elaine, graduated from Homoeopathic 
College of Pennsylvania in 1852; practiced at Damariscotta, Me., one year; 
then removed to Dedham, Mass., where he practiced ten years, and in 1863 
located at Roxbury. 

Dr. John T. Harris was born in Marblehead; graduated at the Homoe- 
opathic College of Philadelphia in 1853; commenced practice in Taunton; 
practiced in Abingdon and East Bridgewater, and then located in 1863 at 
Roxbury. He died about 1893, aged seventy-eight years. 

In Lynn Dr. Daniel A. Johnson was the pioneer of homoeopath}-. He 
graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1848. While attending a patient 
he was attacked with ship fever from which he received no relief until of his 
own accord he applied a cold water bandage. As soon as he could be removed 
he went to X^ashua, X. H., where he received so much benefit from the homoe- 
opathic treatment given him by Dr. J. F. Whittle that he became a convert 
to homoeopathv. He opened an office in Lynn in 1848, and in 1854 removed 
to Chelsea. Dr. E. P. Eastman adopted homoeopathy in 1850, but failing 
healtli compelled him to give up practice in 1855. In 1854 Dr. John M. 
Blaisdell succeeded Dr. Johnson. After remaining three years he went west, 
but afterwards practiced in Bangor, Me. In 1858 Dr. Freeman Horton 
moved from Weare, X^. H. He died March 3, 1861, aged forty-five vears.. 
Drs. B. F. Green and J. Brown also practiced in Lynn. In 1861 Dr. H. Ahl- 


horn went from Marlilchcad Ui L}nn. remaining- there until 1867. when he 
located in lioston. Dr. Alvin Matthew dishing has heen for many years 
identified. with homoeopath} in L.ynn. He was born in Burke, \"t., September 
28, 1820; studied at Lyndon, \'t,, with Dr. Charles B. Darling and Dr. Henry 
A. Houghton ; attended lectures at Dartmouth, and also at the Vermont Med- 
ical College, Woodstock, and graduated from the Homoeopathic ^Medical Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania in 1856. He located in .Bradford, '\'t.^, being the first 
to introduce homoeopathy in that town. He practiced for a short time in 
Lansingburgh, N. Y., and then settled in Lynn, where he is still in practice. 
Drs. I. H. Kimball and Alartha J. Flanders were in practice in Lynn in 1870. 
])r. Inlanders was born in Concord, N. H., Januar\- 15, 1823. She was a stu- 

Alvin M. Cnshins, M. D. 

dent of Dr. Alpheus Morrill, and graduated from the Xew England Female 
College in 1861. She was the first woman practitioner in Concord, where 
she remained two years associated with Dr. Morrill She then located in 
Lynn, where she practiced until i8()3, and then retired. She died .Xox'ember 
3, 1898. Dr. Eleazer Bowen began i)ractice in L\nn in 185^), and in i860 
removed to Jersey Citv. 

In Salem the first homreopathic practitioner was Dr. John H. Floto, a 
native of Cermanv. He was a graduate of the AUentown Academy and prac- 
ticed for a time in Pennsylvania. He went to Salem in 1843 'i"*! remained 
there until i860, when he went to San Francisco, where he located perma- 
nently. In Maw 1850, Dr. De Gersdorff went from Andover to Salem, re- 
mainine' ur.til 1868. 


Dr. Isaac Colby located in Salem in the 'forties. According to Dr. Elijah 
U. Jones and Dr. Henry M. Smith, Dr. Colby had practiced allopathy in 
Concord, N. H., as early as 1830. He began to practice homoeopathy in Con- 
cord in 1846, went to Salem in 1851, and remained there until his death in 
1866. In the list of members of the American Institute of Homoeopathy for 
1848 is the name of Isaac Colby, Salem, Mass. He is mentioned in 1855 as 
living in Concord at that time and also in 1866. Dr. Colby was a fellow 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and one who was tried for joining 
the homoeopathists. He died June 29, 1866. 

Dr. John Gage Wood v;as born at Hollis, N. H., December 2^, 1829; 
studied in Philadelphia with Dr. William A. Gardiner, and graduated at the 
Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1852. He settled in Salem, 
first as partner with Dr. Colby, but later practiced alone. In 1857 his health 
failed, but he continued active work until a few months before his death, 
which occurred at Philadelphia, at the home of his father-in-law, Israel W. 
James, April 29, 1859. 

Dr. Henry C. Angell began practice in Salem with Dr. Floto in 1853. ^^ 
was born in Providence, R. I., in 1829; studied with Dr. A. H. Okie, and 
graduated at the Homoeopathic College of Pennsylvania in 1853. He re- 
mained in Salem a few months and then went to Europe, studying in Vienna 
under Wurmb and Caspar for a year. He then settled in Lynn, but in 1857 
removed to Boston, which city he made his home. The years 1861-63 he 
passed in Europe, and, returning in 1864, he devoted himself to treatment 
of diseases of the eye and ear. He published several books on diet and also 
on the treatment of the eye and ear. 

Dr. Shadrach M. Cate was born in Loudon, N. H., October 24, 1823. 
At the age of nineteen he entered the office of Dr. Alpheus Morrill, then of 
Solon, Ohio. During the third year of his studies. Dr. Morrill, the preceptor, 
became convinced of the truth of homoeopathy, and Dr. Cate also became a 
believer. He attended the medical course in Western Reserve University at 
Cleveland in 1844-45, "^^''is examined bv the board of censors of the Ohio 
Homoeopathic Medical Society, and admitted as a member, that being equiva- 
lent to a license to practice. In 1845 he entered into partnership with Dr. 
Morrill, who had removed to Columbus, and in that city they introduced the 
homoeopathic practice. In December, 1847, Dr. Cate returned to Loudon 
and was the first to introduce homoeopathy in that section. In January, 1849, 
he married i\'lartha J. Messer. In 1854 he graduated from the Western Col- 
lege of Homoeopathic Medicine in Cleveland. In 1850 he went to Augusta, 
Me., and in i860 removed to Massachusetts and settled in Salem. 

In 1865 Dr. Nathan R. Morse removed to Salem from Reading, and in 
1868 Dr. Samuel H. Worcester went there from Gloucester. Dr. Ezekiel 
Morrill also practiced there several years. In 1857 Drs. Floto, De Gersdorff, 
D. B. Hannan, J. B. Walter and J. G. Wood were located in Salem. Dr. 
James M. Cummings also practiced there from 1846 to 1850. 

Dr. Nathan R. Morse was born in Sottard, N. H., February 20, 1831 ; 
graduated at Amherst College in 1853. After graduation he taught school 
at Marion, Mass., and later was principal of the high school at Holyoke, 
which position he resigned in i860 to become private tutor in the families of 
Rev. Levi Parks and F. A. Parks, of Ouachita, La. In 1861 he returned 
north and entered Harvard ■Medical School. Fie took the second course at 
the L'niversity of A'ermont. graduating there in June, 1862. After spending 


a short time in the office of Dr. J. H. Woodbury in Boston, he located at 
Reading, Mass. In 1865 he removed to Salem, succeeding to the practice of 
Dr. Hiram Gove. He died August 5, 1897. 

Homoeopath}- was introduced m Newburyport in April, 1842, by Dr. 
George Washington Swazey, who was born in Exeter, N. H., August 10, 
t8i2, and grafluated from Bowdoin Medical School in 1837. He located at 
Harwick, Alass., until 1838, when he went to Bucksport, Me., remaining there 
until 1842, when he went to Newburyport. His attention was called to 
homoeopathy by reading Hahnemann's Organon while attending his third 
course of lectures, and he was strengthened in his belief in its tenets by the 
unfair criticism with which homoeopathy was assailed by members of his own 
school. He read the " Homoeopathic Examiner," the leading journal of the 
new school, and when he heard that his old friend and classmate, Dr. Wm. 
E. Payne, of Bath, had decided to adopt homoeopathy, he, too, commenced 
its practice. Fully convinced at last, in 1842 he left Maine and went to New- 
buryport and announced himself as a homoeopathic physician. Of course he 
met with bitter opposition. Of this time he himself wrote : " The trials of 
an isolated homoeopathist in those early days of our practice are now but 
seldom encountered. Allopathic physicians then were perhaps no more an- 
gered by our opposition in their practice than now, but their censorship had 
more effect. Public sentiment was then in leading strings, which it seems 
nearly to have outgrown, and much more than now did everybody dread the 
malediction of the doctors in power," Dr. Swazey, in a personal letter, 
wrote : " When I went to Newbur3'port I found a young woman there who 
had a case of homoeopathic medicines and was dispensing them to her friends." 
He removed to Springfield in the autumn of i8z^4 and located permanently. 
He was a leading physician of western Massachusetts, was one of the 
founders of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, and active in society 
circles. He met a painful and sudden death September 8, 1877. He left 
home one Saturday evening about nine o'clock to visit a patient at Deerfield, 
and mistaking his way in the darkness walked oft a railroad bridge near the 
depot, falling thirty feet to the ground below. He died an hour later. 

In 1845 01^6 Bianchini, an Italian, opened an office, but meeting with 
much opposition remained only a short time. He afterward lived in New 

Dr. Stephen Madison Gale located at Newburyport in the fall of 1850, 
He writes of the condition previous to his advent: " A few years later (than 
1845) s young lady by the name of Hudson, who had read a good deal on 
the subject of homoeopathy, obtained some medicines and prescribed for many 
of her friends quite successfully. This very much enraged the physicians of 
the old school. A missionary who had returned from Africa sick was for a 
long time under the care of these physicians. He grew gradually worse and 
put himself under the care of Miss Hudson. He became dropsical and she 
could not get one of them to tap him. She succeeded however in getting 
rid of the water by remedies and he recovered and returned to Africa. Miss 
Hudson left in 1849, much to the regret of the friends of the new system. I 
came here in the fall of 1850 from Methuen, where I had practiced the old 
system for eleven years. T got my first impression of the superiority of the 
new system over the old from my friend, Dr. Do Gersdorff, who then prac- 
ticed in Andover, In coming here I met with a good deal of opposition and 
I supposed I should, hut T have fovmd a sufficient number of patrons to war- 



rant me in remaining at my post for nearly twenty years. Since I came here 
Drs. Weidman, W. L. Thompson, J. Harris and L. M. WiUis have practiced 
here for a short time, and left for better locations. Dr. E. P. Cummings 
located here about 1866, and Dr. David Foss in 1867." Dr. Gale was born 
October 20, 1809, at Kingston Plains, N. H. He was the youngest of five 
sons, all physicians. He studied medicine with his uncles and with his brothers, 
Drs. Ezra B. Gale, of Kingston, N. H., and L. B. Gale, of Boston. After 
attending three courses at Harvard Medical School, he graduated in 1837. 
He located at Derry, N. H., but in 1839 settled at Methuen, Mass. In the 
fall of 1850 he located at Nev^^buryport and at once began to practice homoe- 
opathy. He died of apoplexy, January 26, 1882. Dr. E. P. Cummings was 
born at Stratham, N. H., in 1826. During the rebellion he was assistant sur- 
geon on the ship Roanoke, and afterward in the Twenty-third Massachusetts 
infantry. He introduced homoeopathy into Exeter. X. H., in 1858. He died 
April 8, 1878. 

In Lowell the pioneer homoeopath 
was one of the Allentown coterie. Chris- 
tian Frederic Geist, who settled in Low- 
ell in 1843. • Dr. Geist was born in Hayn, 
near the Hartz, Germany, November 
19, 1805, and first interested himself 
in homoeopathy in 1831. He became 
acquainted with Dr. Wohleben, a Ger- 
man homoeopathist, with whom he 
studied. He prepared remedies himself, 
as many others did in those days. At 
first he employed white wafers prop- 

erly medicated, and afterward he used 
pellets. Dr. Wohleben furnished Geist 
with books and medicines, and he 
came to America in 1835. I" 1836 he 
went to Allentown with letters of in- 
troduction. At Hering's house he met 
the teachers and scholars, and studied 
at the academy. Afterward he spent 
some years with Wesselhoeft in Boston, 
remaining there from 1840 to 1843. 
He was then induced to go to Lowell, 
where he found a strong prejudice 
against homoeopathy. Although he la- 
bored under difficulties, he made some 

brilliant cures. One was a Mrs. Clark, wife of the agent of the Merrimac 
mills, who had been a great sufTerer for years and could hardly move about. 
She had taken much allopathic medicine, but without relief. After two months 
treatment under Geist, she was so much improved that she was able to atterid 
a ball. Of course this made many friends for homoeopathy. Dr. Geist did not 
remain long in Lowell, but in 1845 returned to Boston, where he made his 
home until his death, August 27, 1872. 

The following letter written in 1870 by Dr. Daniel Holt, who succeeded 
Dr. Geist, furnishes interesting information relating to the early practitioners 
of homoeopathy in Massachusetts, and particularly in Lowell : " I com* 

Geo. W. Swazev. M. D. 


menced the practice of homceopathic medicine in October, 1845, iii Lowell. 
Dr. Geist, now of Boston, and Dr. Pike, who died in Lawrence some ten 
3'ears since, were here previously a few months each. Dr. R. Shackford, now of 
Portland, Me., commenced here at the same time as myself. He remained 
here three years. I was then alone most of the time for some ten years 
when Dr. Hiram Parker, who had been in practice here since 1835, ^" large 
business, studied and gradually adopted the homoeopathic principle. He 
brought most of his patrons into the new practice and largely increased it 
among the people. Before and after this, however. Dr. Gross, now of Wis- 
consin, Dr. A. H. Flanders, and Dr. C. H. Walker, son of Dr. Charles Walker 
of Northampton, were here tw^o or three years each. Dr. Walker went to 
Kentucky, where he died. Dr. Harwood, a student of mine, opened an of- 
fice here about i860. He was an accomplished surgeon and went as assistant 
surgeon to the wav and died in service. Dr. Aaron Walker, another student 
of mine, who was superintendent of schools in New Orleans during the war 
under General Butler, a graduate of Amherst College and of the New York 
Homoeopathic College, opened an office here in 1868, but is now in Man- 
chester, N. H. Dr. A. Buswell came here and located in 1866. He investi- 
gated the principle and attended a course at the Philadelphia Homoeopathic 
College and openly adopted our practice. He is a graduate of the military 
school at Woodstock, Vt., and of Dartmouth Medical College. Dr. David 
Packer, who had long been in some practice in Vermont, and also a Method- 
ist circuit preacher, graduated at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Penn- 
sylvania (1866) and came here in 1867 and stayed two years; he is now lo- 
cated in Chelsea. Dr. E. H. Packer and Dr. A.' Thompson from the Phila- 
delphia Homoeopathic College have been here some two years each. Dr. 
E. B. Holt, a graduate of Harvard Medical College and Philadelphia Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, is now here with me (son of Dr. Daniel Holt). 
Dr. A. E. Aldrich, graduate of Harvard Medical College, located here last 
autumn. Dr. Daniel Parker, of Billerica, has an office in our city; he is 
homoeopathic in medicine, but makes a specialty of the battery. We think 
we have from one-third to one-half -the practice in the city." 

Dr. Holt was born in Hampton, Conn., July 2, 1810. He studied at Ash- 
ford, Connecticut., at Amherst, Mass., the Yale scientific school, with his 
brother. Dr. Hiram Holt of Pomfret, Conn., and graduated at the New Haven 
Medical School in 1835. For ten years he practiced in Glastonbury. He 
Vv^rote several monographs, and being appointed to write a paper for the 
jMassachusetts Medical Society, chose as his subect " Homoeo])athy," that 
he might " show up " its absurdities. But vipon studying the subject his ideas 
so changed that the paper which was intended to prove its false doctrine was 
really published under the title " Views of Homoeopathy, or reasons for ex- 
amining and admitting it as a Principle in Medicine." Dr. Holt lost no time 
in studying under Dr. Skiff of New Haven, and by frequent conferences with 
Drs. Gray, Hull, Joslin, Wells and others of New York. After this publica- 
tion the Massachusetts Medical Society promptly expelled Dr. Holt, upon 
M'hich he moved to Lowell and began the practice of homoeopathy. He died 
April II, 1883. 

In 1857 the homoeopathic physicians in Lowell were Drs. Daniel Holt, 
Hiram Parker and Charles \\''alker, Jr. In 1857 there were 11; 1882, 14; 
1899, 15. 

The pioneer homoeopath in New Bedford was Dr. Manning B. Roche. 



a graduate of Allcnlown Academ}-, who located in New Bedford in 1841, 
going from Philadcl]:)liia. In 1847 Dr. Fleming, a clergyman, began prac- 
tice, but left in 1851. Dr. Gustavus Felix ]\Iatthes was born at Schweldt, 
Prussia, December 31, 1809. He was educated at Konigsburg and Stettin 
and Berlin, and from 1832 to 1836 studied medicine in Berlin and Halle, at 
the latter taking his degree. He began practice in Berlin and in 1840 lo- 
cated at Scweldt. In 1845 he became a convert to homoeopathy. In 1849 
he came to America and after remaining a short time in Boston established 
himself in New Bedford. His death occurred May 17, 1889. 

Dr. Daniel Wilder was born at Keene, N. H., April 19, 181 1. In 1845 
he became a student of Dr. G. W. Swazey, of Springfield, Mass., and grad- 
uated from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 185 1. • He 
had attended lectures at Jefferson Medical 
College, but on weighing the systems of 
medicine decided for homoeopathy. He at 
once located at New Bedford, where he re- 
mained until 1869, when ill health compelled 
him to give up practice. Later he lived at 
Greenfield, Mass. 

Dr. Henry Bradford Clarke, son of Dr. 
Peleg Clarke, was born in Cranston, R. I., 
October 18, 1827. After an education at 
Brooke Farm, near Boston, and at a Friends' 
boarding school in Providence, he graduated 
at the Pennsylvania Homoeopathic College 
in 1852, and in May following settled in 
New Bedford. In 1856 he went to Des 
]\Ioines, la., but within a year returned to 
New Bedford, where he remained until ill 
health compelled a change of climate. He 
died at Coronado Beach, Southern Califor- 
nia, ^larch 6, 1888. 

Dr. Edward R. Sisson located at New 
Bedford in 1854. He was born in,Westport, 
Mass., September 2, 1828. He was a stu- 
dent of Dr. Roche, and a graduate of the 
Berkshire Medical School and the Homoeo- 
pathic Aledical College of Pennsylvania. In • 

1857 there were five homoeopaths in New Bedford; in 1875. 7; 1882, 10; 
1899. 9. 

Dr. Isaac Fiske introduced hom.oeopathy into Fall River in 1845. He 
died June 3, 1873. 

Dr. John Lewis Clarke, son of Peleg Clarke, was born in Scituate, R. I., 
November 30, 1812. He graduated at Homoeopathic Medical College of 
Pennsylvania in 1854, and located at Fall River. He died December 24, 
1880. In 1875 there were five homoeopathic practitioners in the city; in 1882, 
5 ; in 1899, 7. 

In Taunton Dr. George Barrows was the first settled homoeopathic phy- 
sician, having located there in 1846. He was born in Attleborough, Mass., 
]\Iay 12. 1815; graduated from Amherst College in 1840; studied medicine 
with his brother. Dr. Ira Barrows, then of Norton, Mass. ; attended one 

G. F. Matthes, ^I. D. 



course of lectures at Woodstock, Vt., and two at Pittsfield (Berkshire Medi- 
cal School), where he graduated in 1847. He at once located in the new 
city of Taunton. In 1856 he attended a course of lectures in the Homoe- 
opathic College of Pennsylvania, graduating therefrom in 1852. During his 
term at Pittsfield, he read a paper entitled " What is Homoeopathy ?" Dur- 
ing the thirty-one years of his active life he was associated in practice with, 
and professionally introduced Drs. Samuel W. Graves, Elijah Utley Jones 
and J. W. Hayward. He died of paralysis and brain fever, January 18, 
1878. He was led to homoeopathy by his brother's success and also that of 
Dr. William Peck, of Cincinnati. 

Dr. Samuel W. Graves remained in Taunton two years when he went 
to Springfield, and afterward to Chicago where he died July 6, 1854. Dr. 
Charles Harris was a graduate of Pittsfield in 1847. He settled in Taunton 
in 185 1, remaining a few years and then went to Wareham. Pie was suc- 

A. A. Klein, M. D. 

ceeded in 1855 by his father, Dr. Handy Harris, who, after remaining three 
years, located at Yarmouth. 

Dr. Elisha Utley Jones was born in Augusta, Me., May 2, 1826, and 
graduated at Waterville College and at Colby University, in medicine at the 
latter institution. He studied under Dr. W. P. Jackson, of Gardner. He 
graduated at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1854. He 
went to Concord, N. H., as assistant to Dr. Alpheus Morrill ; practiced at 
Dover. N. H., in 1853, ^"^ by special request of Dr. George Barrows, he 
went to Taunton in 1854. He died November 25, 1893. He was a promi- 
nent physician in Taunton, for many years president of the board of health, 
and held several public offices. In 1871 he published in volume one of the 
" Transactions of the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society," a valu- 
able paper on the " Early History of Homoeopathy in Massachusetts." 

Dr. John T. Harris was a graduate of the Homoeopathic College of Penn- 
sylvania in 1853. He practiced two years in Taunton and then removed to 
East Bridgewater. In 1859 he removed to Abington, and afterward went to 
Roxbury, where he died. 



Dr. Joseph Warren Hayward was born July ii, 1841, at Easton, Mass. 
He graduated from the state normal school at Bridgewater in i860, and at- 
tended his first course at Harvard Medical School in 1862-63. He was then 
appointed medical cadet of the United States, after passing an examination 
by the army board in Philadelphia. He served for one year in the general 
hospitals in Memphis and Louisville and then returned to New England, tak- 
ing his degree in medicine from the Maine Medical School in June, 1864. He 
was commissioned assistant surgeon United States volunteers, and was or- 
dered to report to General Butler of the department of Virginia, and army 
of the James. He served through the Petersburg and Richmond campaigns. 
He was honorably discharged after the war and opened an office in New 
York city. The conversation leading him to adopt homoeopathy occurred 

Henry B. Clarke, M. D. 

while he was in Richmond. An allopathic physician of repute, a member 
of the board of health, in his search for cholera remedies wished to find 
the one used by the homoeopathic physicians, saying that in the two epidemics 
which occurred within his recollection, the homoeopathists had been much 
more successful than the allopaths, and he thought they had " stumbled " 
on a specific for the disease. In Dr. Hayward's search for thiS remedy he 
discovered that it was the knowledge how to use the homoeopathic remedies 
and the application of a right principle that gave success. In March, 1866, 
he became partner with Dr. Barrows at Taunton. 

Homoeopathy was introduced in Norton by Dr. Ira Barrows in 1842. 
He was practicing allopathy when, happening to call on Dr. P. P. Wells who 
had then just commenced the study and practice of homoeopathy in Provi- 



dence, his attention was called to the subject. Dr. Barrows is referred to 
more fully in the chapter relating to homoeopathy in Rhode Island. Dr. Ben- 
jamin M. Rounds settled in Norton in 1847. and practiced there for many 

In Waltham Dr. George Russell began the practice of homoeopathy in 
1839 or 1840, remaining until 1848, when he went to Boston. Dr. Russell 
v;as born in Lincoln, Mass., September 23, 1795. He graduated from Har- 
vard Medical School in 1820 and located in Lincoln, where he practiced for 
seventeen years and then removed to Waltham, a neighboring town. Soon after 
his settlement in Waltham he became interested in homoeopathy and adopted it 
in practice, probably as early as 1839. 

In 1845 he located in Boston, where he _ 

continued in practice until his death, 
February 18, 1883. Dr. Russell's busi- 
ness extended from Waltham to the 
towns of Newton, Brighton, Wayland, 
Lincoln and Cambridgeport. He was 
succeeded in Waltham by Dr. W. W. 
Hebberd, who joined the fraternity in 

1850, and was then living in Waltham. 
Dr. Thomas B. Wales practiced there 
two or three years and then went to Ran- 
dolph, where he died February 2, 1861, 
aged thirty-eight years. 

Dr. Charles F. Adams went to Wal- 
tham about 1850, and joined the fra- 
ternity in 185 1. In 1858 he went to 
Rutland, Vt. Dr. C. F, Saunders prac- 
ticed in Waltham two or three years. 
He died January 4, 1862, aged twenty- 
nine. Dr. Edward Worcester, a grad- 
uate of the University of New York in 

1851, removed from St. Albans, Vt., to 
Waltham in i860, and has since resided 
in that city. Dr. Luther Clark has prac- 
ticed in Waltham at times while residing 
there with his family. 

In Woburn Drs. Gregg and Fuller had previously introduced some 
knowledge of homa'opathy by occasional practice, but it was not until Sep- 
tember, 1848. that there was a settled homoeopathic physician in that place. 
At that time Dr. Thomas Spencer Scales located there. He was born at 
Colchester, Conn., March 28, 1822. Fie graduated from Middlebury Col- 
lege, Vt., m 1843, after which- he took a trip to Illinois. He then returned 
east and studied dentistry, and i^racticed it at Nashua, N. H., for several 
years. Deci'ding to study medicine, he became a student of Dr. Knight, of 
Franklin, N. H., attended medical lectures in New York city, and later at 
Woodstock, Vt., where he "graduated in 1848. He studied homoeopathy with 
Dr. Gregg, of Boston, and then made Woburn his home until his (leath. Tune 
6, 188 1.' 

Smit1"''s directory for 1857 gives two homoeopathic physicians, S. Aldcn. 
and N. \\'ashburn, as living in Ijridgcwater. Nahum Washburn graduated 

Elisha J. Jones, jNI. D. 


from Dartmouth College in 1832, but became dissatisfied with the prevail- 
ing therapeutics and devoted himself to dentistry, locating at Bridgewater. 
In 1840, reading statements of the wonderful cures effected by homoeopathy, 
he procured a book and some remedies to test the truth of the matter. He 
was successful in the treatment^ of certain cases of obstinate skin disease, 
and was sent for from neighboring towns, to try his remedies. However, 
Having satisfied himself of the truth of homoeopathy, he turned his cases over 
to Dr. Alden, whom he interested in homoeopathy, and who finally became 
a hom_oeopathic practitioner. Dr. Alden was a graduate of Dartmouth Medi- 
cal School in 1824, and was converted to homoeopathy in 1840. 

The first physician to practice homoeopathy in Concord was William 
Gallup. He was born in Plainfield, N. H., August 30, 1805. In 1826 he 
began the study of medicine with his brother, Benjamin Gallup of Lebanon, 
, X. H. He attended five courses of medical lec- 
tures, two at the clinical school of medicine at 
Woodstock. \'t.. and three at Dartmouth, where 
he graduated in November, 1830. In April, 1831, 
he began practice at Plainfield. In September, ^-^^^ 

1833, he removed to New Ipswich, and in 1837 ^^^^^ 

went to Concord, Mass. Late in 1839, he met f -sJ^ 

a ladv who had been subject to frequent attacks F*" "" -^g i 

of enteralgia, very severe in character and un- tC1s.'^K 

yielding to allopathic treatment. She told him ^^J|B^ j 

of the good results from homoeopathic treatment ^^|^||^^^^^ ' 

and he decided to look into the matter, but found .^^^^^^^^^^^H 

it dif^cult to obtain means to experiment. His ^^^B^^^^^^Vi 

professional brethren were ready with abuse of ^^^^^^^^^^^V 

homoeopathy, denouncing it as arrant quackery. ^^^^^^^^^^m \ 

He finally obtained some books and subscribed . ^^^^^^^^^___J 

for the " Homoeopathic Examiner." Later he 

obtained Hahnemann's Organon. Experiment Geo. Russell, ]\I. D. 

satisfied him, and he became a homoeopathist. In 
1844 he went to Bangor, Me., where he passed his life. 

The first homoeopathic physician in Cambridge was Dr. Robert Wessel- 
hoeft, brother of Dr. William Wesselhoeft. He was a graduate of Basle, and 
came to America in 1840 and settled in Cambridge in the summer of 1841. 
He practiced there four }ears. In 1845 he removed to Boston, and a year 
later went to Brattleboro, Vt., where he founded a hydropathic establish- 
ment with employed homoeopathic medication. 

In November, 1847. Hiram Luce Chase settled in Cambridge. He was 
born in Boston, May 19,, 1825, and graduated from Harvard Medical School 
in 1846. About the time of graduating, his attention was called to homoe- 
opathv and he entered the ofifice of Dr. Samuel Gregg to study its doctrines. 
He settled in Cambridge, joined the fraternity, and soon built up a large 

As early as 1844 Rev. Dr. Davis, principal of Westfield Academy, prac- 
ticed homoeopathy as a layman, and owing to' his successful treatment of 
some cases during an epidemic period. Dr. Jehial Abbott, a practicing allo- 
pathic physician of Westfield, was led to investigate homoeopathic teachings. 
Dr. Abbott was born in Tolland, Conn., September 3, 1795, and graduated 
from Yale Medical School. It is probable that he commenced to investigate 


homoeopathy about 1840. He joined the fraternity in 1845. He passed his 
life in Westfield. His death occurred September 23, 1872. 

Dr. Charles W. Taylor, the next practitioner in Westfield, was born De- 
cember 26, 1820, at Ashburnham, Mass. He graduated from the Western 
Homoeopathic College at Qeveland in 1853, ^^^ began practice at Westfield. 
He removed to Maiden in 1856, and from there to New.tonville. 

Dr. Denton George Woodvine was born at Little Meadley, England, 
May 3, 1834. His parents came to America while he was an infant, and 
settled in Albany, N. Y. When he was eighteen he went to Springfield, where 
he was encouraged by Drs. Swazey and Collins to study medicine. He at- 
tended lectures in Philadelphia and received a diploma from the eclectic 
college there in 1857. He took the practice of Dr. C. W. Taylor in 1857, 
remaining in Westfield until 1866, when he graduated from the University 
of Pennsylvania. From this time he practiced in Boston. He died Novem- • 
ber 23, 1894. Dr. Frank Mullen located in Westfield in 1866. 

In Worcester Dr. Joseph Birnstill was the first homoeopathic practi- 
tioner, locating there in 1844. He was born in Rastadt, Baden, Germany, 
August 9, 1809. He was educated at the universities of Frieberg and Heid- 
elburg, studied medicine at Wurzburg under Schoenlein, and was converted 
to homoeopathy by Dr. Greisselich. He left Germany for political reasons 
in May, 1833, landed in New York July 10, and soon after went to Dunkirk, 
N. Y., at a time when homoeopathy was unknown in Chautauqua county. He 
could speak only German, and as no one could understand him he remained 
there but eight months, then going to Westfield in the same county. He 
gradually acquired a knowledge of English and his practice increased rap- 
idly. Two years later he went to Buffalo for a few months, and then re- 
turned to Westfield, but when he applied for membership in the Chautauqua 
County Medical Society, although he gave ample evidence of having a medi- 
cal degree, he was rejected because he was practicing homoeopathy. More- 
over, he was liable to prosecution and fine under the medical law of the 
time. His poverty and foreign birth, with the ridicule of the physicians, 
drove him away. He went to Erie, Pa., in 1839, ^^'^ thence to Massillon, 
O., where his health failed. He then went to Worcester in 1844, and prac- 
ticed there three years. In 1847 went to Boston, and in 1849 to Newton 
Corners, where he built up an extensive practice, and where he died Feb- 
ruary 16, 1867, aged fifty-six years. In 1849 ^""^ was one of the editors of 
the " Quarterly Homoeopathic Journal." 

In 1849 Dr. Joseph K. Clark, who had just graduated from the Homoe- 
opathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, located in Worcester, In 1855 he 
went to Elizabethtown, Ohio, and thence to Louisville, Ky. 

In 1849 Dr. Lemuel Bliss Nichols settled in Worcester. He was born 
in Bradford, N. H., October 6, 1816. He graduated at Brown University 
in 1842, taught in the Arnold street grammar school. Providence, R. I., for 
several years, studied medicine with Dr. A. H. Okie, a homoeopathic physi- 
cian of Providence, and graduated at Philadelphia in 1848 or 1850. He 
died September 28, 1883. His son. Dr. Charles L. Nichols, succeeded him 
in his practice and is still in Worcester. 

In 1854 Rev. Aurin Bugbee located at Worcester. He claimed to have 
introduced homoeopathy into Worcester county, having settled at Charlton 
as early as 1840. In 1856 he attended medical lectures in Boston, and aftet^ 
ward went to Warren, Vt., where he died in 1859. 


Dr. J. E. Linnell succeeded Dr. Clark. He was a graduate of Amherst 
College, and of the medical school at Dartmouth in 1844. While in practice 
at East Douglas in 1853 he became interested in and began the practice of 
homoeopathy. He went to Worcester in January, 1855, remaining there un- 
til 1866, when faiHng health caused him to go to Norwich, Conn. Dr. Will- 
iam Baker Chamberlain established himself in Worcester in 1866. He had 
previously practiced in Fitchburg, having come from Kenne, N. H. He died 
in Worcester. 

In 1857 Drs. Jonathan E. Linnell, Lemuel Bliss Nichols and Dr. Rosen- 
thal! were in practice at Worcester. In 1875 there were six homoeopathic 
physicians in the city; in 1882, 9; 1899, 24. 

Dr. Mary G. Baker graduated in 1862, and practiced homoeopathy in 
Middleboro until 1868, when she went to Worcester, 

Dr. Joseph Birnstill located in Newton in 1849. In 1863 Dr. Edward 
P. Scales settled there. He was born in Henniker, N. H., July 17, 1831, studied 
with his brother. Dr. Scales of Woburn, and in 1857 attended medical lectures 
at Dartmouth. In March, 1859, he graduated from the Cleveland Homoe- 
pathic College and began practice at Norwood, where he remained until 1861. 
He then practiced at Winchester, and located in 1863 ^^ Newton. He fell 
while leaving the library at Newton, and died from the injury at the Newton 

In Egremont Dr. H. D. Chapman began the practice of homoeopathy in 
1846, remaining until 1856, when he went to Virginia. He was the pioneer 
of homoeopathy in Berkshire county. As early as 1840 homoeopathy was 
planted in Pittsfield, and found its way within the walls of the Berkshire 
Medical College, for many of the students had seen the good effects of the 
little doses ; but no regular homoeopathic practitioner settled in Pittsfield un- 
til 1847, when Dr. Van Vleck, a graduate of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of New York, commenced practice there. Dr. Van Vleck remained 
until 1851 and then he went to Kinderhook, N. Y. In 1849 Charles Bailey 
located in Pittsfield. He was born in East Medway, Mass., September 2, 
1 82 1, and was educated at Brown University. He studied medicine with Dr. 
Nathaniel Miller, attended lectures at Mason Street College, Boston, also at 
the Chelsea Marine Hospital, and in 1843 graduated at Berkshire Medical 
College. He began practice in Springfield, remained there four years, then 
went to Holyoke for two and a half years, and afterward took a journey to 
the south. He stopped at Philadelphia on the way home to attend a course 
of lectures at the homoeopathic college, and while there became enthusiastic 
on homoeopathy. When he went south he had been in poor health, and he 
regained it by homoeopathic treatment. He returned to Pittsfield in 1849- 
50 and commenced the practice of homoeopathy. Dr. Harvey Cole, a grad- 
uate of Berkshire Medical College, practiced from 1850 to 1868, and then 
he went to Hartford, Conn. Dr. Lorenzo Waite, also a Berkshire graduate, 
located in Pittsfield in 1857. 

In Attleborough Dr. W. W. Hebber was the first settled homoeopathic 
physician. He came in 1848 and remained until 1850. Dr. Ira Barrows at 
Norton had, however, previously practiced in the town. In 1852 Dr. Edward 
Sanford, a graduate of Harvard in that year, settled in Attleborough. In 
1854 Dr. James W. Foster located at North Attleborough. 

The first homoeopathic physician in Methuen was Dr. Stephen Madison 
Gale, who was practicing allopathy there at the time he adopted the new 


system. In 1850 he went to Newburyport. Dr. Arthur J. French practiceil 
for a time at A'lethuen. Dr. WilHam H. Lougee also practiced there previous 
to i860. 

Dr. J. B. Dinsmore introduced homoeopathy in Haverhill and later went 
to Brooklyn, N. Y., and thence to San Francisco. He was succeeded by 
Dr. Benjamin Edwards Sawyer, who was born at Cape Elizabeth, Me., Aug- 
ust II, 181 1. He graduated at Bowdoin Medical School in 1837, and lo- 
cated at Boscawen, N. H., where he began to practice allopathy. In 1845 
he became convinced of the truth of homoeopathy and adopted it in practice. 
At this time he went to. Concord, then the center of an anti-slavery circle. 
In 1854 he went to Haverhill, locating there permanently. He died in Octo- 
ber, 1879. 

In 1853 ^^- ^^^ Eaton Chase, a graduate of Wesleyan University in 
1850, of the Berkshire Medical School in 1852, of the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania and also the Jefferson Medical College in 1853, lo- 
cated at Haverhill. He was born at Newton, N. H., June i, 1831. 

Although' the residents of Lawrence had employed homoeopathic treat- 
ment previously, it was not until 1849 ^^^t its first practitioner, Dr. Jerome 
Harris, settled there. In a letter dated 1870, Dr. Harris himself said: "I 
graduated at Bowdoin College, 1830, practiced allopathy till 1845, then 
adopted homoeopathy and have practiced it ever since at Lawrence, Mass., 
Dover, N. H., Norwich, Conn., and am now practicing it here at Woon- 
socket, R. I." 

Dr. Harris left Lawrence, in 1854 to go to Dover as successor to Dr. E. 
U. Jones. Dr. A. W. Pike, graduate of Harvard Medical School, came from 
Dover, N. H., in 1853, and died in 1859. ^^ 1855 Dr. Charles Henry Farns- 
worth, a graduate of New York University in 1847, commenced to practice 
homoeopathy. . He remained until 1858 and then went to East Cambridge. 
Dr. Arthur J. French, graduate of Vermont Medical College in 1848, went 
from Methuen to Lawrence in 1857. I^i 1861 Dr. William Hatch Lougee 
settled in Lawrence. He was born at Hanover, N. H.,' February 3, 1832, 
studied medicine with Dr. Alpheus Morrill, of Concord, N. H., attended 
Dartmouth Medical School in 1855, and graduated from the Homoeopathic 
Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1857. He commenced practice in Methuen 
in 1857, remaining there five years and going thence to Lawrence. From 
1878 to 1880 he was in Europe, engaged in study and travel. He died at 
Lawrence, November 18, 1897. Dr. D. Humphrey located there in 1861. 

Dr. J. R. Gifford began the practice of homoeopathy in Lee in 185 1, con- 
tinuing until his death in March, 1866. Dr. C. W. Stratton settled in Lee 
in 1867. In Stockbridge Dr. W. L. R. Perrine commenced practice in 1850, 
stayed two years and then went to Hudson, N. Y. 

Dr. H. C. Champlin, a graduate of Albany iNIedical College, began the 
practice of homoeopathy in Otis, Berkshire county, in 1851. In Dedham, al- 
though Dr. Gregg had been called into that town before any homoeopathic 
physician was settled there, it was in 1853 that Dr. Joseph D. Paine, the first 
one, located there for practice. He remained ten years and then went to 

Dr. J. E. Linnell located at East Douglass in 1854. He went the next 
year to Worcester, and was followed in East Douglass by Dr. H. H. Darling. 
About 1855 T^''- Bennett, of Uxbridge, ado])te(l homoeopathy. 

The first hcmcTeopathic ])hysician to settle in Micldleliorough was Dr. E. 



C. Knight, \vhi) began practice there about 1853. and after iour years went 
to Illinois. Dr. J. C. Baker succeeded Dr. Knight and practiced in Uxbridge 
until his death in 1865. In Fitchburg homceo])athy had been introduced pre- 
vious to 1855, but it was not until that year that the first homoeopathist, Dr. 
James Chester Freeland. located there. He was the son of Dr. J. C. Free- 
land, born in Becket, Mass., June 21, 1831. He studied with his father, at- 
tended lectures at Pittsficld, and graduated at Western Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College of Cleveland in 1862. In 1855 ^''^ went with his father's family 
to Fitchburg, where, with the exception of a year ' with Dr. Chamberlain 
in Keene, N. H.. he practiced until his death, April 23, 1871; 

Dr. Daniel Brainard W'hittier was born in Gofifstown, N. H., October 
21, 1834. He studied medicine with his brother-in-law, Dr. W. B. Cham- 
berlain of Keene, attended lectures at Harvard Medical College in 1859-60, 
and graduated at New York Homoeopathic Medical College in March, 1863. 
In 1 86 1 he went to Fitchburg to assist Dr. Freeland. After graduation he 
returned and practiced there until his death, April 16, 1895. 

Dr. Oliver Leech Bradford settled in Fitchburg in 1877, having come 
there from Andover. He was a native of Francestown, N. H., born No- 
vember 5, 1832. Dr. C. A. Brooks graduated from the Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College of Pennsylvania in 1857 s"<^ went to Clinton. Dr. H. A. Van 
Deusen commenced practicing homoeopathy in Great Barrington in 1858. 
Dr. William Babbitt, a graduate of the University of New York in 1859, 
began the practice of homoeopathy in Braintree in i860, but went to the 
war and was promoted surgeon of 103d U. S. Inf. After his return he set- 
tled in Randolph. Dr. John Howard Sherman located in Nantucket in 1857. 
He was a graduate of the Castleton Medical College, Vermont, in 1857. tie 
remained in Nantucket four years, then went to San Francisco, remaining 
four years, and practiced at Middleboro, Mass., for four and a half years. 
In May, 1870, he settled in Lynn. 

Homoeopathic physicians in Massachusetts previous to i860. The date 
preceding the name indicates the year the physician began the practice of 
homoeopathy. The character '■' indicates that the practitioner originally was 
of some other school ; the character x indicates that the physician practiced 
medicine before the date given. 



Barker, Lemuel M. 



Birnstill. D. F. x 



Birnstill, Joseph 



Bnshnel], William x 



Capen, Robert * 



Cross, William Plumer * 



Clark, Luther * 



Cullis, Charles 



Cutler, William W. 



Dennett, George William 



Flagg, Josiah Foster 



Fuller, Milton * 



Geist, Christian F. * 



Gregg, Samuel * 



Gove, H. X 



Hale, Eben 


Hall, L. X 

Hernisz, Stanislaus x 
Hoffendahl, Charles Frederick 
Hoffendahl, Herman L. H. 
Ingalls, William, Sr. * 
Krebs, Francis Hugo 
Martin, Joseph Lloj'd 
Macfarland, Lafavette 
Newell, R. W. x' 
Osgood, David * 
Palmer, Frederick Niles 
Pease, Giles 
Russell, George * 
Sanders, Orrin S. * 
Sandicky, D. F. 
Sherman, John Howard 



1853 Talbot, Israel Tisdale 

1843 Tarbell. John Adams * 

1845 Thayer, David * 

1855 Weeks, Benjamin x 

1835 Wesselhoeft, William * 

1857 Wesselhoeft, William Palmer 

1840 Wesselhoeft, Robert 

1856 Wesselhoeft, Conrad 

1857 West, Benjamin H. x 
1855 Woodbury, John Harvey 


1840 Abbott, Jehiel * Westfield 1839 

1840 Alden, Samuel * Bridgewater 1857 

1850 Adams, Charles F. Waltham 1854 

1857 Allen, E. C. x South Hadley 1852 

1853 Angell. Henry C. Lynn. 1855 
1859 Babbitt, Warren M. Randolph 1848 

1846 Baker, George * Chelsea 1857 

1856 Baker, Joseph C. Middleboro 1841 

1848 Bailey, Charles * Pittsfield i860 

1857 Bailey, L. x Pittsfield 1849 
1845 Barrows, George Taunton 1849 

1842 Barrows, Ira * Norton 1840 
i860 Berry, Milton * Andover 1843 

1847 Bell, Henry W. * x Nantucket 1832 

1858 Bellows, Albert J. Roxbury 1851 

1844 Birustill, Joseph Newton Center 1846 

1845 Bianchini, Dr. Newburyport 1838 
1852 Blaisdell, John M. Lynn 1848 
1857 Blake, J. x Wrentham 1857 
1857 Blanding, A. O. x Rehoboth 1850 

1859 Bowen, Eleazer * hynn 1856 
1857 Briggs, D. H. x Abington 1849 
1857 Brooks, Charles A. Clinton 1853 

1852 Brown, Josiah * Lynn ■ 1856 
1857 Brown, S. O. x Ware 1866 
1840 Bugbee, Aurin (Rev.) Charlton 1848 

1854 Burpee, John A. Maiden 1853 
1854 Cate, H. J. Northampton 1845 

1845 Cate, Shadrach M. Lynn 1855 

1839 Capen, Robert * Plymouth 1857 

1846 Chase, Hiram L. Cambridge 1850 

1853 Chase, Ira E. Haverhill 1842 
1846 Chapman, H. D. Egremont 1839 
.... Chisholm, W. R. Greenfield 1849 

1849 Clark, Joseph K. Worcester 1857 

1854 Clarke, John Lewis Fall River 1848 

1852 Clarke, Henry B. New Bedford 1856 

1840 Clarke, Frances H. * Andover 1854 
1846 Colby, Isaac * Salem 1857 

1850 Collins, Henry A. Springfield 1852 
1850 Cole, Harvey Pittsfield 

1853 Cross, William P. * Nantucket 1S51 

1856 Cushing, Alvin M. Lynn 1853 
1844 Cummings, James M. * Groton 1857 
1859 Cummings, E. P. x Newburyport 1845 
1846 De Gersdorfif, Ernst B. * Andover 

1857 Darling. H. H. x Charlton 1858 

1844 Davis, Rev. Dr. Westfield 1857 

1843 Dean, Amos Easton 1847 
1853 Dinsmore. J. Pitman Haverhill 1850 
1850 Eastman, E. P. * Lynn .... 

1855 Farnswnrlh, Charles H. * Lawrence 1852 
1857 Fiske, J. X Fall River 1857 

1845 Fiske, Isaac Fall River 1857 

Floto, John Henry Salem 
Ford, C. X Hyannis 
Foster, J. W. North Attleborough 
Freeland, Chester J. Fitchburg 
Freeland, J. C. Fitchburg 
French, A. J. Methuen 
Fritchie, C. F. x Dorchester 
Fuller, Milton * Medford 
Gale, Josiah B. * Salisbury 
Gale, Stephen M. * Newburyport 
Gale, Amory *' East Medway 
Gallup, William * Concord 
Gardiner, William A. Salem 
Geist, Christian F. Lowell 
Gifford, J. B. Lee 
Graves, Samuel W. Springfield 
Gregg, Samuel * Medford 
■ Hannam, D. B. * Beverly 
Harman, D. B. x Danvers 
Harris, Charles W. * Taunton 
Harris, Handy x Taunton 
Harris, Jerome * Lawrence 
Harris, John T. Taunton 
Hatch, Horace x Brookline 
Hayward, Joseph W. * Taunton 
Hebberd, W. W. Attleborough 
Hedenberg, James Medford 
Holt. Daniel * Lowell 
Horton, Freeman * Lynn 
Houatt, J. X Andover 
Howarth, J 

Ingalls, William * Worcester 
Jackson, Mercy B. Plymouth 
Jackson, William F. Roxbury 
Jenks, C. F. E. x Wareham 
Johnson, Daniel A. * Lynn 
Johnson. O. O. x Sudbury 
Jones, Elisha Utley Taunton 
King, A. X Palmer 
Knight, Elam Clark * Middle- 
Lindsay, Albert Roxbury 
Linnell, Jonathan E. * Worcester 
Lougee, William Hatch Lawrence 
Matthes, Gustavus F. * New Bed- 
Morrill, Ezekiel x 
Morse, E. E. x Medway Village 
Neilson, James C. Charlestown 
Nichols. Lemuel Bliss Worcester 
Nute,' T. R. Roxbury 
Paine, Joseph P. Dedham 
Parker, Daniel x Billcrica 
Parker, Hiram x Lowell 



1840 Pease, Giles Cambridge 1842 

1857 Penniman, J. A. Brookfield 1840 

1850 Perrine, W. L. R. Stockbridge 1853 

1857 Perry, W. F. x Mansfield 1856 

1857 Pierce, Dr. x Chicopee 1847 

1844 Pike, A. J. Lowell 1857 
1857 Porter, I. x Charlton 1847 
1857 Roberts, J. x Northampton 1854 

1853 Roberts, Osmore O. Northampton 1855 
1837 Roche, Manning New Bedford 1837 

1847 Rounds, Benjamin M. * Norton 1857 
1857 Rosenthal, Gustavus M. x Worces- 1853 

ter 1855 

1840 Russell, George * Waltham 1857 

1855 Saunders, Charles F. Waltham 1840 

1852 Sanford, Edward East Attleborough 1839 

1857 Sanford, Enoch W. Brookline 1856 

1845 Sawyer, Benjamin E. * Haverhill 1840 

1848 Scales, Thomas S. Woburn 1857 
1859 Scales, Edward P. Newton 1850 

1844 Schlegel 1839 

1845 Shackford, Rufus Lowell 1856 
1857 Shepardson, N. x Adams 1857 

1854 Sisson, Edward R. New Bedford 1858 
1857 Spencer, Charles L. x New Bedford 1852 
1839 Spooner, John P. * Dorchester 181^7 
1857 Steen, A. L. x Foxborough 1857 

1855 Stone, Alfred B. Medford 

Swazey, George W. * Newburyport 
Swan, Daniel * Medford 
Taylor, Charles W. Westfield 
Tomlinson, Rev. Plymouth 
Train, Horace D. Roxbury 
Van Deusen, H. A. x Egremont 
Van Vleck, Dr. Pittsfield 
Waite, Lorenzo Pittsfield 
Wales, Thomas B. x Waltham 
Walker, Charles * Northampton 
Walker, Charles, Jr. x Lowell 
Walker, Charles H. Chelsea 
Walter, Joseph S. Gloucester 
Walter, J. B. x Salem 
Washburn, Nahum * Bridgewater 
Weld, C. M. * Jamaica Plain 
West. Benjamin H. x Neponsit 
Wesselhoeft, Robert Cambridge 
Whitney, J. x Princeton 
Wilder, Daniel New Bedford 
Wild, Charles * Brookline 
Wild, Edward A. x Brookline 
Wilson, G. H. x Conway 
Willis, L. Murray x Charlestown 
Wood, John Gage Salem 
Woodbury, Elwell x Medford 
Woodvine, Denton G. Westfield 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Occupation of New Jersey by Homoeopaths from New York on the North and Philadel- 
phia on the West — The First Practitioners Converts from the Allopathic Ranks — 
Dr. Isaac Moreau Ward the Pioneer — Early Society Organization — Pioneers rf 
Homoeopathy in the Several Counties of New Jersey — Reminiscences of Prominent 
Early Practitioners. 

In the early outspreading of homoeopathy from the centers in which the 
new system first foimd an abiding place in America, it is not surprising that 
New Jersey caught the spirit of the doctrine before many of the more popu- 
lous states both of the east and the west. On the north and east lay New 
York with its great metropolis separated from New Jersey only by the Hud- 
son river; on the west the great commonwealth of Pennsylvania, with the 
metropolitan city of' Philadelphia distant from her borders only by the width 
of the Delaware ; and these great cities at the time of which we write were 
the chief centers of homoeopathy in America and perhaps of the world. 
Tradition has it that the seed of homoeopathy was sown in fertile New Jer- 
sey soil in the year 1838, and while Dr. Isaac Moreau Ward is generally con- 
ceded to have been the pioneer of the new school within the bounds of the 
state, lie is not traced to the field of practice there earlier than 1839, but Her- 
ing is credited with having published " The Family Adviser " in Camden, 
opposite Philadelphia, in 1838; and if Hering did that work in that city at 
the time indicated, the mference is fair that he also preached and practiced 
among the Camden people the doctrines in which he was so intensely inter- 

However this may have been, there is no question that homoeopathy 
found lodgement in New Jersey in 1839 or 1840, when Ward became its exem- 
plar in the interior town of Bloomficld, having acquired his understanding of 
the new healing art through the agency of those old master spirits of homoe- 
opath)^ — Ball, Gray and Hull, of New York city. The germ soon grew into 
active organism, and within the next half score of years the work of these 
teachers, with the assistance of another equally interested coterie in Phila- 
delphia, found results in the achievements of more than a dozen zealous prac- 
titioners in the state. In 1846 the strength of the profession was such that 
its representatives organized a branch of the American Institute of Ilomoe- 
opathy, and in 1854 the New Jersey State Homoeopathic Medical Society was 
brought into existence. These were followed by district, county and munici- 
pal societies and clubs until the state was well provided with organizations 
of the kind, each of which has served a useful purpose in advancing the wel- 
fare of the school whose disciples the members have been. Statistics show 
that in 1857 there were forty-six homoeopathic physicians in the state; in. 
1870, 196; 1880, 200; 1899. 347; and in 1904, 333. 



The first homoeopathic society in New Jersey was the New Jersey Branch 
of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, which was organized at Mount 
Holly, July 20, 1846. On that occasion Dr. J. Richardson Andrews was 
chairman ; M. J. Rhees, secretary ; Drs. John A. Paine and J. C. Boardman, 
censors. The next meeting was held November 26, 1846, when only Drs. 
Boardman, Paine and Rhees were present. The constitution and by-laws were 
published and promulgated in 1846, and the society was in existence in 1850, 
but was decadent and not recognized as a legally organized body under the 
laws then in force. Under the then existing statutes any person practicing 
medicine in the state who had not the diploma of an allopathic college, or who 
had not been licensed by an authorized medical society was deemed to be 
practicing unlawfully and liable to a fine of $25 for each prescription, one- 
half of said fine to go to the prosecutor; but in 1854 this obnoxious and un- 
just law was repealed, and thereafter homoeopathy had legal rights in the 

At a meeting held in Trenton, February 13, 1855, a state homoeopathic 
medical society was organized, with officers as follows : Dr. Thomas Lafon 
of Newark, president; Drs. William A. Durrie of Jersey City, J. R. Andrews 
of Camden and J. C. Boardman of Trenton, vice-presidents ; Dr. J. B. Pether- 
bridge of Trenton, recording secretary ; Dr. J. J. Youlin of Jersey City, pro- 
visional secretary ; Dr. J. B. Scott of New Brunswick, corresponding secre- 
tary ; Dr. P. E. Vastine of Trenton, treasurer ; Drs. J. D. Annin, J. D. Moore, 
R. M. Wilkinson, J. S. Bassett and R. Titsworth, censors. The society con- 
tinued to hold meetings until 1858, after which there is no record of any 
such, though probably the members held informal gatherings. On February 
4, 1868, a reorganization meeting was held in Jersey City, and on April 15 
following the old society was revived, with Dr. Youlin president and Dr. 
Tompkins secretary. This society was incorporated February 9, 1870, under 
the name of New Jersey State Homoeopathic Medical Society, by which it 
has since been known. It holds semi-annual meetings in May and October 
in different places in the state; membership, 230. The society celebrated its 
semi-centennial anniversary at Deal Beach, June 3-4, 1903. 

The Western District New Jersey Homoeopathic Medical Society was 
organized in Camden, May 19, 1869, at which time also a constitution was 
adopted and officers elected, as follows: Dr. D. R. Gardiner of Woodbury, 
president ; Dr. R. M. Wilkinson of Trenton, vice-president ; Dr. Wallace 
McGeorge of Hightstown, secretary; Dr. J. G. Streets of Bridgton, treasurer; 
Drs. W. H. Maline, H. F. Hunt and Isaac Cooper, censors. In November, 
1869. the name of the society was changed to West Jersey Homoeopathic 
Medical Society, and under that name was incorporated in May, 1872. It 
has since maintained an active and healthful existence and meets regularly 
in Camden. Its membership numbers about seventy-five physicians. 

Among the other, homoeopathic societies with which the state is well pro- 
vided, for our school of medicine always has been strong in New Jersey, there 
may be mentioned the Homoeopathic Medical Society of Camden, organized 
in 1878; the Communipaw Medical Society, organized in 1886; the Eastern 
District Homoeopathic Medical Society, organized February 6, 1868; the 
Essex County Homoeopathic Medical Society, organized in 1885 ; the Hahne- 
mann Medical Club of Plainfield, organized in 1885 and dissolved in 1889; 


the Hudson County Homoeopathic Medical Society, organized -March 8, 1871 ; 
Hudson Homoeopathic Medico-Chirurgical Society, December 8, 1886; Medi- 
cal Club of Northern New Jersey, 1882 ; Newark Homoeopathic Medical Un- 
ion, 1871-1885; Newark, Union and Hudson Counties Homoeopathic Medical 
Society; New Jersey Medical Club, March 29, 1869; Trenton Club of Homoe- 
opathic Physicians, 1888. 

The West Jersey Homoeopathic Hospital, which had. its beginning in 
1892, was the outgrowth of the Camden Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispen- 
sary Association, organized and incorporated February 5, 1885, and opened 
for patients March 2 following. On March 22, 1888, the institution was re- 
moved from its original quarters to a new location on West and Stevens 
streets. This building was purchased for $8,000, and was provided with pub- 
lic and private wards, operating room. etc. For a time considerable interest 
was taken by the profession in the welfare of the hospital, but later on there 
seemed to be a decline, and in December, 1890, the doors were closed, the 
dispensary, however, remaining in operation and receiving muncipal aid. In 
April, 1 891, the building was sold, passing into the ownership of the West 
Jersey Homoeopathic Medical Society, by whom the hospital department was 
re-opened in 1892. It is a good institution, contains forty beds, and is sup- 
ported largely by voluntary contributions. 

The William McKinley Memorial Hospital of Trenton, one of the most 
worthy charities of that city, formerly imder strict homoeopathic direction 
but now open to physicians of both schools, is the outgrowth of the still 
older Trenton Homoeopathic Hospital, the latter dating its history from its 
dedication, June 6, 1889, and its formal opening, November i following. The 
older institution and its training school for nurses were maintained until 
1902, and then re-incorporated under the name of The William McKinley 
Memorial Hospital. The hospital has seventy-five beds ; value of property, 

St. Mary's Homoeopathic Hospital in Passaic was incorporated in 1895 
and opened for patients during the same year, and then was an allopathic 
institution, su])ported by voluntary contributions. Its medical supervision 
passed under homoeopathic control in 1899. 

The Passaic Homoeopathic Hospital was opened October 27, 1897. The 
first staff of physicians and surgeons was chosen from the ranks of the allo- 
pathic profession, but in 1898 this regulation was modified. 

The Homoeopathic Hospital of Essex county, in Roseville, was incor- 
porated in 1903 by the Homoeopathic Hospital Association. It was opened 
for patients, March 28, 1903. 


Dr. Isaac Moreau Ward was the first resident practitioner of homoe- 
opathy in the state. He became interested in the new system in 1839 or 1840. 
He was born in Bloomfield, N. J., October 23, 1806, graduated from Yale 
College in 1825, studied medicine with Dr. Hosack and graduated from Rut- 
ger's College in 1829. He located in Newark and soon established a large 
practice. In 1832 when the cholera appeared in New York he was chosen 
bv the state and county societies to investigate the character of the plague and 
note the comparative effects of different remedial agents. He saw homoe- 
opathv and allopathy tried side by side in the Park Hospital, and the superior 
advantages of homoeopathy there demonstrated. Then he met Dr. Alonzo 


S. Ball of New York at a religious meeting in Newark, and invited him 
to dinner, and the conversation turning on homoeopathy, he learned that Ball 
had adopted its practice and obtained from him a few remedies with, which 
to experiment in certain cases. Without mentioning to his patients that he 
had made any change in his school of medicine, his success was so great with 
the homoeopathic remedies that he adopted them and began the practice of 
homceopathy. In 1841 he was induced to go to Albany, N. Y., by Drs. Gray, 
Hull and Ball. He practiced there until 1849, when on account of his health 
he retired to a home near Newark, giving his time to horticulture. After 
several years he again began practice. From 1853 to i860 he held chairs 
in the Homoeopathic IMedical College of Pennsylvania. In i860 he became 

(icni-ge W. Richards, M. D. 

one of the founders of the New York Homoeopathic Medical College, and 
for a time was its dean and professor of obstetrics. He then retired to his 
country home at Lyons farm, where he practiced only among friends and 
neighbors until his death, which occurred March 24, 1895. 

Another of the early practitioners of Newark was Dr. Jonathan Dicken- 
son Annin. He was born at Liberty Corner, N. J., November 26, 1806. He 
attended lectures at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, 
but the date of his graduation is not known. He commenced practice at Irv- 
ington, N. J., and afterward removed to Newark. In 1840 he married Eleanor 
Mead. Some time after 1840 he began to question the superiority of the 
allopathic practice, and after experimenting began to regularly practice homoe- 
opathy. He became a member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy in 


1846. The last few years of his life were marked by extreme weakness and 
debility. He died at the Sheldon house, Ocean Grove, September 26, 1883. 

Dr. Thomas Lafon was practicing homoeopathy in Newark in 1847. He 
was born in Chesterfield county, Va., in 1802. In 1805 he entered the medi- 
cal department of Transylvania University, graduating therefrom. Two 
years later he became interested in the American Board of Foreign Missions, 
and volunteered to go as medical missionary to the Sandwich islands. For 
seven years he labored there both as doctor and spiritual teacher. At the 
end of that time the ill health of his wife, and the condition of his eyes, com- 
pelled his return to the United States. After a few months of rest he at- 
tended a course of lectures in the Philadelphia Medical College. In 1846 he 
opened an office in Paterson, N. J., and while there began to investigate the 
claims of homoeopathy. He soon became satisfied * of its truth and openly 
avowed and Dr. Lafon introduced homoeopathy into Passaic 
county. In 1847 ^""^ removed to Newark where, despite most bitter opposi- 
tion by the allopathic society, he built up a large practice. Suddenly, while 
at the bedside of a patient, he was stricken with apoplexy and died on March 
20, 1876. In 1857 Drs. J. D. Annin, T. Lafon, I. M. Ward, C. H. Liebold 
and J. B. Scott were practicing in Newark. In 1875 there were 29 homoe- 
opathy practitioners there; in 1880, 25; in 1899, 33. 

Dr. George W. Richards opened an office in Orange about i860. Dr. 
E. Caspari was in practice there as early as 1857. Dr. Richards graduated 
from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York in 1853, spent 
some time abroad, and on his return located in New York city. After a few 
years he went to Newark, where he became a partner with Dr. Lafon and 
opened an office in Orange, establishing the first homoeopathic dispensary in 
the state. A year later the partnership v.'as dissolved and he went to Orange 
to live. He died May 2, 1893. 

Homoeopathy was introduced into Burlington county in 1840 by Dr. R. 
S. Middleton, who located at Burlington city. He remained there until 1855 
when he went to Philadelphia. He joined the American Institute of Homce- 
pathy in 1847. ^^- Humphrey went from Philadelphia to Burlington after 
he had retired from practice and he exercised an influence favorable to homoe- 
opathy. He afterward went to Beverly, where he died. In 1857 Drs. John 
D. Moore and Edward M. Smith were in practice in Burlington. Dr. Moore 
was born in Philadelphia, March 7, 1802. He studied medicine with Dr. 
James McClintock, attended a course of lectures at *the Jefferson Medical 
College, and two courses at the Pennsylvania College, where he graduated 
in 1847. ^" 1849 l''c became interested in homoeopathy. He practiced for 
several years in Newtown, Pa., but about 1853 located in Burlington, where 
he died September 20, 1867. One who knew him said he was a man who 
would weigh upwards of two hundred. The boys called him "Powwow 
Moore " on account of his devotion to homoeopathy. When he was taken 
with his last illness Dr. Gant, an allopathic physician, called and asked 
his wife if he might see him. Dr. Moore sent word that the doctor could visit 
him as a friend but not as a physician. Dr. Gant said he had come as a 
physician and urged to be allowed to prescribe for him, saying that he would 
die if he continued to take homoeopathic medicine. Dr. Moore would not 
see him and Dr. Gant afterward said that he died because he would not give 
up homoeopathy. 

Dr. Alexander Kirkpatrick afterward practiced in Burlington. In 1875 


Drs. Charles R. Cloud and Alexander Kirkpatrick wer6 in that city, and from 
1880 to 1899 Drs. J. P. Shreve and Eugene F. Rink practiced there. 

Dr. Morgan John Rhees introduced homoeopathy into Mount Holly in 
1846. He was born in Philadelphia, July 15, 1824.. His parents had become 
converted to homoeopathy about 1834 under the treatment of Dr. George H. 
Bute. Young Rhees, in deference to his mother's wishes, decided to become 
a physician, and during the winter of 1842-43 studied the German language. 
In April, 1843, he went to Nazareth, the home of Bute, and entered his of- 
fice as a student of homoeopathy. He read the works of Hahnemann in the 
German during the summer, in the fall he entered Jefferson Medical College 
of Philadelphia, where he graduated in 1846. In April he began the prac- 
tice of homoeopathy in Mount Holly. In June of the same year he went to 
the meeting of the American Institute of Homoeopathy in Philadelphia, be- 
coming a member. On his return home he issued invitations to the homoeopathic 
physicians in New Jersey, and as a result the New Jersey branch of the insti- 
tute was formed. Drs. Middleton of Burlington, Andrews of Camden and 
Boardman of Trenton met in Dr. Rhees' office and adopted a constitution 
and by-laws and elected officers. Dr. Rhees was chosen secretary, and also 
delegate to the 1847 meeting of the institute. In 1849, although he had built 
up a large practice in Mount Holly, he was seized with the gold fever and 
went to California, via Cape Horn. After a varied experience of six years 
he returned to Mount Holly, and in October, 1855, resumed professional 
work. In April, 1868, he sold his practice and retired to a farm where in 
sixteen months he lost his property and w^as again compelled to return to his 
profession. In November, 1869, he went to Hollidaysburg, Pa. During his 
residence in California, he practiced medicine at times and was physician to 
a homoeopathic hospital. In 1853 he married Charlotte L. Head, formerly 
of Boston, Mass. He also became a member of the central bureau of the 
institute. In 1873 ^e went to Newtonville, Mass., and five years later re- 
moved to Wheeling, West Va., where he died, March 26, 1899. 

Another pioneer w^as Dr. Walter Ward, who settled in Mount Holly in 
1849. He was born in Keene, N. H., January 7, 1816. He was educated at 
Ipswich Academy, and began the study of medicine with Dr. William Gal- 
lup of that place. He also spent a year in the office of Drs. Smith and Batch- 
eller of Massachusetts. He attended medical lectures at Woodstock, Vt., and 
then at Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, where he graduated in 
1840. Having heard much of the new system of homoeopathy and having 
witnessed some remarkable cures, he decided to investigate it for himself. 
He therefore placed himself under the guidance of Dr. Jeanes of Philadelphia, 
and was soon led to adopt the new system. He joined the institute in 1846. 
While Dr. Ward was located in Philadelphia he became professor of physiol- 
ogy at the first session of the newly established Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania, and signed the diplomas of the first class. He mar- 
ried Sarah Groves of Philadelphia. He remained in Mount Holly until his 
death. March 29, 1888. 

Drs. Rhees and Ward were the only homoeopathic practitioners in Mount 
Holly until i860. Drs. E. K. Bancroft and Walter Ward were there from 
1875 to 1880. Dr. Bancroft was a graduate of the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania in 1865. In 1886 Drs. Samuel Caley and Willett 
W. Whitehead, and in 1899 Drs. John W. Branin, Samuel Carey, Oscar L. 



Grumbrecht, W. W. \\'hitehead and George U. Van Derveer were in practice 
in Mt. Holly. 

Dr. Ross M. Wilkinson located at Bordentown about 1856. He became 
a member of the institute in 1853. Dr. David E. Gardiner located at Borden- 
town about 1859. He was the grandson of Dr. William Gardiner and the 
nephew of Dr. Richard Gardiner, with the latter of whom he studied medi- 
cine. He graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1857, ^^'^^^ settled in Manayunk, removing in 1858 to Bordentown, 
where he practiced twenty-one years. He then returned to Philadelphia, 
where he remained until his death, July 10, 1890. Dr. Rufus Sargent com- 
menced the practice of homoeopathy in Bordentown in 1852, remained there 

Daniel R. Gardiner, M. D. 

until 1857 and then went to Philadelphia. Dr. Levi D. Tebo graduated from 
the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia in 1873, and settled at Bor- 
dentown. In 1886 he was the only homoeopathist there. Dr. Edward E. 
French settled there in 1888, having graduated in 1887 from Hahnemann 
Medical College of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Daniel R. Gardiner located at Moorcstown about 1855. He was 
born in Pottsville, Pa., October 21, 1828, and completed an academic course 
in Hamilton College, New York state ; commenced the study of medicine in 
1846; attended two courses at Jefferson Medical College, and graduated at 
Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1849. He practiced for 
some time in Philadelphia, removing thence to Moorestown in 1855, where 
he was the pioneer of homoeopathy. After a few years he went to Smyrna, 
Del., where again he introduced homoeopathy. From there he went to Wood- 


bury in 1S62. In 1871, on account of failing health, he sold his practice to 
Dr. Wallace McGeorge, and in November went to Pottsville, Pa. In 1875 
he returned to Woodbury and associated with Dr. McGeorge. Dr. Gardiner 
died at Woodbury, June 30, 1889. 

Dr. George Bolton L. Clay took Dr. Gardiner's place at Moorestown in 
1858. He was a graduate in 1853 of the Homoeopathic Medical College of 
Pennsylvania, but previously practiced in Manayunk, Pa. He remained in 
Moorestown until his death in 1898. Dr. Pusey Wilson, a native of Dela- 
ware and a graduate of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania 
in 1862, located in Moorestown previous to 1866, and practiced there until 
his death, ]\Iay 20, 1900. Dr. Alfred Matson also practiced at Moorestown. 

Bowman H. Shivers, M. D. 

Dr. Bowman Henry Shivers settled in Marlton in 1858. He was born 
at Haddonfield, July 6, 1836. He studied allopathic medicine for two years 
when, becoming convinced of the truth of homoeopathy, he commenced its 
study with Dr. Julius Holterholf, in Marlton. After attending four courses 
at the Pennsylvania Medical University, he graduated in April, 1858. He 
then went to Marlton, taking the practice of Dr. Holterholf, who removed 
to Morristown. In 1862 ill health caused him to remove to Philadelphia, but 
in a few months be resumed practice in Marlton, where he remained until 
August, 1864, when he went to Haddonfield. Dr. E. V. Sharp also prac- 
ticed at ]\Iarlton. 

In 1870 Dr. Thomas Peacock settled in Medford, but in a year or two 
went to Philadelphia where he has since practiced. He is a graduate of the 
Homoeopathic College of Pennsylvania, class of 1868. Dr. Wilson succeeded 


him in Medford, and Dr. George U. Van Derveer located there about 1874, 
after graduating from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia in 1873. 

Dr. Coy practiced in Pemberton, and Drs. J. G. L. Whitehead and Joseph 
A. Moke at Crosswicks. Dr. James V. Roberts and Dr. Joseph J. Curry are 
at Beverly ; Dr. N. T. Chaffee at Chesterfield ; Dr. Geo. W. H. and Dr. Laura 
A. Calver at Columbus, and Dr. Harry K. Weller at Delancq Dr. White- 
head wasa Philadelphian. He died at Crosswicks, June 30, 1901. 

In 1875 there were but 14 homoeopathists in Burlington county; in 1899, 

In Passaic county homoeopathy gained a foothold before 1840 through 
the visits of physicians from New York. After 1840 Dr. Stephen R. Kirby 
of New York established a regular practice in this county, giving to it a cer- 
tain part of his time. The first resident physician was Dr. Thomas Lafon, 
who was for a time in Paterson. In 1845 Dr. Joseph B. Petherbridge lo- 
cated at Paterson. His name appears in the list of members for 1848 as si ill 
, at Paterson. In 1850 his letters to the institute from the New Jersey branch 
are dated from Trenton, in which city he took up his residence in 1851. 

In 1848 Dr. R. G. Belt, froni Woonsocket, R. I., located in Paterson and 
remained there until 1852, when he went to Milford, Mass. In 1854 his 
address was Woonsocket. He was succeeded in Paterson by Dr. John S. 
Bassett, who remained until 1861, when he went to New York. Since 1861 
Drs. E. Nott, McPherson, Porter S. Kinne, Theodore Y. Kinne and David 
Neer have practiced there. In 1857 there was but one homoeopathic physi- 
cian in Paterson ; in 1899 there were eleven. 

In 1875 Dr. Jacob R. Gedney was at Little Falls, and Drs. John Not- 
tingham and Norton C. Ricardo at Passaic. In 1899 there were at Passaic 
Drs. Charles A. Church, Edwin De Baun, Alfred C. Pedrick and Norton 
C. Ricardo. 

Camden county was visited by the homoeopathic physicians of Philadel- 
phia as early as 1838. The first resident physician, however, was Dr. John 
R. Andrews, who began practice there in 1841. He was an allopathic grad- 
uate, and was well supported by his friends, but after two years he went to 
Wilmington, Delaware. He remained there a short time and was induced 
by his patrons in Camden to return. His practice grew rapidly and he con- 
tmued there until his death, February 19, 1864, at the age of forty-six years. 
He joined the institute in 1846. 

Dr. Henry Francis Hunt succeeded Dr. Andrews. He was born in 
Cranston, R. I., March 28, 1838. He commenced the study of medicine with 
Dr. Howell, an allopathic physician at Aurora, Ills., where he (Hunt) was 
engaged in teaching. Fie remained there two years, then returned east and 
took two courses of lectures at Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New 
York. While he was with Dr. Howell he had seen in a severe epidemic of 
diphtheria the successful results of homoeopathic treatment, and he resolved 
to investigate its methods. He entered the office of Dr. Okie in Providence, 
and attended two courses of lectures at the Homoeopathic Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1864. Dr. ITunt at once took the 
place in Camden made vacant by the death of Dr. Andrews. He was an 
influential practitioner there until liis death, which occurred while he was 
visiting Providence, October 3, 1895. He joined the institute in 1867. 

In 1857 Drs. J. R. Andrews, S. Carels and G. S. F. Pfeiffer were prac- 
ticing homoeopathy in Camden. In 1875 Drs. Purnell W. Andrews, James 


H. Austin, Thomas R. BlackwcMDd, J. K. Bryant, Samuel Cards, C. J. Cooper, 
Wm. H. Crow, Henry F. Hunt, Melbourne F. Middleton, Geo. S. F. Pfeitter, 
Silas H. Quint and H. K. Stewart were in practice there. 

Dr. Samuel Carels was a graduate of Jefferson Medical College of 
Philadelphia in 1838, and of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1855. The name Carles is given in Smith's " Homoeopathic Direct- 
ory " (1857) and in Godfrey's "History of the Medical Profession in Cam- 
den County," but in the catalogue of graduates of Jefiferson Medical College 
and also in that of the Homceopathic Medical College, the name is Carels. 

Dr. George S. F. Pfeiffer was a native of Wurms, Germany, born in 
1806, and came to America in 1833. While a student at Strasburg he en- 
tered the Holland navy as medical cadet. In 1825 while cruising off the 
coast of Algiers, he with a number of shipmates made an inland trip and was 
captured by Bedouins, and retained a prisoner until 1830, when the French 
captured Algiers. He then entered the French army, remaining six months, 
when he was permitted to return to Germany to complete his medical studies. 
In 1833 he came to America, and in 1854 located in Camden. In 1856 he 
graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania and soon 
afterward accepted the chair of theory and practice in Penn Medical Uni- 
versity of Philadelphia, which he retained until 1864, when he became as- 
sistant surgeon of the i86th regiment, Pennsylvania volunteers. He was 
mustered out of service in 1865 and returned to Camden. He was con- 
versant with eight languages. He died in November, 1883. 

Dr. Thomas R. Blackwood was born in Moorestown, July 30, 1835. 
He graduated from Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1870, 
practiced for one summer in Atlantic City, and then located in Camden, con- 
tinuing there until his death, July 30, 1895. 

Dr. John Hayden Austin was born in Trenton, July 24, 1842, gradu- 
ated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1864, and served as assistant 
surgeon in U. S. navy under Farragut. While in Philadelphia in the sum- 
mer of 1865, ^^^ became an interested witness of the success of the homoe- 
opathic treatment of typhoid fever. Entering practice soon after in New 
Jersey, he sought every means to practically test the truth of the system 
until he was compelled to adopt it as the true method of practice. In 1868 
he located in Camden. 

Dr. B. W. Blackwood, of Haddonfield, an allopathic physician, em- 
braced homoeopathy in 1855 and practiced it until his death in 1866. Dr. B. 
H. Shivers located in Haddonfield in 1864. 

In Berlin Drs. S. Shivers and S. H. Johnston were in practice in i87'5, 
and Dr. Richard Gardiner, Jr., at Gloucester. Drs. Wm. L. Delap and 
Seaver C. Ross were at Gloucester in 1899, and Dr. Edgar B. Sharp was then 
at Berlin. Dr. Joseph Shreve settled in Berlin in 1866 and afterward lo- 
cated at Haddonfield. He also practiced at Burlington. 

The pioneer of homoeopathy in Mercer county was Dr. Joseph Canfield 
Boardman, who introduced it into Trenton in 1845. Dr. Boardman was born 
in Wethersfield, Conn., May 4, 1813. He graduated at Westfield Academy, 
Westfield, Mass., and afterward devoted several years to teaching in Penn- 
sylvania. He studied medicine with Dr. Neff at Lancaster, attended lec- 
tures at the Pennsylvania Medical College, and later at the University of 
Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1844. The next year he located in 
Trenton. He was one of the organizers of the American Institute of Homoe- 



opathy in 1844, ^^^ was active at the second meeting in New York, in 1845. 
It is said that he was in practice in New York when the institute was 
founded, which was previous to his advent in Trenton. He remained in 
that city with the exception of short intervals of practice in Brooklyn, Balti- 
more and New York, until his death, July 26, 1896. 

Dr. Charles Gottleib Raue, after graduating from the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Medicine in 1852, commenced practice in Trenton, 'where he remained 
until 1858. Dr. Boardman was ill at the time and unable to practice and 
Dr. Raue attended to his business and also that of another doctor. In 1857 
Drs. Boardman, Raue and Vastine were located there. Peter E. Vastine, of 
Baltimore, went to Trenton in 1851, joining the institute the same year. 

Jos. C. Boardman, M. D. 

He was a graduate of Jefferson Medical College in 1838, and originally was 
an allopathic practitioner. In 1875 there were located at Trenton Drs. Allen, 
Boardman, Cooper, Grover, Compton, Wilkinson and Worthington. Dr. 
Samuel E. Allen was a graduate of the Homoeopathic Medical College of 
Pennsylvania in 1869, and joined the institute in 1871. He located at Tren- 
ton after graduation. Cornelius B. Compton graduated from the same col- 
lege in 1854; Isaac Cooper graduated from the same college in 1868 and 
went to Mullica Hill, going in 1870 to Frenchtown, Hunterdon county, and 
a little later to Trenton, where he still remains. Ross M. Wilkinson gradu- 
ated from the old Philadelphia college in 1853, and located in Bordentown. 
The date of his advent in Trenton is not known. Anthony H. Worthington 
graduated from the same institution in i860. George Thompson was in 
Trenton in 1880. He graduated from Hahnemann Medical College of Phila- 
delphia in 1877. I" 1857 there were three homcicopathic practitioners in 
Trenton; in 1875, seven; in 1880, seven; in 1899, sixteen. 


In 1875 Drs. Joseph J. Currie and Joseph P. Johnson were located at 
Hightstown. Dr. Currie was born at Carpenter's Landing, Gloucester 
county, September 10, 1836; studied with Dr. Gardner at Woodbury; gradu- 
ated at Philadelphia in 1866; settled at Glassboro, Gloucester county, and 
remained there six months. He then went to Flemington, Hunterdon county, 
where he practiced five years. He next located at Hightstown. In 1880 he 
was practicing in Columbus, Burlington county, and later located in Beverly, 
where he is still in practice. Dr. Joseph Price Johnson was born in Chester 
county, Pa., January 25, 1840; took his degree in medicine in Philadelphia 
in 1867 ; began practice in Lancaster county ; removed to Philadelphia, and 
thence in 1870 to Hightstown. 

In 1875 Dr. D. W. Sexton was located at Princeton, Dr. J. A. Miller at 
Hopewell, and Dr. Joseph J. Whittington at Windsor. 

Dr. Owen Beverly Cause practiced at Trenton from the time of his 
graduation in 1857 until 1862, when he located in Philadelphia. Drs.' Jo- 
sephus Gunning, J. B. Petherbridge, Record, and E. H. Trego also practiced 
in Trenton. Dr. E. Bentley Hall was for a time located at Hightstown. 

Hudson county, extending from Bergen Point to the palisades, and 
directly opposite New York city, w^as occupied by a homceopathic physician 
in 1847, ^v■hen Dr. William A. Durrie located at Jersey City. He was born 
in New Haven, Conn., in 1822 ; was educated at Yale, graduating from the 
academic department in 1843, ^"d from the medical school in 1846. He 
commenced the practice of allopathy in New Haven, but his attention having 
been called to homoeopathy he went to New York and placed himself under 
the guidance of Gray and Hull. He qualified as a homoeopathic practitioner 
and settled in Jersey City in 1847. 

Early in 1848 Dr. John Juvenal Youlin located in Jersey City. He was 
born in Rupert, Bennington county, Vt., December 31, 1821. He was edu- 
cated at Auburn, X. Y., studied medicine under Dr. Augustus Willard, at- 
tended lectures at Geneva College, and became a student of Dr. Alanson 
Briggs, professor of surgery in the Geneva school. He entered the medical 
department of the Cniversity of New York in 1846, but certain investigations 
into homoeopathy prevented him from graduating. At that time he was a 
bitter opponent of homoeopathy. In his preceptor's library were various 
homoeopathic books' and in them he sought statements with which to ridicule 
their authors. He procured some of the medicines described and carefully 
studying the symptoms administered them in cases of prisoners under his 
charge. (Dr. Briggs was physician to the Auburn state prison.) The good 
results surprised him. Then he was seized with typhoid fever and in this 
emergency was persuaded to allow a homoeopathic physician to be called and 
his health was restored. This recovery, following close upon the experi- 
ments he had previously made, led him gradually to a belief in the truth of 
the doctrines of Hahnemann. He went to Jersey City in 1848 and began 
practice. He graduated from the Western College of Homoeopathic Medi- 
cine m 1854. He made his home in Jersey City until his death, October 30, 
1881. Dr. Youlin was a member of many societies, and joined the institute 
in 1858. He started a homoeopathic dispensary for the poor in Jersey City. 

Drs. Youlin and Durrie were alone in Jersey City until 1857. Dr. J. R. 
Petherbridge practiced there until the beginning of the war, when he entered 
the army. He died shortly after its close. 

In 1875 the following physicians were located in Jersey City : Drs. Wm. 


H. Abercrdmbie, Eleazer Bowen, Horace Bowen, George B. Cornell, William 

A. Durrie, James Harkness, Alexander H. Laidlaw, C. Holmes McNeil, Dan- 
iel McNeil. William H. Newell, Frank Nichols, E. W. Pyle, G. D. Salstonstall, 
L. Scott, Charles S. Shelton, George N. Tibbies and John Juvenal Youlin. 

Dr. Daniel McNeil was a surgeon in the army during the rebellion, but 
had previously practiced in Jersey City. His son. Dr. C. - Holmes McNeil, 
took the place made vacant by his father's death. He died December i8, 1898. 

Dr. Eleazer Bowen located in Jersey City in 1864. He was born .at 
Rehoboth, Mass., in October, 1829. He studied medicine with Dr. Usher 
Parsons in Providence, and graduated at the Pittsfield Medical College in 
1853. After practicing six years in Barnstable, Mass., he was led to investi- 
gate homoeopathy. He went to New York to study under its practitioners, 
returned to Massachusetts in 1859 ^"^ settled in Lynn, where he remained 
until 1864 when he went to Jersey City. 

Dr. George Boardman Cornell, a graduate of the New York University 
in 1864, practiced allopathy until 1869, when he investigated and adopted 

Dr. William Henry Newell was born in New York, February 19, 1837, 
and graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1859. He passed the 
next few vears in travel and arrived in Baltimore the day after "the riot" 
in 1861. He served through the war as a confederate surgeon and after his 
discharge located in Jersey City. After an examination of the claims of 
homoeopathy he began practice under its principles. 

Dr. Oscar F. Lund, previously an allopathic practitioner, began the prac- 
tice of homoeopathy in Jersey City about 1870. He died in 1875. 

In 1857 there were two homoeopathists in Jersey City; in 1875, 17; in 
1880. 20; in 1899, 31; and in 1904, 25. 

In Monmouth county Dr. W. S. Kimball was the first homoeopathic 
physician. He located at Eatontown in 1854, and for many years was the 
only homoeopathic physician at the Long Branch hotels. In i860 Dr. Ellis 

B. Hall practiced at Freehold. Dr. C. C. Currie also practiced there. 

In 1864 Dr. W. A. Bevin located at Freeport. Dr. G. F, Marsden set- 
tled at Red Bank in 1870. In 1875 Dr. H. H. Pemberton was at Long Branch, 
Dr. L. Bushnell at Keyport and^Dr. W. H. Burnett at Freehold.' In 1880 
Drs. Ernest P. and G. Macomber were at Kevport and G. F. Marsden and 
Alfred J. Trafiford at Red Bank. 

In Gloucester county Dr. Ellis Bentley Hall, a graduate in 1849 of the 
first session of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, and who 
had been practicing since that time at Bridgeton, located at Woodbury in 
1855. He was the first qualified homoeopathic physician in the county, and 
left Woodbury in 1857. Later on he practiced in Hightstown, Camden, Free- 
hold and Beverly, and died in Beverly in 187c;. 

Dr. E. J. Record succeeded Dr. Hall at Woodbury, he remained there a 
short time, and afterward went into mercantile pursuits. Dr. Thomas Shearer, 
a graduate of 18^8 of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsvlvania, 
settled in Woodbm-v, and removed thence to Baltimore. Dr. William A. 
Gardiner was located there a short time about t86i. He removed to Phil- 
adelphia and died there April 20. 1863. 

Dr. Daniel R. Gardiner, brother of William A. Gardiner, located in 
Woodburv in 1862 and in 1871 removed to Pottsville. Pa. In T875 he re- 
turned to Wnn<1bur\- and remained there tmtil his death, June 30. 1889. 


Dr. Wallace McGeorge, who bought out Dr. Gardiner, was born in 
Bath, England, January 31, 1843. He came to America in 1850, and was 
educated in the public schools of New York. He then learned the printing 
business, and during the early years of the war was an earnest union man. 
In 1864 he applied for appointment as hospital steward, and was advised by 
the board of examination to attend medical lectures and then apply for a 
medical cadetship in the regular army. After the war he obtained a position 
in charge of a printing establishment in Philadelphia, still continuing his 
medical studies. In 1866 he became a student of Dr. J. H. P. Frost. The 
same year he urged Dr. Malcolm Macfarlan to resign from the regular army 
and come to Philadelphia. He did so and was elected professor of surgery 
in the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania. Mr. McGeorge then 
became his student. He graduated from the college in 1868. He first located 
at Hightstown, N. J., remaining there two years and then went to Crescent, 
Saratoga county, N. Y., being the first homoeopathic physician there. In 
January, 1871, he became partner with Dr. Daniel R. Gardiner in Woodbury, 
where he remained until 1893, when he removed to Camden, his present 

Dr. Charles Newton, a graduate in 1867 of the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania, located in Woodbury in 1869 and in 1870 went to 
Sharpstown, Salem county. In November, 1872, Rev. William M. White- 
head, who had just graduated from the Hahnemann Medical College of Phila- 
delphia, settled in Woodbury. He was pastor of the Baptist church, and 
united the duties of that office with those of a physician. He died in Jan- 
uary, 1874. 

Dr. Alexander Kirkpatrick a graduate of the Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania in 1861, practiced first in Swedesboro and afterward 
settled in Burlington. Dr. John F. Musgrave took Dr. Kirkpatrick's place 
in Swedesboro. 

Dr. Isaac Cooper located in Mullica Hill in 1868, remaining until 1870. 
Dr. Jacob Izard graduated from the Hahnemann Medical College of Phila- 
delphia in 1870, and settled in Glassboro, where he still remains. In 1886 
Dr. Howard Izard also located there. In 1875, Dr. Albert T. Beckett located 
at Mullica Hill. Dr. Samuel E. Newton located at Paulsboro in 1873, be- 
ing the first homoeopathic physician in that place. 

Dr. Samuel Arthur Jones introduced homoeopathy into Bergen county 
in i860. He located in Englewood in that year and remained there until 
1875, when he took the chair of homoeopathic materia medica in the Univer- 
sity of Michigan. Dr. H. M. Banks succeeded Dr. Jones at Englewood. In 
1880 Drs. D. M. Baldwin and H. M. Banks were in practice there, and Dr. 
George B. Best afterward located there. In 1875 Dr. H. H. HolHster was 
located at Rutherford Park. Dr. Addison P. Macomber located at Hacken- 
sack in 1867. He was a graduate of the University of New York in 1853, 
but had become converted to homoeopathy. He joined the institute in 1867, 
at which time he was located at Maiden, Mass. He went from there to 
Hackensack. Dr. George M. Ockford was born in England, March 29, 
1845, si^d was brought when a child to northern New York. He learned 
the printing trade and became a journalist. He began the study of medicine 
under Dr. A. P. Macomber, at Maiden, Mass., and graduated from the 
Cleveland Hospital College in 1872. He then went to Hackensack, where 
his preceptor was in practice. He has practiced at Hackensack, Burling- 



ton, Vt., Vincennes, Ind., and Lexington, Ky. In 1891 he located in Ridge- 
wood, N. J. 

Dr. William R. Sheppard graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania in 1861, and located at Cape May, Cape May county, 
being the first homoeopathic physician there. Drs. W. F: Hedstrom and W. 
R. Sheppard were practicing at Cape May from 1875 to 1880, Dr. E. H. 
Phillips was practicing there in 1899. 

Homoeopathy was introduced in Cumberland county by Dr. E. Bentley 
Hall about 1849. Smith's directory for 1857 gives one homoeopathic physi- 
cian in Cumberland countv, Dr. Moore, at Bridgeton. In 1875 Drs. A. W. 
Bartlett, L. W. Brown, E. B. Griswold, W. T."^ Sherman, E. R. Tuller and 

Samuel A. Jones, M. D. 

M. B. Tuller were located at Vineland ; L. J. Bumstead, T. Walter Gardiner, 
Thomas Sturdevant, J. W. Thompson, at Millville ; Charles T. Hill, at Divid- 
ing Creek; M. E. Hunter, at Commercial; Joseph Moore, at Bridgeton. 

Dr. L. W. Brown was born in Lorain county, Ohio, February 2, 1844, 
and graduated at the New York Homoeopathic College in 1865. He then 
returned to Cleveland, but about 1869 he located at Vineland. 

In a personal letter written in 1870 Dr. Sturdevant says: "My full name 
is Thomas Sturdevant, graduated from Penn Medical University, i860, at- 
tended lectures at Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania. I have 
practiced homoeopathy exclusively five years. I practiced allopathy five years 
in Old Southwark, Philadelphia, first ward, for four years ; was the out-of- 
door physician for that district for three years. I removed from there to 
Greenwich, Cumberland county, N. J., stayed there twenty-two months, but 


climate did not agree, and removed from there to Millville and have been 
here nearly four years. I have had an uphill road of it. Some three homoe- 
opathic physicians had been here previous to my coming but the old ' regu- 
lars ' succeeded in running them oiY in a year or so." 

Dr. Charles W. jMulford introduced homoeopathy into Hunterdon county 
in 1854. In 1875 Dr. J. B. J. Bard was at Flemington; John Newton Lowe 
at Milford, and John E. Stiles at Lambertville. 

Dr. Henry D. Robinson was the pioneer homoeopath in Middlesex county; 
having located in New Brunswick about 1849. He was of French parentage, 
but was born in England, educated in Paris, and came to this country in 1829. 
For a number of years he lived in New York, but in 1849 went to New 

Theodore Y. Kinne, M. D. 

Brunswick, where he remained until his death, November 22, 1876, aged 
seventy-eight years. 

In the 1857 directory, Drs. C. Blumenthal and H, D. Robinson are men- 
tioned as living in New Brunswick, and T. Vernon at Perth Amboy. In 
1875 there were at New Brunswick. Drs. John G. Greenbank, Samuel Long, 
J. L. Mulford, H. D. Robinson and Giro S. Verdi. 

Dr. Stephen Fairchild introduced homoeopathy into Morris county in 
1841. In 1857 Dr. W. De H. Ouinby was at Alorristown ; Drs. R. B. W. 
Fairchild and S. W. Fairchild at Parsipanny ; Drs. J. and W. I. Jackson at 
Rockaway. In 1875 Mrs. Woodrufif practiced at Boonton, and Drs. Macom- 
ber and Ubellacker at Morristown. 

In Salem county Dr. L. G. Yim\ was the homoeopathic pioneer. In 


1857 Dr. J. B. Stretch was in Salem, and Drs. P. Coates and C. Preston in 
Woodstown. Dr. Preston had also practiced in Sculltown. Dr. Stretch was 
a native of Salem county, born Augtist 27, 1825, graduated at the Homoe- 
opathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1853, and .located at Salem, 
where he lived until his death on March 7, 1865. Dr. Preston remained but 
a short time in Woodstown, removing thence to Pennsylvania. In 1875 ^^' 
Aquilia B. Lippincott was at Salem ; Dr Charles Newton at Sharpstown ; P. 
G. Souder at Woodstown, and A. W. Zane at Pennsgrove. Miles W. Wal- 
lens located at Woodstown in 1863, and in April, 1870, went to Somerville. 

Dr. Quinby introduced the system into Somerset county in 1846. In 
1857 Dr. T. W. Edwards was in Raritan. In 1875 Drs. Henry Crater and 
P. H. Mason were in Somerville. 

Dr, Joseph Hasbrouck was the pioneer homoeopath in Sussex county, 
about 1870. 

In Union county Dr. Titsworth was the first homoeopathic physician to 
open an office. Dr. Randolph Titsworth located at Plainfield in 1853. He 
was a graduate of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 
1853. He died March 18, 1890. In 1857 Drs. J. Green and J. A. Roesch were 
at Elizabeth; S. Cook at Rahway. In 1875 there were 18 homoeopathic phy- 
sicians in Union county. In 1875 Dr. W. P. Sharkey was in practice at Phil- 

About 1874 Dr. Obed S. Crosby began practice in Atlantic City. In 
1880 Drs. O. S. Crosby, R. A. Martin and J. H. Warrington were in prac- 
tice there. In 1886 Drs. Alfred W. Bailey, George W. Crosby, Obed H. 
Crosby, Henry K. Stuart and Maurice D. Youngman were located there. In 
1899 the physicians there Avere Drs. Alfred W. Bailey, Lorenzo D. Bailey, 
Theodore J. Bieling, Walter A. Corson, George W. Crosby, Howard J. 
Evans, John R. Fleming, Mary Miller, Milton L. Munson, Walter C. Sooy 
and Maurice D. Youngman. In 1904 there were fifteen physicians of the 
homoeopathic school in Atlantic City. 

Homoeopathic physicians in New Jersey previous to i860. The date 
preceding the name indicates the year the physician began the practice of 
homoeopathy. The character * indicates that the practitioner originally was 
of some other school ; the character x indicates that the physician practiced 
medicine before the date given. 

1845 Annin, Jonathan D. * Newark 1857 Coates, P. x Woodstown 

1845 Andrews, John R. * Camden 1853 Clay, George B. L. Moorestown 

1851 Armour, Thomas Allowaystown 1869 Cornell, George B. * Jersey City 

1865 Austin, John H. * Camden 1847 Durrie, William A. x Jersey City 

1857 Bassett, John S. * x Paterson 1857 Edwards, T. W. x Raritan^ 

1845 Boardman, Joseph C. Trenton 1842 Fairchild, Stephen * Parsippany 
1857 Blumenthal, Charles x New Bruns- 1857 Fairchild, R. B. W. Parsippany 

wick 18.32 Geist, C. F. Egg Harbor City 

1853 Blackwood, Benjamin W. * Haddon- 1857 Green, Jonas x Elizabeth City 

field 1853 Greenbank, John G. New Brunswick 

1856 Bryant, J. Kemper Camden 1843 Gardiner, Wm. A. Woodbury 

1846 Belt, R. G. X * Paterson 1849 Gardiner, Daniel R. Moorestown 

1854 Compton, Cornelius C. 1857 Gardiner, David E. Bordentown 

1857 Crittenden, J. x Morristown 1857 Cause, Owen Beverly Trenton 
1857 Crittenden, W. H. x Grover. Lewis P. Trenton 

1855 Carels, Samuel * Camden 1857 Hand, W. R. x Kingwood 
1835 Caspari, Edward Orange 1849 Hall, Ellis Bentley Woodbury 
1857 Cook, S. X Rahway 1835 Humphrey, Gideon * Burlington 



1857 Jackson, J. x Rockaway 1843 

1857 Jackson, W I. x Rockaway 1846 

i860 Jones, Samuel Arthur Englewood 1857 

1853 Miller, Alexander C. Gloucester 1850 

1859 McPherson, William H. 1849 

1853 Musgrave, John F. Swedesboro 

1854 Kimball, W. S. Eatontown 1846 
i860 Kirkpatrick, Alexander Swedesboro 1858 
1846 Lafon, Thomas * Newark 1852 
185s Liebold, Carl T. * Newark 1846 

1850 Leaming, Jonathan * Cape May 1857 

Court House 1858 

1840 Middleton. R. S. Burlington 1858 

1849 Moore, John D. * Burlington 1857 

1857 Moore, Joseph x Bridgeton 1857 

1851 Mulford, Joseph L. Middletown 1853 

1854 Mulford, Charles W. Hunterdon Co. 1857 
1865 McNeil, Daniel * West Hoboken 1850 
1859 Newell, William H. Jersey City 1848 
1857 Orton, Dr. x Madison 1841 
1845 Petherbridge, J. B. Paterson 1838 
1856 Pfeiffer. George S. F. * Camden 1857 
1856 Pease, I. H. x Irvington ♦ 1853 
1853 Preston, Coates Woodstown 1854 

1855 Pretch, C. Trenton 

Paine, John A. * Newark 
Quinby, W. de H. x Morristown 
Roesch, J. A. x Elizabeth City 
Raue, Charles G. Trenton 
Robinson, Henry D. * New Bruns- 
Rhees, Morgan J. Mount Holly 
Richards, George W. * Newark 
Sargent. Rufus Bordentown 
Smith, Edward M. x Burlington 
Sheppard, S. W. x Bloomfield 
Shearer, Thomas Woodbury 
Shivers, Bowman H. Marlton 
Scott, J. B. x Newark 
Stretch, J. B. x Salem 
Titsworth, Randolph Plainfield 
Vernon, T. x Perth Amboy 
Vastine, P. E. x Trenton 
Vinal, L. G. x Salem 
Ward, Walter * Mount Holly 
Ward, Isaac Moreau * Newark 
Warner, S. C. x Cooperstown 
Wilkinson, Ross M. Bordentown 
Youlin, John J. * Jersey City 




"By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Sowing the Seed of Homoeopathy in the Old Green Mountain State— Baird, the Inde- 
pendent, Self-educated, and Successful Practitioner, the Pioneer — Brief Allusion 
to State, District and County Societies — How and by Whom Homoeopathy was 
Introduced in the Counties of Verm.ont. 

Homoeopathy in Vermont was planted in much the same manner as state- 
hood itself in that jurisdiction, and was an independent action on the part 
of its pioneer, David H. Baird, who is remembered as a man of good sound 
comm.on sense, with an excellent understanding of medicines and their use 
in general, but who was not a graduate of any school of medicine. Whether 
Dr. Baird employed other methods in the healing art before beginning prac- 
tice according to the law of similars does not appear, but it is known that 
he administered the little homoeopathic doses in Coventry and Troy in Or- 
leans county as early as about the year 1840, and thus became the pioneer 
of the profession in the historic Green Mountain state. 

But Dr. Baird was not long the sole exemplar of homoeopathy in Ver- 
mont, and within the next twenty years following his advent into the ranks 
of the profession there were about thirty-five practitioners in that field ; and 
even before that period was passed, and as early as 1854, the homoeopathic 
physicians of the state gathered together their numbers and organized the 
Green Mountain Homoeopathic Medical Association, which has continued 
its existence to the present day and since 1858 has been known as the Ver- 
mont State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

In 1 85 1 the Caledonia County Homoeopathic Medical Society was organ- 
ized, and three years afterward united with the parent body. The subse- 
quent kindred organizations have been the Connecticut and Passumpsic Val- 
ley Homoeopathic Medical Society, about 1866, and the Champlain Valley 
Homoeopathic Medical Society, organized in 1874. 

Homoeopathic medical statistics show that the number of physicians of 
that school in the state in 1857 was 31; 1875, 63; 1880, 83; 1899, 67; and 
in 1904, 54. This noticeable decrease in numbers during recent years in no 
sense indicates an unhealthful condition of affairs in the profession, and is 
due to exactly the same causes which have contributed to the loss of popula- 
tion in the state in general. In Vermont today homoeopathy is as firmly 
rooted in the soil as at any previous time in its history, and among the exem- 
plars there are found some of the best practitioners who have ever honored 
any profession with their achievements. 


Vermont has not figured conspicuously as the home of numerous homoe- 
opathic societies, but such as have been given life have been noted for vigor 
and longevity, qualities which are characteristic of all elements of life in 


the healthful regions of the Green Mountain state. In 1854 eight homoe- 
opathic physicians comprising nearly all of that school then in the state, met 
in Montpelier on the 22d- of February and organized the Green Mountain 
Homoeopathic Association. Its first officers were Dr. Beniah Sanborn of St. 
Johnsbury, president; Dr. Cephas Taylor of Hardwick, vice-president; Dr. 
C. B. Darling of Lyndon, secretary; Dr. Joshua Stone of St. Johnsbury, 
treasurer. The society held annual meetings in St. Johnsbury. At a meet- 
ing held October 21, 1858, the name was changed to Vermont Homoeopathic 
Medical Society, and was so incorporated in the same year. The first officers 
of the new society were Dr. Thomas Bigelow of Burlington, president; Dr. 
C. B. Currier of South Troy, corresponding secretary; Dr. G. E. Sparhawk 
of Rochester, recording secretary; IDr. T. C. Taplin of Montpelier, treas- 
urer; Dr. C. W. Scott of Irasburg, auditor. This society still maintains an 
active existence and holds semi-annual meetings in Montpelier. Its trans- 
actions were published in 1891. 

The Caledonia County Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized in 
1 85 1, chiefly through the efforts of Dr. Beniah Sanborn. The Connecticut 
and Passumpsic Valley Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized in 1866. 
The Champlain Valley Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized at Mid- 
dlebury, May 5, 1874. 


Dr. Baird's pioneer efforts in Orleans county have been referred to in an" 
earlier paragraph. His successor in that locality was Dr. Levi C. Moore, who 
practiced in North Troy many years, and was there as late as 1882. Dr. Willard 
W. Jenness began practice in Derby about 1850, and removed thence to 
Chicopee in Massachusetts. 

In 1852 Dr. Hiram C. Orcutt, a Dartmouth graduate, began practice in 
Troy, remaining there until 1865, when he settled in Derby. Dr. George 
Starr Kelsea, from Lisbon, New Hampshire, and a graduate in 1867 o^ ^^^ 
Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College, located in Derby, but two years 
later settled in Newport, where he died September 26, 1884. In 1854 Dr. 
Chester A\'alter Scott, a graduate in 1854 of the old Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania, began practice in Irasburg. and in 1865 removed 
to Caledonia county. At one time he practiced in Hardwick. Drs. C. B. 
Darling and I. R. Taylor also practiced in Irasburg at an early day. 

Dr. Charles B. Parkhurst, a graduate in 1866 of the New York Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, located in Irasburg and remained there until about 
1870, when he removed to Owego, New York, and from thence two years 
later to Chicago, and won fame in that great city ; but failing health com- 
pelled him to go farther west, and in 1874 he removed to Colorado Springs, 
where he died January 16, 1877. 

In 1875 Drs. Frederick M. Perry and Anson M. Ruggles were in prac- 
tice in Barton ; F. L. Snell at Barton Landing ; Oscar A. Bemis at Crafts- 
bury; Ezra W. Clark at Derby; John W. McDuffie and John H. Peck at 
Derby Centre ; Edward D. L. Parker at Derby Line : George Rowell at Iras- 
burg; George S. Kelsea at Newport, and Levi C. Moore at North Troy. 

Washington county in Vermont was the second to receive a homoeopathic 
practitioner, and Dr. T. C'. Taplin was its pioneer. He had previously prac- 
ticed dentistry, but having became acquainted with Dr. Baird, he soon was 
interested in homoeopathy and took up its study and subsequent practice, in 



Danville, Caledonia county : but he soon removed to Montpelier. where he 
died in 1864. 

The next homoeopath in Orleans county was Dr. Gershom Xelson Brig- 
ham, who began practice in Waitsfield in 1850. He was born in \"ermont in 
1830, studied medicine with Dr. Joslyn in Waitsfield, afterward with Drs. 
Thayer and Palmer, and completed his medical education in the Vermont 
Medical College in Castleton, where he graduated in 1845. He settled in 
Warren, and while practicing there was led to investigate homoeopathy. He 
matriculated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York in 1849. 
He learned of the experiments of Teste in St. Marguerite's Hospital, Paris, 
and of the success of Dr. Gray and the other homoeopathic physicians in New 

G. N. Brigham, Al. D. 

York, and in 1850 he too began the practice of homoeopathy, at Waitsfield. 
He was one of six who founded the Vermont State Homoeopathic Medical 
Society. In 1855 he removed to Montpelier and was for a time associated 
with Dr. Taplin. In 1875 he removed to Grand Rapids, Mich., but he died 
at Roger's Park, Chicago, June 21, 1886. Drs. H. C. Brigham and Willard 
I. Brigham are sons of this pioneer of homceopathy in Vermont. 

In 1875 there were the following homoeopathic physicians in Washing- 
ton county: Chas. H. Chamberlain, Barre ; John O. A. Packer, Marshfield; 
Gershom N. Brigham, H. C. Brigham, Montpelier ; James Haylitt, More- 
town ; James M. Van Deusen. Waitsfield ; Merrill W. Hill, Waterbury. In 
1870 Dr. J. Dorr was practicing in Cabot; George Colton at Barre; A. George 


at Calais; E. J. Foster at Montpelier; S. H. Colburn and ^I. F. Styles at 
Northfield; Dr. L. C. Moore and George B. Rowell at Troy. In i860 Dr. 
L. H. Thomas, a graduate of Castleton Medical College, began to practice 
at Waterbury. In 1868 Dr. George Colton graduated from the New York 
Homoeopathic Medical College and located at Waterbury. 

Dr. Charles H. Chamberlain graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania in 1863 ^nd settled at Barre. He built up a large 
practice, and remained there until his death, February 2, 1881. Dr. H. E. 
Parker took his place. 

Dr. James M. Van Deusen graduated from Castleton Medical College in 
1849, s"^ went from there to Warren. He became dissatisfied with the old 
school and adopted homceopathy and began its practice at Warren. In July, 
1867, he removed to Waitsfield. 

In 1880 there were at Lower Cabot, Dr. John Lance ; Dr. W. B. Mayo 
at Northfield, a graduate New York Homoeopathic INIedical College, 1877; 
Dr. I. H. Fiske, Roxbury : Dr. R. W. Lance, South Woodbury ; Alerrill W. 
Hill and C. S. Hoag, Waterbury. 

In 1899 Dr. Elroy B. Whittaker was at Barre; Willis S. Gillett, Calais; 
Frank J. Gale, East Calais ; H. S. Boardman and Ira H. Fiske, Montpelier ; 
James Haylett, Moretown ; W. B. Mayo, Northfield ; George Guy Hall, South 
Woodbury; J. M. Van Deusen, Waitsfield; W. F. Minard, Waterbury. 

In Windsor county homoeopathy was introduced in 1844 by Dr. A. J. 
Pike and Dr. Amos Dean, who came from Lowell, Mass., and located at 
Woodstock, where they spent a year practicing in partnership. In 1845 Dr. 
Pike, having an increasing practice in the adjoining town of Barnard, de- 
cided to go there. He remained two years and had very good patronage. He 
removed from there to Lawrence, Mass., where he passed the rest of his life. 

The opposition to homoeopathy at that time at Woodstock was very 
great. That town was the seat of the Vermont Medical College and more 
than half die population was related to allopathic physicians by marriage 
or otherwise. One who was then a student there wrote as follows : " In 
1852 a clinical case of indolent ulcer came before the class. The profes- 
sor pronounced it incurable and so dismissed it. A dentist, then a resident 
of the town, and attending lectures at the time, invited the patient into his' 
office, and proposed to cure the case if he would take homoeopathic pellets. 
He prescribed for him and in a few weeks the ulcer was healed. At that 
time one-fifth of the class were homoeopaths, but such was the abuse of the 
system, and ridicule of those who believed in it, that every one kept his own 
counsel, and it was not until after years that they knew each other as homoe- 
opaths at the Vermont Medical College." 

In 1857 Dr. H. C. Chase practiced in Woodstock. In i860 Dr. J. R. 
Hamilton located there but on account of opposition left in 1863, and until 
1870 there was no homoeopathic physician in that town. Dr. G. W. Colton 
decided to try the field, and during the first six months there he did not have 
a single call, but he stayed and eventually built up a business. In 1870 Dr. 
Nathaniel Randall located there. In 1882 Dr. C. P. Holden was in Wood- 
stock, and later Dr. A. N. Logan, after practicing at Windsor, located and 
has since been in practice there. 

In Rochester Dr. Henry N. Guernsey, who was a native of the town, 
did much to introduce homoeopathy during his visits to the place. His 
brother. William F. Guernsev. a farmer, had a domestic case and handbook. 



and acquired quite a reputation as a practitioner among- his neighbors. 
About 1 85 1 he left the farm and after completing a medical course under 
his brother's tuition, located in Philadelphia. Another lay practitioner in 
the" town was J. C. Tilden, who was a good nurse, and a keen observer. He 
had Hering's " Domestic Physician," and did much good by dispensing medi- 
cines gratuitously. In 1851 Dr. H. W. Hamilton, an eclectic physician, set- 
tled in Rochester. In 1852, Dr. H. N. Guernsey on one of his visits became 
acquainted with Dr. Hamilton, and proposed to him to adopt the new sys- 
tem. The friends of homoeopathy in town also urged this and the doctor 
consented to change. Dr. Guernsey furnished him the needful books and a 
set of remedies from his own stock, and Dr. Hamilton soon became satisfied 

that homoeopathy was the right method. 
In the winter of 1852-3 a violent epi- 
demic of pneumonia occurred, and the 
number of fatal cases under homoeo- 
pathic treatment was so small compared 
with those under allopathic, that the 
position of homoeopathy in the place 
was definitely established. 

In June, 1853, Dr. George E. E. 
Sparhawk located at Rochester. He 
was a native of the town, born February 
20, 1830. He was educated at Ran- 
dolph Academy, and afterward, hkc 
many of the ambitious boys of his day, 
he taught school, from 1846 to 1852. 
He had begun a course of medical 
reading in 1849 ^"^ in March, 1852, 
entered the Vermont Medical College 
at Woodstock. He then went to Dr. 
AVm. F. Guernsey at Frankford, Pa., 
where he remained until October, when 
he entered the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania, graduating in 
the spring of 1853. In June he re- 
turned to Rochester and began practice 
with Dr. Hamilton, who remained 
with him until January, 1854, when Dr. Sparhawk took entire charge of 
the business. In the latter part of 1858 he removed to Gaysville, Vt., and 
remained there until 1880, when he located in Burlington. Dr. Sparhawk 
also practiced at West Randolph. 

Dr. Christopher Bodwell Currier took Dr. Sparhawk's place at Roches- 
ter. He was the eldest son of Capt. Benjamin Currier of Lawrence, Mass. 
He was educated at Guilford Academy at Meredith Bridge, N. H., studied 
medicine with Dr. Jerome Harris of Lawrence, Mass., for two years and 
later with Dr. Belmont of New York city. Threatened with phthisis at the 
end of his first year with Dr. Belmont, he went to the northern part of Ver- 
mont, entering the office of Dr. Jenness in Derby. He was soon able to at- 
tend lectures at Woodstock, then at the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
of New York, and still later at the University of Pennsylvania, where he 
graduated in i860. The name of C. B. Currier in the homoeopathic directory 


E. E. Sparhauk, M D. 


of 1857 is noted among the physicians of South Troy. He went probably 
the same year to Rochester, and he also practiced for a time in Cornwall, In 
1863 he disposed of his practice to Dr. J. W. McDufifee and went to Middle- 
bury, where he remained until 1875, when he went to New York city. In 
1873 he received an honorary degree from the Qeveland Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College. He afterward located in San Francisco. Dr. McDuffee in a 
few years went to Derby Center from Rochester. 

There was no homoeopathic physician in Rochester for a time after Dr. 
McDuffee left, but Dr. Clarence P. Holden, graduating from the New York 
Homoeopathic Medical College in 1880, went there the same year. He soon 
after settled in Woodstock, but in 1866 was practicing in Windsor. 

Dr. Samuel Henry Sparhawk located at Rochester about 1870. He was 
a brother of Dr. G. E. E. Sparhawk and a graduate of Cleveland Homoe- 
pathic Medical College in 1865. He practiced at Pittsford, where he intro- 
duced homoeopathy, and where he remained until 1867, then removing to 
Morrisviile and from there to Rochester. 

Dr. S. H. Colbourn was located at Springfield in 1875, but soon went 
to Athol, Mass., and Dr. N. R. Perkins, a graduate of Boston University, 
succeeded him. In 1875 there were in Gaysville the Drs, Sparhawk ; Hart- 
ford. M, E. Smith ; Springfield, Samuel H. Colbourn ; White River Junc- 
tion, E. L. Styles ; Woodstock, George W. Colton. In 1899 Dr. F. E. Steele 
was at Gaysville ; Dr. Adam Kilmer at Ludlow ; Dr. F. W. Martin at North 
Springfield ; Dr. W. C. Phillips at Springfield ; Dr. A. N. Logan at Woodstock. 

Dr. T. C. Taplin was probably the first to practice , homoeopathy in Cale- 
donia county. Dr. Charles B. Darling was an early practitioner there. He 
graduated at the Woodstock Medical College in 1844 and began the practice 
of allopathic medicine at Lyndon. In 1847 he became interested in homoeo- 
pathy and afterward practiced it for thirteen years, until his death, at Lyndon, 
June 10, i860. 

In 1857 Dr. C. Woodward was practicing homoeopathy in Danville; Drs. 
J. Sanborn and C. R. Taylor at Hardwick ; Drs. B. Sanborn, A. B. Stone and 
J. Stone at St. Johnsbury. 

In 1846 Dr. Beniah Sanborn became interested in homoeopathy. He 
was born in Water ford, Vt., in 1 799. He graduated at the University of 
Vermont in 1827, and located at Lyndon, where he built up a successful prac- 
tice. He procured some homoeopathic works in New York, and after several 
years of experiment openly espoused the new system in 1850. He then lo- 
cated at St. Johnsbury, where he established a large practice and remained 
until his death, October 4, 1867. 

Dr. J. M. Sanborn, son of Dr. John Sanborn of Hardwick, was born 
Septernber 28, 1840. He studied with Beniah Sanborn, attended the Col- 
lege of Phvsicians and Surgeons in New York, also the New York Homoe- 
opathic Medical College, returned and practiced for a year with his preceptor, 
then went to Stanstead. Canada, where he remained three years. He then 
settled in Hardwick. 

Dr. Milo G. Houghton, a graduate of Homoeopathic Medical College of 
Pennsvlvania in 1856, took the practice of his brother, Dr.- H. A. Houghton, 
in Lvndon. He was born in Lyndon, June 8, 1832, and studied medicine with 
his brother. He spent most of the next twenty years in practice in Lyndon 
and St. Tohnsburv, anc dlso practiced at Barnet, Vt., and Claremont, N. H. 
In 1876 he located in Boston, where he died May 22. 1885. 


Dr. Horatio M. Hunter, a tj^raduate of the Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania in 1857, located at St. Johnshury in 1863 or 1864. 

In 1875 Dr. Hiram J. Hazelton was at Barnet' Calvin Woodward at 
Danville ; J. M. Sanborn at East Hardwick ; Alpheus D. Smith at Lyndon- 
ville ; George R. Drew at North Danville ; Milo G. Houghton and Willis G. 
Pope at St. Johnsbury and William A. Donaldson at West Burke. 

Dr. John Sanborn was a pioneer of homoeopathy in Vermont, a convert 
from allopathy, and practiced for some time in Hardwick. In 1880 Dr. H. 
J. Hazleton was at Barnet; J. M. Tabor at Burke; C. W. Woodward at Dan- 
ville : J. M. Sanborn at East Hardwick ; W. A. Donaldson and E. Bernard 
Squire at Lyndenville; George R. Drew at North Danville; E. B. Gushing 

C. B. Currier, M. p. 

at St. Johnsbury; George B. Colby at Sutton; and Chas. B. Davis at West 
Burke. Later Dr. Charles L. Bailev practiced at Danville; S. S. Martin and 
W. H. Weeks at East Hardwick; F. H. Davis at Lyndonville ; E. W. Hitch- 
cock and Samuel H. Sparhawk at St. Johnsbury; and W. R. Noyes at West 

In Chittenden county the first homeopathic practitioner was Dr. T. S. 
Blodgett, who located in Burlington about 1850. He remained but a few 
months, going thence to Cooperstown, N. Y.. and was succeeded by Dr. John 
A. Ward, who remained but a short time. In 1854 Dr. Thomas Bigelow was 
induced through the efforts of his brother-in-law to settle in Burlington. He 
graduated from the Castleton Medical College in 1828 and had practiced allo- 
pathy in West Granville and Hartford. Burlington, owing to the medical 

IITSTORV OF Tl()^[^F.O^AT^V 265 

department of the Universitx- of Vermont, was unfriendly to homoeopathy, 
tlioLigh there were some adherents there ; but Dr. Bigelow by his sterhng 
quahties compelled the respect of professional rivals. In 1870, on account of 
ill health, he took Dr. Samuel Worcester into partnership, and in October, 
1871, he retired entirely hnm practice and went to Green Bay, Wisconsin. 

Dr. Worcester was born February 5, 1847, ^t Epping, N. H., and grad- 
uated at Harvard Medical School in 1868. In 1865 he was appointed medical 
cadet, U. S. A., and served in the national general hospital at Baltimore ; in 
1867 was appointed assistant physician to the Butler Hospital for the Insane 
at Providence, which position he retained until 1869, when he spent the sum- 
mer as acting assistant surgeon in the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary 
in Boston, and the following winter in the Homoeopathic Medical College of 
Pennsylvania. In April, 1870, he located at Concord, Mass., but on Decem- 
ber I, 1870, removed to Burlington, Vt. About 1874 he went to Salem, Mass. 

Dr. Sanford Wager located at Bitrlington about the same time as Dr. 
Bigelow, and was made assistant to Drs. Redfield and Whiting in their wa- 
ter cure establishment, and afterward remained there as a homoeopathic phy- 
sician. Dr. Albert Colvin located at Burlington in 1872. He graduated at 
the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. He remained at Burlington 
permanently. Dr. E. B. Whittaker, a student of Dr. C. B. Currier and a 
graduate of the New York Homoeopathic Medical College in 1868, located in 
Hinesburgh. In 1875 Dr. Darwin H. Roberts was located at Underbill 

In Essex county Dr. Frank E. Dow was the first homoeopathic phy- 
sician. He graduated from the New York Homoeopathic Medical College 
and soon located in West Concord. In 1875 Drs. Dow and G. E. Huntley 
were practicing in that town. 

In Addison county the first homoeopathic practitioner was Dr. Oliver J. 
Eels. He began practice in Cornwall in 1812, and for the most of his life 
practiced allopathy, but meeting a homoeopathic physician in western New 
York in 1854, he discussed homceopathv, and was finally persuaded to try it 
in his own practice. Dr. Eels began his experiments witht)ut the knowledge 
of his patients. His success was so marked that after a year he threw away 
his saddlebags and adopted the new svstem openly. He died in i860. It 
is written : " Todav the name of old Doctor Eels is still a household word 
in Cornwall. Homoeopathy owes him a debt of gratitude, for from that nu- 
cleus in Cornwall we can trace all the growth of homoeopathy in that part 
of the state." Dr. Eels educated a young man. Dr. R. C. Green, wdio grad- 
uated at the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College in 1857, and for sev- 
eral years i)racticed with his preceptor. He was a successful ]:)ractitioner, but 
died yovmg, Februar\' 9. 1866. 

Dr. C. B. Currier practiced in Cornwall from i860 to 1864. and then 
located in Middleburv. where not one homoeopathic family welcomed him. 
It was the countv seat and contained many old and well established allopathic 
physicians. He was made the butt of ridicule, as were the little sugar pills 
he administered. He was many miles from a homoeopathic physician and 
there was none with whom to counsel ; but fought the battle alone and won 
by his skill, energy and sound judgment. In the spring of 1874 he took an 
assistant, and in 1875 he went to New York, but afterward removed to San 
Francisco. Dr. Currier's asistant was Dr. E. T. Crafts, of Joilet, 111., who 
graduated from the Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago in 1870. Dr. 


Fred. W. Halsey, a graduate of the National College of Washington in 1871, 
was located in Middlebury in 1880. Dr. G. R. Sanborn of New Haven, Vt.[ 
graduated from the Pittsfield Medical College in 1850, and practiced allopathy 
for three years._ He then left the profession to devote himself to farming. In 
i860 his attention was called to homoeopathy and he was eventually converted 
to its teachings through the agency of Dr. Currier. He procured books and 
medicines and in due season began practice. 

Dr. Asa A. Arthur graduated from, the Bellevue Hospital Medical Col- 
lege, New York, in 1868, located, first at Elizabethtown, Essex county, and a 
little later settled in Vergennes. Dr. Melvin D. Smith at first was an eclec- 
tic physician, but was converted to homoeopathy, and in 1880 was practicing 
in Addison. Dr. I. V. Daggett, graduate of New York Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College, 1868, student of Dr. Currier, commenced practice in Canton, 
N. Y., but soon settled in Whiting. In 1870 Dr. J. R. Hamblin began prac- 
tice at Ripton, remained until 1875. then went to Starksboro, and in 1880 
he was in practice at Bristol. 

Dr. Hollis Kendall Bennett practiced for a time at Bristol and then went 
to Massachusetts. 

Dr. Jane A. Rich graduated at the New York Medical College for Wom- 
en in 1875 and practiced in Shoreham through the summer and fall of 1875. 
In January, 1876, she went to New York city, where she died April 23, 1876. 
Dr. J. H. Norton was practicing in Leicester and Dr. Chas. A. Flanders was 
at West Cornwall, in 1880. Drs. D. C. Noble and M. D. Smith were at Mid- 
dlebury in 1899. They Were the only homoeopaths in Addison county in that 

In Bennington county Dr. H. Smith was in practice at Bennington in 1857, 
and in the same year Dr. R. B. Bruce was at North Bennington ; Dr. Harlan P. 
Partridge was at Bennington; Dr. Chester N. Chamberlain was at West Rupert 
in 1875 ; Dr. H. P. Partridge, Emma E. Stone, and N. S. Morgan at Benning- 
ton in 1880; Dr. A. D. Ayres at Bondville; E. L. Wyman at Factory Point; F. 
R. Hudson at North Bennington ; C. N. Chamberlain at Rupert, and Stanton 
L. Hall at Bennington in 1870. 

In Franklin county in 1875 Dr. Caleb N. Burleson was at Franklin, and 
Drs. Stebbins A. Smith and Theodore R. Waugh at St. Albans. In 1880 Dr. 
H. W. Hamilton was at Fairfax, and Dr. C. N. Burleson at Franklin. In 
1899 Dr. H. De L. Knickebocker and Dr. T. R. Waugh were at St. Albans. 

In La Moille county Dr. Nathan Howland Thomas was the homoeopathic 
pioneer. He was born at Woodstock, March 13, 1802, studied medicine with 
Dr. Joseph Gallup, and graduated in medicine at Woodstock in 1830. He 
went to Stowe and in 1831 opened an office, but was obliged to teach school 
while gaining a professional foothold in the town. About 1832 a disease ap- 
peared in the town which was supposed to be smallpox, but which he diag- 
nosed as measles. It spread and raged and Dr. Thomas gained the name of 
the " measles doctor." As another physician had diagnosed the disease as 
smallpox, Thomas' reputation was established, and he soon had a good busi- 
ness. For twenty-two years he practiced allopathy, but after 1854 he was a 
homoeopath ; and at the time of his death was the oldest homoeopathic prac- 
titioner in the state. He always lived in the town of Stowe. 

Dr. Merrit G. Powers in 1875 was in practice at Johnson, and Chas. A. 
Jackman at Morrisville. In 1880 Dr. H. S. Boardman was at Cambridge; 



Moses E. Smith at Johnson ; George E. Woodward at Morrisville, and N. H. 
Thomas at Stowe. 

In Orange county Dr. A. M. Gushing introduced homoeopathy into Brad- 
ford in 1856. He remained but a short time, going to Lansingsburg, N. Y., 
and later to Lynn, Mass. He was succeeded in Bradford by Dr. JuHan Henry 
Jones, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia in 1869. In 
1875 Dr. Erdix T. Smith was at East Gorinth ; Marcus J. Bixby at East 
Orange; and Martin L. Scott at West Randolph. In 1880 there were in 
Orange county : Dr. J. H. Jones at Bradford ; Gelia Elizabeth Harris at Eliza- 
beth ; M. J. Bixby at East Orange, and Martin L. Scott at West Randolph. 
In 1899 Dr. Jones was still at Orange; William E. Locke at Gorinth; John 
F. Shattuck at Wells River, and Dr. Scott at Randolph. Dr. Francis A. San- 
born located at Strafford in 1859, and removed to Ohio in 1864. 

In Rutland county Dr. Charles Frederick Adams was the earliest homoe- 
opathic practitioner, having located at Rutland in 1858. Dr. Charles Wood- 
house settled there in 1867. In 1875 Dr. H. W. Hamilton was at Brandon; 
Alonzo E. Horton at East Poultney ; Ghas. H. Carpenter at Fair Haven ; A. 
V. Marshall at Mendon; George j. Crowdey at Shrewsbury. In 1880 Dr. 
Horton was at East Poultney ; C. H. Carpenter at Fair Haven ; A. V. Mar- 
shall at Paw-let ; Geo. J. Crowley, G. T. Flanders and Ghas. Woodhouse at 
Rutland; in 1899 Orrin A. Gee was at Brandon; Glenn A. Roberts at Castle- 
ton ; Arthur S. Murray at Fair Haven ; Dr. Horton at East Poultney ; Horace 
B. Denman at Pawlet; Ghas. A. Flanders at Poultney. 

In Windham county Dr. Charles F. Adams located at Londonderry in 
1849. He w^as a graduate of Dartmouth. At Brattleborough in 1848 Dr. 
Robert Wesselhoeft erected a hydropathic establishment in connection with 
homoeopathic medication. He left in 1852 and he was succeeded by Drs. G. 
W. Grau and F. Mueller. Dr. Grau died and Dr. Mueller soon afterward 
went to IMontreal, Dr. David P. Dearborn taking his place. In 1880 Drs. Da- 
vid P. Dearborn and Henry Tucker were at Brattleborough, and W. Gleason 
Willis at Jamaica. 

Homoeopathic physicians in Vermont previous to i860. The date pre- 
ceding the name indicates the year the physician began the practice of homce- 
opathy. The character * indicates that the practitioner originally was of some 
other school; the character x indicates that the physician practiced medicine 
before the date given. 

1838 Baird. David H. Troy 

1854 Bigelow, Thomas * Burlington 

1847 Blodgett, T. S. X * Burlington 

i8:;o Brigham, G. N. * Waitsfield 

1857 Bruce, R. B. North Bennington 

1857 Carpenter, H. H. x Derby Centre 

1857 Chase, H. C. x Woodstock 

1857 Currier, C. B. * South Troy 

1856 Cushing, Alvin M. Bradford 
1843 Dean, Amos Woodstock 

1857 Dorr, John x Cabot 

1847 Darling, Charles B. * Lyndon 

1854 Eels, Oliver J. * West Cornwall 

1852 Evans, Dr. Barre 

1857 Grau, C. W. x Brattleboro 

1857 Green, R. C. West Cornwall 

1857 George A. x Calais 

i860 Hamilton, J. R. Woodstock 

1852 Hamilton. H. W. * Rochester 

1852 Houghton. Henry A. Lyndon 

1856 Houghton, Milo G. Lyndon 
1854 Holbrook, P. R. x 

1857 Hvmter, Horatio M. St. Johnsbury 
1854 Jenness. Willard W. x Derby Centre 
i860 Jones. Julian H. Bradford 

1857 Mueller, F. x Brattleboro 

1857 Neal, J. x Canaan 

1857 Paige, J. X Ashuelot 

1857 Perkins, S. G. x Castleton 

1844 Pike, A. J. Woodstock 

1856 Packer. David x 

1850 Randall, Nathaniel Woodstock 



1857 Redfield, Dr. x Burlington 1S45 

1859 Ruggles, Anson M. Barton 1854 

1846 Sanborn, Beniah * St. Johnsbury i860 

i860 Sanborn, G. R. * New Haven 1854 

1850 Sanborn, John * Hardwick 1850 

1854 Scott, Chester W. Irasburgh 1849 

1857 Smith, H. X Bennington 1847 

1853 Sparhawk, George E. E. Rochester 1846 
1857 Stone, A. B. x St. Johnsbury 185.3 

1854 Stone, Joshua x St. Johnsbury ■ 1856 
1857 Stevens, J. x Newbury 

Tapb'n, T. C. Danville 
Taylor, Cephas R. x Hardwick 
Tucker, Henry Brattleboro 
Thomas, Nathan H. * Stowe 
Tilden, J. C. Rochester 
Van Deusen, James M. Warren 
Ward, John A. Burlington 
Wesselhoeft, Robert Brattleboro 
Wager, Sanford Burlington 
Woodward, Calvin x Danville 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Treatment of Gosewisch at the Hands of Delaware Allopaths— His Great Work for 
Homoeopathy — Harlan, the Second Homoeopathic Physician in the State — Quinby — 
Negendank — Swinney — Curtis — Lawton — Tantum. 

Delaware belongs to the second epoch in the history of homoeopathy in 
America. The first homoeopathic practitioner to enter the state was Dr. J. C. 
Gosewisch, who had been a private pupil of Wesselhoeft, had graduated from 
Allentown Academy, and then located in Wilmington, in August, 1839. Few 
people then knew anything of the system, and his advent was met with oppo- 
sition and ridicule. The law of the state required that no person not a practi- 
tioner prior to February 4, 1802, should practice medicine or surgery and 
collect fees therefor, without having first obtained a license from a board 
of examiners consisting of three members of the state medical society. Gose- 
wisch asked for such an examination, received it, and the board expressed 
satisfaction, but the next day he received an official notice refusing his re- 
quest for a license. Then a petition signed by many friends of homoeopathy, 
and of fair plav, was presented to the next legislature asking for redress. In 
answer to this demand an act was passed and the following is an extract from 


"That such practitioners of medicine upon the homoeopathic system exclusively, 
shall have full power and right, and are hereby fully authorized, permitted and allowed ' 
to charge, receive, demand, claim, sue for and recover, any fee, compensation, reward 
or pay whatsoever, for or on account of any such practice of medicine, or for or on 
account of any manner of service rendered, or medicine administered or prescribed 
in or about the sam.e, as the nature of the case may admit, and as may be consonant to 
right, equity and good conscience; to be recovered m the like manner, as debts of the 
same' amount are recoverable according to the laws of this state, any custom, usage or 
law to the contrary notwithstanding." 

A law excluding homoeopathic practice had been passed in Delaware in 
January, 1835. but the act just quoted from, passed January 27, 1843, through 
the efforts of Dr. Gosewisch, placed homoeopathy upon precisely the same legal 
basis as that of the allopathic system of medicine. 


The first general homoeopathic society organization in the state was that 
known as the Delaware State Homoeopathic Medical Society and was organ- 
ized in Wilmington in November, 1874. It was not incorporated and held its 
annual meetings in different parts of the state. The first officers were Dr. 
L. Lukens of Newport, president ; Dr. L. Kittinger of Wilmington, vice-presi- 
dent; Dr. J. M. Curtis of Wilmington, secretary and treasurer; Dr. C. H. 
Lawton of Wilmington, corresponding secretary; Drs. J. R. Tantum, J. R. 
Shaw and C. H. Tawton, censors. The society held meetings with reasonable 
regularity for several years, but later there came a decline followed by a re- 


organization in 1884 under the name of Homoeopathic Medical Society of 
Delaware and the Peninsula. The society was - incorporated in 1889. At 
first it met annually in Wilmington, later semi-annually, and afterward quar- 
terly in different places. At the present time the annual meeting is held in 
Wilmington in November. Membership in 1903, thirty. 

The Wilmington Medical Club, otherwise known as the Hughes Club, 
was organized in Wilmington in 1883 and was incorporated under the laws of 
the state in 1889. Its meetings, held weekly, are social in character, and are 
made specially interesting by the discussion of medical and scientific subjects. 

The Homoeopathic Hospital, Wilmington, is one of the noblest charities 
of the city and state, and was brought into existence in answer to a positive 

Jos. R. raiUuni, jM. D. 

need for such an institution. The movement to that end began in 1887, and 
its chief promoter outside the profession was Mrs. J. Taylor Cause, who 
promised and gave substantial aid to the undertaking. For the purpose of 
carrying out the j^lans then suggested a hospital association of homoeopathic 
physicians was formed, and its chief auxiliary was a ladies' aid society. Mrs. 
Cause was president of the aid association, organized November 19, 1887, 
the other officers being as follows: Mrs. L. Kittinger, vice-president; Mrs. 
George W. Stone, recording secretary and treasurer; Mrs. C. B. Smyth, cor- 
responding secretary. Various committees and advisory boards were consti- 
tuted, resolutions were adopted, and the hospital became an assured fact. The 
board of lady managers numbered twenty-seven members. Mrs. Cause gen- 
erouslv offered the association the free use of a comfortable building for one 


year, with the privilege of its purchase at the end of that time. The hospital 
was opened February lo, 1888; the association was incorporated January 31, 
1889, and on February 9 following- organization was perfected under the in- 
corporation. On March 2, 1888, an auxiliary association known as "Juniors " 
was formed, and in June following the " Children's Band of Hospital Work- 
ers " was organized. The donations of Airs. Cause, including rent of build- 
ing, equalled $3,000, and later the institution was still more largely benefited 
by her generosity. In April, 1889, Mr. and Mrs. Cause presented a furnished 
hospital pavilion to the corporation. In 1899 the debt of $9,000 owing 
by the corporation was paid by Emma and Annie R. Latimer. The new build- 
ing cost about $40,000. It has accommodations for fifty patients. 


Dr. Gosewisch, the pioneer homceopath in Delaware, was a native of 
Peine, kingdom of Hanover, born May 14, 1808, and practiced medicine in 
Wilmington many years, establishing a large business and making many 
friends. His death occurred in Alav, 1854. It is said that he never gave medi- 
cine below the thirtieth potency. 

Homoeopatliic Hospital of Delaware. 

Dr. Caleb Harlan was probably the second practitioner of homoeopathy 
in Delaware. He had graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 
1836, and had practiced allopathy in Alilltown, Newcastle county, where he 
was born on October 13, 18 14. In 1846 his attention was called to the new 
medical system, and in 1847 ^''^ removed to Wilmington, where he began its 
practice. Being the first physician of the prevailing school to adopt homoe- 
opathy, his action met with the most violent opposition from his former col- 
leagues; he was attacked in public debate and in the daily papers, but was 
well able to defend himself and the system. 

In 1855 h^ published an able pamphlet entitled " A Lecture on Allopathy 
and Homoeopathy." He was a man of considerable literary ability and in i860 
published a poem, " Ida Randolph of A'irginia," and in 1879 another, " Elflora 
of the Susquehanna." For several years he delivered lectures on anatomy 



and physiology, hygiene and organic chemistry in the State Normal Univer- 
sity at Wilmington. 

In 1852 Dr. Watson Fell Quinby located in Delaware, where he began 
the practice of homoeopathy. He had graduated from the Jefferson Medical 
College of Philadelphia in 1847, ^"^^ soon afterward became satisfied that in 
homoeopathy he found that exactitude of practice that was lacking in the old 
school methods. He travelled through the northern and southern states, and 
for a time took the practice of Dr. Ijelden at Mobile. He went to California 
with the pioneers of 1849. ^^ ^^S^ ^^^ P^''^ ^ short visit to Delaware and, mar- 
rying February 22, 1855, he settled in his native place, Brandywine Springs, 
Newcastle county. In 1863 he removed to Wilmington. 

Dr. August Negendank commenced the practice of homoeopathy in Wil- 

Calel) Hailau, Al. D. 

mington in 1854. He was born in Gustrow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, August 
6, 1823. He came to America in 1849, ^"^ entered the office of Dr. G. Pehr- 
son of Philadelphia, remaining with him for three years and at the same time 
attending the Philadelphia College of Medicine, from which institution he 
graduated. He then acted as an assistant to Dr. Hering for two years, after 
which he located at Wilmington. 

In 1857 the following homeopathic practitioners were located in Dela- 
ware. Dr. Watson Fell Quinby, Milltown ; Dr. J. K. Bryant, Newark; Drs. 
Caleb Harlan, August Negendank, and William Way Thomas, Wilmington. 
There were only these five practitioners in the state at that time. In 1869 
Drs. E. S. Anderson and J. F. Baker were at Dover ; Drs. John Mitchell Cur- 



tis, Caleb Harlan, Leonard Kittinger, August Xegendank, Watson Fell Quin- 
by, Joseph R. Tantum and William Way Thomas were at Wilmington. 

In 1875 Dr. J. G. Swinney was at Smyrna and in addition to the prac- 
titioners in Wilmington previously mentioned, were Drs. H. Burr, J. C. Devon, 
Charles H. Lawton and W. B. Maloney. The following were located in New 
Castle county : Dr. A. Irons, at Newport : Dr. William F. Kennedy, at Mid- 
dletown ; Dr. Isaiah Lukens, at Newport; Dr. Alex R. Shaw, at Newark. 

In 1886 there were twenty-nine homoeopathic practitioners in the state, 
of whom sixteen were in Wilmington. In 1895 there were thirty-one, of 
whom nineteen were in Wilmington. In 1904 the number in the state was 
thirty, twenty-one being in Wilmington. 

Chas. H. Lawton, M. D. 

Dr. Leonard Kittinger, born in Philadelphia, April 27, 1834, was one of 
the early homceopathic physicians of Delaware. He became a student of Dr. 
O. B. Cause in Philadelphia, and graduated at the Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania in 1863. He then located at Bordentown, N. J., and a 
little later went to Flejnington. In April, 1866, he located at Wilmington 
where he built up an extensive practice. 

Dr. William Way Thomas was born in Delaware. He engaged in busi- 
ness pursuits but became an invalid, and after years of treatment at allopathic 
hands he had recourse to homoeopathy, which in a short time effected such 
beneficial results that he resolved to practice that system. He became a stu- 
dent of Dr. Gosewisch. attended at the Jefferson ]\Iedical Collge in Philadel- 
phia, but graduated from the Western Homoeopathic Medical College at 
Cleveland in i860. 

Dr. John Gillette Swinney, of Smyrna, died at Shiloh. December 27, 1894, 


at the age of fifty years. He graduated at Hahnemann Medical College of 
Philadelphia in 1872. He was an old army veteran, having served in the 
Twelfth regiment, New Jersey volunteers, and was wounded in the Battle of 
the Wilderness. He practiced at Smyrna. 

Dr. John Mitchell Curtis was born in Philadelphia, June 21, 1846, edu- 
cated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., where he graduated in 1865. In 
1869 he graduated from the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia and 
located in Wilmington. 

Dr. Charles Henry Lawton was born in Newport, R. I., February 15, 
1832. He became the student of Dr. Page, of Boston, who was a practitioner 
with electricity, and he devoted himself for fourteen years to the practice of 
electro-therapeutics in Providence, New York, Philadelphia and Wilmington, 
Having no confidence in old school drugging, he avoided all medication until 
1870, when he became satisfied that there was a scientific basis to homoeopathy. 
He entered Hahnemann College of Philadelphia and graduated there in 1871. 
He then opened an office as a homoeopathic physician in Wilmington. His 
death occurred July 6, 1894. 

Dr. Joseph R. Tantum was born in Monmouth county, N. J., April 
12, 1834. He engaged in the drug business for a time, but ill health com- 
pelled him to relinquish that, and having become convinced of the truth of 
homoeopathy he commenced its study under the direction of Dr. Cause of 
Philadelphia. He graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical College of 
Pennsylvania in 1865, and soon afterward removed to Wilmington, 

Homoeopathic physicians in Delaware previous to and including the year 
1870. The date preceding the name indicates the year the physician began 
the practice of homeoeopathy. 

1866 Anderson, Edwin S. Dover 1863 Kittinger, Leonard Wilmington 

1857 Bryant. J. K. Newark 1852 Quinby, Watson F. Milltown 

1869 Curtis, John M. Dover 1854 Negendank, August Wilmington 

1839 Gosewisch, J. C. Wilmington Tantum, J. R. Wilmington 

1846 Harlan, Caleb Wilmington i860 Thomas, William W. Wilmington 



By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Parlin, the Pioneer of Homoeopathy in Rhode Island — His Accomplishments and Politi- 
cal Misfortunes — Early Homceopathic Practitioners in the Several Towns of the 
State — Reminiscences, Statistics and Biography. 

The pioneer of homoeopathy in Rhode Island was Dr. Louis Parlin, be- 
lieved to have been a Frenchman, or of that extraction, who settled in Provi- 
dence in 1839, and during the next two or three years practiced his profes- 
sion and even went beyond the limits of ordinary professional duty to enlist 
himself under the banner of one Dorr in an abortive attempt to overthrow the 
established system of government and set up a new rule for the political 
guidance of the inhabitants of that jurisdiction. Naturally, the_ Dorr move- 
ment came to an abrupt end and its leaders were dispersed without severe 
punishment; and Parlin who for the time had forsaken his small phials and 
little doses for the weightier cause of liberty, as he understood it, found him- 
self personce non grata in Rhode Island, and forsooth, to save himself from 
the law — not justice, for the cause he espoused was well grounded in justice 
— he left the state. Sic traitsit gloria imindi. 

Whatever the justice of the political movement in which otir good Dr. 
Parlin was such an earnest participant, the fact remains that his departure 
from the state under cloud was greeted with allopathic approval, for tradition 
says that Parlin was decidedly a man of parts, a scholar, conversant with 
several foreign languages, versed in the classics, popular with the people, al- 
ways a courteous gentleman, and withal, so well grounded in homoeopathic 
medicine as to set at naught all the assaults of the allopathic enemy against 
the doctrine promulgaated bv Hahnemann. 

Dr. Parlin took his degree at old Bowdoin College at Brunswick, Maine, 
but where and through just what influences, other than his own sense of ap- 
preciation, he was led to accept the doctrine of similia is not now known ; nor 
is it impprtant, as his professional career in Providence extended onlv from 
1839 to 1842, and it is said that the scene of his later life was laid m foreign 

parts. . • 

Followincr Dr. Parlin's time Rhode Island for some years was a mission- 
ary field for homoeopathic practitioners from New York and Boston among 
whom were Dr. William Channing, who visited Providence occasionally from 
iS^Q to 1841 ; Dr. Phineas Parkhurst Wells, who also visited there from his 
home in Brooklyn; Dr. Josiah Foster Flagg whose labors there were directed 
from his home in Boston; and Dr. Abraham Howard Okie, a product of 
Allentown Academy, and who settled in Providence ^"1842^ , , 

Rhode Island never has been known as the prolific mother of homoe- 
opathic societies, but such as have been formed have been of - enduring 
character and instrumental in the accomplishment of much good work^^^^^^^ 
vancing the interests of the profession. The Rhode Island Homceopathic 


Society dates its history from the year 1850, and was organized largely 
through the efforts of Drs. Okie and Preston; the Hahnemann Medical So'- 
ciety of Rhode Island was organized in 1854; the Ladies' Rhode Island Homoe- 
opathic Hospital Aid Association in 1873, and the Rhode Island Homoeopathic 
Library Association in 1877. The Rhode Island Homoeopathic Hospital, at 
Providence, was incorporated in 1878 and organized in 1881. 


The Rhode Island Homceopathic Society was organized and a charter 
secured in 1847, ^nd for a short time held quarterly meetings. On May i, 
1850, Drs. A. H. Okie and H. C. Preston issued a circular to all homoeopathic 
physicians in the state inviting them to meet in Providence for the purpose 
of forming a state homoeopathic society ; and in response to this request a 
meeting was held in that city May 11, 1850, eleven physicians present. An 
organization was then effected and Dr. Okie was elected president of the 
society then formed. Of the subsequent history of this pioneer organization 
of homoeopathy in the state little is now known, except that it was of com- 
paratively brief existence, and was succeeded by the Hahnemannian Medical 
Society of Rhode Island, organized in Providence, October 21, 1854, with 
these officers: Dr. A. Howard Okie, president; Dr. G. C. McKnight, vice- 
president ; Dr. N. Francis Cooke, secretary and treasurer ; Drs. J. J. DeWolf 
and Washington Hoppin, censors. The society began its history with seven- 
teen members, but it was discontinued about 1862. In 1873 the present so- 
ciety was organized. On September 23 of that year, at a meeting held in 
Providence, the Rhode Island Homoeopathic Medical Society held its first 
session under the reorganization, and the first annual meeting was held in 
the same city January 2, 1874. At that time the officers elected were: Dr. 
Ira Barrows, of Providence, president ; Dr. J. E. Wheaton, of Pawtucket, 
vice-president ; Dr. G. A. Wilcox, of Providence, treasurer ; Dr. Edward B. 
Knight, of Providence, secretary. For a time the society held monthly 
meetings, but afterward met quarterly in April, July and October, with the 
annual meeting in Providence in January. Membership in 1903, forty-seven. 

The Rhode Island Homoeopathic Hospital, which passed out of existence 
as an institution of the city of Providence, was incorporated in May, 1878, 
and the business association for the conduct of its affairs was organized in 
the latter part of 188 1. In 1885 the trustees purchased the property formerly 
owned by Governor Smith, in Olney street, which was arranged and refitted 
for its intended new occupancy largely through the kind offices of the Ladies' 
Aid Association, the latter also having been regularly incorporated. The 
hospital buildings were dedicated February 16, 1886, and the formal opening 
took place March 23 following. In 1891 the property was sold under mort- 
gage foreclosure proceedings. 


In 1843 Dr. John J. De Wolf, who had been an allopathic practitioner in 
Bristol, R. I., became convinced of the truth of homoeopathy and settled in 

Dr. Ira Barrows went to Providence from Norton, Mass., in 1850. In 
1842, in conversation with Dr. P. P. Wells concerning the truth of homoe- 
opathy he was induced to make a trial of that treatment in a number of stub- 
born cases, and the result was that he continued his experiments, and after 



some months became satisfied of the truth of the system and openly adopted 
it in his practice in Norton. He became one of the most popular physicians 
in Providence, living there for many years. His influence was largely in- 
strumental in establishing homcxopathy on a firm basis in the state. Dr. 
William Ezra Barrows, son of Ira, and a graduate .of the Hahnemann Med- 
ical College of Philadelphia in 1871, was associated (vith his father in practice. 

About 1845 Washington Hoppin entered the office of Dr. Okie as his 
first student. After his graduation in 1850 he returned to Providence and 
in 1857 entered into partnership with Dr. Barrows, and later with his brother, 
Dr. Courtland Hoppin. 

Dr. Grenville S. Stevens opened an office in Providence in 1854. Dr. 

Peck, :.I. L 

Addington K. Davenport graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical College 
of Pennsylvania in 1855, and located at Providence. He died in 1864. Dr. 
William A. \'on Gottschalk settled in the city in 1855, and Dr. George D. 
Wilcox, a graduate of the medical department of the University of New York, 
located there about the same time. He became partner with Dr. Barrows. 
Dr. Courtland Hoppin graduated from the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons of New York and located in Providence in i860. For ten years he 
held the position of physician to the Protestant Orphan Asylum. Dr. Isaac 
W. Sawin went to Providence in 1867. A noteworthy pioneer in Rhode 
Island was Dr. Peleg Clark, who after practicing allopathy for many years, 
in 1844 became convinced of the truth of homoeopathy and began to practice 


it. He went to Providence from Quidnunck. Dr. Henry Canfield Preston 
practiced in Providence from 1848 to 1857, removing. thence to St. Johns, N. 
B. He began to practice homoeopathy in 1848. Dr. Charles G. McKnight 
was one of the pioneers of the profession in Providence. He began practice 
previous to 1847, for in that year he joined the American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy. Dr. A. P. King was a graduate of Harvard University, and prac- 
ticed allopathy in Providence for several years, but became a convert to 
homoeopathy through the influence of Dr. Okie. Dr. Isaac Senter Crocker 
was a graduate of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 
185 1, and afterward practiced in Providence. He died there October 26, 
1866, aged thirty-eight years. Dr. M. F. Cooke also was in practice there. 
Dr. Avery B. Foster graduated from the New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College in 1856, attended hospital practice one year, and in 1857 settled in 
Providence. Dr. George L. Barnes, a graduate of the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania in 1862, settled in Providence in 1870. Drs. Charles 
P. Loring, Robert Hall, George B. Peck, William Jay Smith, have also been 
in practice in Providence. Dr. Peck is a leading practitioner there at the 
present time. 

In 1852 there were in the state of Rhode Island but twelve practitioners: 
Drs. Ira Barrows, Isaac S. Crocker, John J. De Wolf, Washington Hoppin, 
Charles G. McKnight, Abraham H. Okie and Henry C. Preston, located in 
Providence; Dr. Peleg Clark at Coventry; Dr. Daniel H. Greene at East 
Greenwich ; Dr. Amory Gale at Woonsocket ; and Charles P. Manchester and 
James S. Wheaton at Pawtucket. Dr. Manchester adopted the homoeopathic 
practice in 1843 ^^d made his beginning at Pawtucket. Dr. James Lucas 
Wheaton graduated at the Berkshire Medical College in 1847. I" ^^^7 ^^^ 
Oliver Henry Arnold graduated at Harvard Medical College and the same 
year settled in Pawtucket. 

Dr. Charles F. Saunders, a graduate of the Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania in 1855, practiced in Pawtucket. He died January 4, 
1862, aged twenty-nine years. Dr. C. W. Harris was located in Pawtucket 
in 1847. ^is name is on the list of members of the institute for 1848. 

In 1844 Dr. Peleg Clark, who was located at Centreville, became a 
homoeopath. In 1853 ^^- Asa W. Brown graduated from the Cleveland 
Homoeopathic Medical College and settled in Centreville, remaining two years, 
and then went to Mystic Bridge, Conn. Drs. A. W. Brown and Robert Hall 
were at Centreville; Dr. A. G. Sprague located in Centreville in 1866, having 
been discharged from service as surgeon at the close of the war. In Slaters- 
ville Dr. Flam Clark Knight practiced for a time in 1852, but went to Water- 
bury, Conn. He became a convert in 1852. Dr. Allen Tillinghast gradu- 
ated from the Berkshire Medical College in 1843, ^"d after practicing allop- 
athy until 1854 adopted homoeopathy. He was located in Coventry. He 
also practiced for a time at Clayville and Washington village. Dr. William 
Hughes Richards graduated at Harvard Medical College in 1866, and the 
same year began the practice of homoeopathy in Phoenix. Dr. J. B. Tilling- 
hast, a graduate of the New York Homoeopathic Medical College in 1872, 
commenced practice at Summit, R. I., and was in partnership with his father 
there for a year. At the end of that time he located at Phoenix. In Scituate, 
Dr. James E. Roberts, who had graduated at the University of New York in 
1842 and who had practiced allopathy, in 1856 declared his belief in homoe- 
opathy. Dr. Gilbert Clark was located at Warren for several years. Dr. 


Henry Boynton was for a time located at Bristol. Dr. Nathaniel Greene is 
regarded as the father of homoeopathy in Newport. He studied at Brown 
University and Amherst College, and commenced the practice of homceopathy 
in 1850 at Newport. In 1873 ^^ withdrew from practice, leaving in his place 
his partner, Dr. N. G. Stanton, a graduate of Harvard University in 1868. 
Dr. Squire, a classmate, afterwards became Dr. Stanton's partner. In 1872 
Dr. Nathaniel Ray Chase graduated from Hahnemann Medical College of 
Philadelphia and located at New|X)rt. Dr. Tullio Suzzara Verdi commenced 
the practice of homoeopathy in Newport in 1856, having just graduated from 
the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania. He went to Washing- 
ton in 1857. 

Homoeopathy was introduced into Woonsocket in 1858 by Dr. Richard 
Garrique. Dr. J. H. Knowles, who for thirty years had been an old school 
practitioner, became a homoeopathist in 1850. His field of practice was 
Woodville. Dr. E. G. Carpenter became his partner about 1875. 

In Wakefield Dr. W. H. Hazard, who had been an allopath, began the 
practice of homoeopathy in i860. In W^esterly, Dr. L. A. Palmer, who was 
a graduate of the ShurtlelT Medical College of Alton, III, in 1840, practiced 
allopathy for twenty years, but in 1861 became a homoeopath, being in- 
duced to make the change by a fellow practitioner. Dr. William Robinson. 
Dr. Robinson had practiced in Westerly for sixty years and had become con- 
verted to homoeopathy by his son-in-law, Dr. Horatio Robinson, of Auburn, 
N. Y., about 1856. Drs. S. M. Fletcher and Lucy A. Babcock also practiced 
in Westerly. 

Dr. Thomas H. Mann settled at New Shoreham on Block Island in 1870. 
When he went there an allopath held full sway, but the new system soon 
gained favor and within a year the old school man departed, leaving the 
homoeopathic physician in control. After five years Dr. Mann found himself 
in a peculiar situation, having no patients. He had cured them all, and 
under his system of medication and hygiene there was little sickness. He 
could not support his family on the limited practice there, and in 1876 de- 
cided to leave the island, but the town council induced him to remain by voting 
him a fixed annual salary of $1,800. 

In 1857 there were twenty-nine homoeopathic practitioners in the state, 
thirteen being in Providence. In 1870 there were thirty-six, fifteen being 
in Providence; in 1875 there were forty-six in the state, twenty-seven being 
in Providence; in 1887 there were 73, thirty-seven being in Providence. In 
1899 there were in Providence forty-nine homoeopathic physicians, and eighty- 
four in the state. In 1904 there were fifty-nine homoeopathic practitioners 
in the state. 

Dr. William B. Hamlin opened a homoeopathic pharmacy in Providence 
in 1854, and sold in 1866 to William E. Clarke. This pharmacy, after pass- 
ing through various hands, was discontinued. In 1875 Henry J. Denham 
opened a pharmacy in Providence. On December i, 1877, Otis Clapp & Son 
opened a branch establishment in Providence. This is still continued. 

Dr. Ira Barrows, of whom incidental mention has been made, was born 
in South Attleborough, Mass., November 18, 1804. He graduated from 
Brown University in 1824, and at once commenced the study of medicine 
with Dr. Artemus Johnson in Pawtucket. He graduated from Harvard Med- 
ical School in 1827 and began practice in Pawtucket. In 1837, sufTering from 
feeble health, he sold his business to Dr. Benoni Carpenter and went to Cm- 


cinnati. He returned to the east in 1840 and located in Norton, Mass., thir- 
teen miles from Pawtucket, where he entered into partnership with Dr. Car- 
penter. This relation continued about eight months." In 1842 Dr. Barrows 
adopted the homoeopathic system of practice. His rides extended through 
the towns in Bristol county and into Pawtucket. Early in his practice ques- 
tion arose as to his right to practice in that place after having sold his business 
to Dr. Carpenter. Dr. Barrows contended that the partnership rendered 
void the pledge and that his practice as a homoeopath could not affect Dr. 
Carpenter, an allopath. The Massachusetts Medical Society, of which both 
were members, decided against Dr. Barrows and expelled him. In 1850 he 
removed to Providence and entered into partnership with Dr. George D. 
Wilcox. Here he remained until his death, October 14, 1882, at the age of 
seventy-eight years. He joined the American Institute of Homoeopathy in 
1846. He was a founder of the Rhode Island Homoeopathic Society, and a 
stalwant in his profession. 

Dr. Washington Hoppin, another of the Rhode Island pioneers, was 
born in Providence, January 2, 1827. In 1843 ^^ entered Brown Univer- 
sity, but on account of ill health was compelled to leave before graduation. 
In 1844 he began the study of medicine with Dr. Okie, attended lectures at 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York and afterward at the 
Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1850. 
He then returned to Providence and entered into a partnership with Dr. Ira 
Barrows, and later with his own brother. Dr. Courtland Hoppin. He died 
April I, 1867, leaving a widow and five children. 

Dr. Courtland Hoppin was born in Providence, September 5, 1834. He 
graduated from Brown University in 1855, ^^^^ medicine with Drs. Barrow 
and Hoppin, and graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
New York in i860. He practiced in Providence until his death, October 19, 

Dr. Peleg Clarke was born in Richmond, R. I., August 5, 1784. He 
studied medicine with Dr. Nathan Knight, of South Kingston, and with Dr. 
Caleb Fiske, of Johnston. In 1808 he commenced practice in Johnston, where 
he continued until 1813. In that year he attended lectures at the medical 
department of Brown University. Jn 1832 he went to Coventry, practicing 
there until 1844. He then adopted homoeopathy, and practiced it in Coven- 
try for some years, but later went to East Providence, where he died January 
1, 1875, in his ninety-first year. He had practiced for sixty years, his circuit 
extending through the villages on the north and south branches of the Paw- 
tuxet river in central Rhode Island. He was a founder of the Rhode Island 
Homoeopathic Society; joined the American Institute of Homoeopathy in 
1846; was a petitioner for the charter for the first medical society in the state; 
was an active temperance reformer, and an earnest anti-slavery advocate. 
Of him William Lloyd Garrison wrote : " By those who knew him well he 
was equally revered and beloved; and to them his memory will be ever 

Dr. Daniel H. Green was born in East Greenwich, April 15, 1807. He 
studied with Dr. Caleb Fiske, of Scituate, and after completing his medical 
education opened an office at Natick, where he practiced eight years. In 
1840 he removed to East Greenwich, where he afterward lived. He also 
maintained an office in Providence. He became a believer in homoeopathy in 


Dr. Isaac Warren Sawin was born in Dover, Norfolk county, Mass., 
December 30, 1823. He studied medicine with Dr. P. T. Bowen, of Provi- 
dence, and graduated from the Western College of Homoeopathic Medicine 
at Cleveland in 1857. He then located in Centre Dale, near Providence, and 
remained there several years, removing to Providence in 1867. Dr. Gren- 
ville Smith Stevens was born in Raynham, Mass., July 10, 1829. He gradu- 
ated from Brown University in 1852. studied medicine with Drs. Barrows 
and Graves, of Taunton, and with Dr. Okie, of Providence. He attended 
medical lectures at the Pittsfield Medical School, and at the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons of New York, where he graduated in 1854. In July of 
the same year, during the cholera epidemic, he went to Chicago. He re- 
mained there three weeks when, being taken ill, he returned to the east and 
in August, 1854, opened an office in Providence, where he established a large 

Dr. Nathaniel Greene was born in Cumberland Island, Ga., about 1808. 
He became a homoeopath in 1850, and practiced for many years in Newport. 
He withdrew from practice in 1873 and removed to Middletown, R. I., where 
he passed the rest of his life. He died the first week in July, 1899. 

Dr. George D. Wilcox was born in West Greenwich, August 28, 1825, 
and graduated from the University of New York. In 1856 he began prac- 
tice in Providence. Later on he studied in Germany and London, returning 
in i860. He died suddenly July 23, 1897. 

Dr. William von Gottschalk was born at Wahau, Saxony, near Leipsic, 
November 12, 1826, and was a graduate of Leipsic University. In 1848 he 
joined the revolutionary movement in Germany and was obliged to flee. He 
first sought refuge near Baden Baden, but afterward went to Switzerland, 
where he lived during the years 1849 and 1850, part of that time acting as a 
dentist's assistant. He then came to New York and in connection with the 
practice of medicine carried on a drug store. While there, through the in- 
fluence of Dr. Charles J. Hempel, he became a convert to homoeopathy. In 
1854 he went to Paris to perfect himself in medicine. He returned to 
America in 1855 and settled at Providence. He established a large practice 
and became one of the best known homoeopathic physicians of his time. He 
was a leader among his fellow countrymen, and was styled " the father of 
the German Leiderkranz," and also was forward in other of the German 
societies. His death occurred on Monday, September 15. 1888. Dr. Henry 
Canfield Preston was born in New York city, March 5, 1822. He was a 
graduate of Trinity School in Hartford in 1842. He attended medical lec- 
tures at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of New York, 
graduating from the latter institution in 1844. He commenced practice as 
an allopath in Windsor, Conn. In 1846 he married and removed to Hart- 
ford, where he investigated homoeopathy and became convinced of its truth. 
In the spring of 1848 he went to Providence and at once began practice. He 
remained there until the spring of 1858, when he located in St. Johns, N. B. 

Dr. Amor}- Gale was born in Warwick, Mass., in 1800. He attended 
medical lectures at Dartmouth College and Brown University, graduating 
from the latter institution in 1824. He then commenced practice at Royal- 
ston, Mass., and after one year removed to Barre. He practiced allopathy 
at Barre, Amherst, N. H., and Scituate, Mass. In South Scituate he studied 
theologv and was ordained evangelist at Kingston. ^lass., in 1844. While 



in the ministry he investigated the claims of homoeopathy and through the 
influence of his friend, Dr. Barrows, became convinced of its truth; and 
about 1850, when bronchial troubles compelled his retirement from the pul- 
pit, he began practice at Woonsocket. He died February 20, 1873, aged 
seventy-two years. 

Homoeopathic practitioners in Rhode Island from 1839 to i860. The 
date preceding the name indicates the year the physician began the practice 
of homoeopathy. The character * indicates that the practitioner originally 
was of some other school ; the character x indicates that the physician prac- 
ticed medicine before the date given. 

1857 Aldrich, H. Brands Iron Works 1857 

1842 Barrows, Iwa * Providence 1850 

1857 Beverly, Julia Providence 1852 

1853 Brown, Asa W. Centerville 1843 
1844 Clark, Peleg * Coventry 1846 
1851 Crocker, Isaac S. Providence i860 

1843 DeWolf, John J. * Providence 1857 
1855 Davenport, Addington K. Provi- 1857 

dence 1857 

1840 Flagg, Josiah F. * Providence 1842 

T856 Foster, Avery B. Providence 1839 

1850 Gale, Amory Woonsocket 1861 

1858 Garrick, Richard Woonsocket 1848 

1854 Gottschalk, Wm. A. von * Providence 1856 
1850 Green, Daniel H. * Natick 1856 
1850 Green, Nathaniel * Newport 1855 

1859 Green, Wm. Bowen * Providence 1857 
1850 Hoppin, Washington Providence 1854 
i860 Hoppin, Courtland Providence 1854 
i860 Hazard, W. H. * Wakefield 1856 
1853 Hall, Robert Centerville 1847 
1846 Harris, C. W. Pawtucket 1856 
1857 King, A. P. * X Providence 1842 

King, H. X Natick 
Knowles, J. H. * Woodville 
Knight, Elam C. Slatersville 
Manchester, Chas F. * Pawtucket 
McKnight, Chas. G. Providence 
Mowrey, Mrs. H. M. Providence 
Nicholas, C. E. x Clayville 
Nichols, J. S. X Woonsocket 
Nutting, T. x Georgiaville 
Okie, A. H. Providence * 
Parlin, Louis * Providence 
Palmer, L. A. * Westerly 
Preston, Henry C. Providence 
Roberts, James E. * S. Scituate 
Robinson, William Westerly 
Saunders, Chas F. Pawtucket 
Sawin, Isaac W. Centerdale 
Stevens, Grenville S. Providence 
Tillinghast, Allen * Washington 
Verdi, Tullio S. Newport 
Wheaton, Lucas Pawtucket 
Wilcox, George D. Providence 
Wells, Phineas P. * Providence 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

A Hospitable Welcome Greets Homoeopathy in Kentucky — Bernstein, the Pioneer, 

Finds Warm Friends among the Allopaths — Their Estimate of his Worth — 

Early Practitioners in Various Parts of the State — A Chapter of Statistics, 
Reminiscences and Biography. 

Quite unlike the reception accorded the pioneers of homoeopathy in many 
other states of the union, Kentucky and its allopathic practitioners greeted 
the advent of Dr. I. G. Rosenstein in Louisville with cordial welcome, ad- 
mitted him to their most intimate friendships, and showed him many other 
evidences of fraternal regard, even if he was indeed the exponent of a new 
and to them untried medical system. But then, this somewhat unusual treatment 
of the representative of an opposing school by the allopathic physicians of 
Louisville is not really surprising when we consider the hospitable, generous na- 
ture of the Kentuckians at the time of which we write, and before and after- 

Early homoeopathic history in Kentucky records that Dr. Rosenstein 
originally was an allopathic physician and when he took up his abode in Louis- 
ville in 1839 it was as a disciple of the Hahnemannian school, but whence 
he came and his final end no biographer gives any clear light. We only 
know that he was in the city just mentioned until 1842 and then left for the 
far south; but he left an impress upon the times in the publication in 1840 of 
his " Theory and Practice of Homoeopathy," a work which attracted consid- 
erable attention and evoked complimentary allusion from his own and the 
opposing school of medicine, for his utterances were fair, rational and just, 
granting to the allopathic system the right to exist, and asserting for that 
to which he was a convert undeniable supremacy. 


In a letter written November 30. 1849, to the " Southwestern Journal 
of Homoeopathy," Dr. Huff said : " The homoeopathists of Kentucky have 
held a convention in this city and organized a society called the Kentucky 
State Homoeopathic Society. Homoeopathy is gaining ground in this state 
since its unparalleled succes in the treatment of Asiatic cholera has been made 
manifest." Little is now known of this old pioneer society of homoeopaths 
except that it was among the earliest institutions of its kind in the south. 
The Kentucky State Homoeopathic Medical Society, the present organiza- 
tion and probably the successor to the society just mentioned, was organized 
in Louisville, May 7, 1873, with these officers : Dr. Henry W. Kohler of 
Louisville, president ; Dr. W. H. Blakeley of Bellevue, vice-president ; Dr. J. 
W. Kline of Louisville, secretary. Later on Dr. W. L. Breyfogle was hon- 
ored with the permanent presidency of the society ; but the organization, like 


its predecessor, at length became decadent, and was finally revived and re- 
organized in Lexington, July 14, 1886, with about thirty constituent mem- 
bers. The officers then chosen were Dr. J. A. Lucy oi Georgetown, president; 
Dr. George M. Ockford of Lexington, vice-president ; Dr. S. M. Wadsworth 
of Versailles, recording secretary ; Dr. C. P. Meredith of Eminence, corre- 
sponding secretary ; Dr. J. A. VanSant of Alount Sterling, treasurer ; Drs. A. 
Leight Monroe of Louisville, H. C. Kasselman of Midway and O. H. Buck of 
Paris, censors ; Drs. J. T. VanSant of Paris, H. C. Kehoe of Cynthiana and 
W. PL Dougherty of Corinth, auditors. This society was incorporated in 
1888. It meets annually alternately in Louisville and Lexington. Mem- 
bership, 75. 

The Western Kentucky Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized in 
Princeton, January 10, 1892 ; membership in 1903, 35. 


Among Rosenstein's acquaintances in Louisville were Drs. McDowell, 
Meriwether and Bell, all old school practitioners, each of whom took occa- 
sion to say some kind word for their proselyted friend. These remembrances 
of the pioneer of homceopathy in the region under consideration are worthy 
of reproduction in these annals, especially as they tend to show that Jordan 
is not always " a hard road to travel," even in the vicissitudes of homoe- 
opathic pioneer life. In speaking of his relations with Rosenstein, Dr. Mc- 
Dowell wrote : " My acquaintance with you has been sufficient to induce 
the belief that you possess the science and the ability to furnish, in a candid 
treatise, a fair exposition of homoeopathy ; an exposition which will at least 
suffice to indicate to the profession whether a translation of Hahnemann's 
ponderous quartos would be worth the trouble. And I hope, sir, that you 
will be duly encouraged to prosecute your design to that effect." 

Dr. Meriwether wrote : " Since Dr. Rosenstein's introduction into our 
city I have cultivated habits of unrestrained intimacy with him, because I 
believe him to be an amiable gentleman as well as a refined and learned phy- 
sician. In this way I have been thrown in contact with a great amount of 
homoeopathic practice. I am at length prepared to say, without hesitation, 
though I do not comprehend the modus operandi of his remedies, that his 
surprising success, in many cases apparently hopeless, has astonished me to 
such an extent as to induce me to pause and wonder. I am therefore con- 
strained to say, finally, in relation to Dr. Rosenstein's contemplated publica- 
tion, that I most cordially give him and his laudable enterprise my best 
wishes, believing that if his system is false it will only be ' as a tale that is 
told ' and readily pass under the wave of oblivion, but, if true, it will be on- 
ward in its career, even amidst the moral cut-throats who may maliciously 
array themselves against it, for the same reasons that influenced Demetrius 
in denouncing the redeeming doctrines which Saul of Tarsus preached on 
the subject of Christianity." 

This is the only time in the history of the progress of homoeopathy in 
the United States when the allopathic physicians of a town were fair enough 
to give the system a reasonable hearing ; and this occurred at a period when 
calumny, ridicule, villification, and legal efforts were resorted to to prevent the 
spread of the system. 

Dr. C. E. Rrevfoglc suggests that Dr. Rosenstein located in Louisville 



as early as 1838. His book, " Theory and Practice of Homceopathy," was a 
work of 288 pages. It gave a general description of the system, opinions of 
allopathic physicians on medicine, reviews of writings against homoeopathy, 
a short life of Hahnemann, a description of the homceopathic materia medica, 
certain chapters on hygiene, and the state of homoeopathy in Europe, quoted 
from Dr. Hull's article published at that time in the " Homoeopathic Ex- 
aminer." In 1836 Dr. Rosenstein had written " A Treatise upon a New Man- 
ner of Medical Practice called Homoeopathic, eludicated by comparing the 
High Station of Homoeopathic with the usual Mode of Practice, called AUo- 
pathie. Dedicated to our Patients, and to the Friends of Truth and Human- 

Wm. L. Breyfogle, M. D. 

ity. By I. G. Rosenstein, M. D., allied in practice with two skillful homce- 
opathic physicians, M. Bigler and M. Seitz, Albany. 1836." 

The relationship with Drs. Biegler and Seitz in Albany continued 
only a few months, during which time Dr. Rosenstein went to Louisville. 
He was a man of learning and scientific attainments. 

Dr. Logue settled the same year in Louisville, where he remained in 
practice until 1845, when he became associated with Dr. Richard Angell, who 
had been engaged in practice in Mississippi, and who went to Louisville 
in 1844. It was while in that city that he investigated homoeopathy. 

Dr. Angell writes of himself: "My full name is Richard Angell. I 
graduated at Columbia Medical College, Washington city, in the year 1826. 


My present address is New Orleans, La., where I have resided since 1854. 
Previous to that time I practiced in Alabama, Mississippi and Louisville, Ky. 
I began to practice homoeopathy in the year 1844 at Louisville, Ky." 

Soon after 1845 Dr. Logue went to New Orleans. Dr. Angell continued 
in Louisville until 1847, when the feeble health of his wife compelled him 
to return south, and he went to Huntsville, Ala., remaining there until 1855, 
when he went to New Orleans and in connection with his son took charge 
of the Orphans' House on Seventh street. 

Dr. Campbell located in Louisville about 1845, and remained there in 
practice until 1855, when he was killed by being thrown from his horse. 

Dr. Edward Caspari located in Louisville in 1846 and remained there 
until his death in 1870. 

Dr. E. Huff located in Louisville in 1849. I" Kirby's " American Jour- 
nal of Homoeopathy " is a letter from Dr. Huff stating that the homoeopathists 
of Kentucky have held a convention in Louisville and organized a state Homoe- 
opathic Society. He says : "Homoeopathy is gaining ground in this state 
since its unparalleled success in the treatment of Asiatic cholera has been 
made manifest. The number of practitioners' is steadily increasing and t|ie 
doctrine is becoming more and more popular daily among thq most intelli- 
gent of our community. The editors of our papers are now favorable to it, 
and their columns opened to us for anything pertaining to it." 

Here, as in Ohio and New York, homoeopathy scored a triumph with this 
terrible disease. The practitioners of the new system were not afraid to 
test the methods of Hahnemann in a disease that baffled the practitioners of 
the old school, and homoeopathy stood the test. 

The next arrival was Dr. H. W. Koehler, who was a graduate of Mar- 
burg, Germany. Dr. Armstrong settled in Louisville in 1850. In 1857 the 
following homoeopathic physicians were in practice in Louisville : Drs. J. 
K. Clark, C. Ehrmann, T. Meurer, L. Van Buren. At that time there were 
only thirteen homoeopathic physicians in the state. In 1859 Dr. Kueffner 
and Dr. Lewis Ehrmann settled in Louisville.; in 1862 Dr. Swift; in 1867 
Drs. Bernard and Charles W. Breyfogle; in 1869 Dr. William L. Breyfogle; 
in 1871 Dr. D. W. Pierce, and in 1873 Drs. J. W. Klein. R. D. Poole and 
John R. Pirtle. Dr. Charles W. Breyfogle entered into partnership with Dr. 
Caspari, but in 1872 was compelled through ill health to go to San Jose, Cali- 
fornia. In 1870 Dr. Caspari sold his interest in the business to Dr. William 
L. Breyfogle, who, after his brother's departure, associated with Dr. R. W. 
Pierce, a graduate of the Louisville LIniversitv and who had been for twenty 
years a practitioner of the old school and a convert to homoeopathy. 

Edward Caspari was a native of Prussia. He came to America in the 
early thirties, settled in Philadelphia and became a student under Hering 
and one of his followers at Allentown Academv, from which institution he 
was graduated. It is said that he practiced in Chester county, Penna., about 
1835. After graduation he went to Norfolk, Virginia, practiced there sev- 
eral years and afterward in the region of Ohio called the Western Reserve, 
and in 1846 located in Louisville. In that city he built up a successful prac- 
tice, and founded, in 1867, an institution near the city, where he employed 
homoeopathy and hydropathy together. He arranged with Dr. Charles W. 
Brevfogle to attend his practice in the city while he devoted his own atten- 
tion to the management of his private enterprise, to which he gave the name 


" Rock Spring Water Cure of Purvee Valley." Dr. Caspar! died March 5, 
1870, aged sixty-one years. 

Dr. Clark, of whom mention has been made, left Louisville in i860, and 
Dr. Lewis Ehrmann went to St. Louis in 1870. In 1857 there were four 
homoeopathic physicians in Louisville ; twelve in 1870, sixteen in 1880, the 
same in 1890, twenty-seven in 1899, and thirty in 1904. 

Dr. William Murphy introduced the homceopathic system in eastern 
Kentucky about 1850. He was a graduate in 1846 from Transylvania Uni- 
versity, and afterward practiced allopathy four years at Hanging Rock, 
Lawrence county, Ohio, then returned to his native place, Maysville, and took 
up the practice of homoeopathy. He was succeeded by Dr. Jonathan R. Pad- 
dock, a graduate of Worthington Medical College in 1827, and afterward 
one of its professors. He retired from active work soon after the war. Dr. 
William H. McGranaghan, his former student and a graduate of the Eclec- 
tic Medical College of Cincinnati, abandoned that school of practice and be- 
came a homoeopath ; and his son, William H. McGranaghan, junior, a grad- 
uate of Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia in 1876, was afterward 
associated in practice with his father. Among the other early homoeopathic 
practitioners in Maysville mention may be made of Drs. George W. Martin, 
who began in 1866, and Maurice H. Phister in 1874. 

Dr. George I. Bauer crossed the Ohio river from Cincinnati in 1847 
and settled in Covington, where after a few months he was succeeded by 
Dr. Robert B. Lnyd. Dr. John W. Fox, a graduate of the Homoeopathic 
Medical College of Pennsylvania, located in Covington in 1854, remained 
there until 1861 and then went to San Francisco. In 1856 Dr. WilHam 
Henry Hunt, a graduate in 1855 of the Jefferson Medical College of Phila- 
delphia, became a convert to homoeopathy and settled in Covington. His 
brother, a graduate of Pulte Medical College, became associated with him in 
1872. In i860 Dr. James T. Gushing located in Covington, and was followed 
in 1861 by Dr. Jeremiah Havnes, and the latter in turn, in 1867, by Dr. J. 
Russ. In 1869 Dr. E. S. Stuart, and in 1872 Dr. William M. Murphy, the 
latter the pioneer homoeopath in Maysville, were in practice in Covington. 
Dr. F. von Kranenburg, who was a graduate in 1850 of the Leyden Medical 
College in the Netherlands and who had become a homoeopathist in 1858, 
went to Covington, although his chief practice was in Cincinnati. Dr. E. 
M. Hunt went there in 1875. 

Dr. Henry Gunkel settled at Newport about 1856. Dr. J. Russ Haynes 
settled there in 1866, remaining eight years. In 1872 Dr. E. W. Reany went 

In Lexington in 1857 Drs. A. Lehr and I. K. Minton were in practice. 
Dr. J. K; ^lorton was there about 1854 and Dr. L. N. Howard in 1872. 

In 1857 Drs. E. D. and M. E. Payne were at Bowling Green ; Dr. A. H. 
Flanders was at Danville, but was called to the chair of chemistry in the 
Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1858. He lectured one ses- 
sion and then he located in \A'illiamsburgh, N. Y. 

In 1857 Dr. D. J. Gish was located at Hopkinsville, Dr. Cushmg at 
Sandv, and Dr. S. Sands at Trenton. 

In 1872 Drs. Alonson Bishop and James George Hunt established a 
sanitarium in Cloverport, at the White Sulphur and Tar Springs. Dr. Cas- 
par! also at one time conducted a sanitarium in Kentucky. 

In 1857 there were thirteen homoeopathic physicians in the state; the 



number in 1875 was thirty-five; in 1880, sixty-eight; in 1885, ninety-two; 
in 1895, one hundred and five ; and in 1904, one hundred and seventeen. 

Homoeopathic physicians in Kentucky previous to and including the 
year 1870. The date preceding the name indicates the year the physician be- 
gan the practice of homoeopathy. The character * indicates that the prac- 
titioner originally was of some other school; the character x indicates that 
the physician practiced medicine before the date given. 

1843 Angell, Richard Louisville 1859 

1850 Armstrong, Dr. Louisville 1848 

1847 Bauer, George L Covington 1858 

1867 Bernard. Dr. Louisville 1857 

1868 Breyfogle, Chas- W. Louisville' 1842 
1868 Breyfogle, Wm. L. Louisville 1848 
1835 - Caspari, Edward Louisville 1866 

1857 Campbell, — Louisville 1858 

1858 Clark, J. K. Louisville 1857 
i860 Cushing, James T. Sandy 1857 
1852 Ehrmann, Christian Louisville 1857 

1859 Ehrmann, Lewis P. Louisville 1853 
1854 Fox, John W. Covington 1850 
1857 Flanders, A. H. x Danville 1855 
1857 Gish, D. J. X Hopkinsville 1857 
1854 Gunkel, Henry Newport 1857 
1861 Haynes, Jeremiah Covington 1836 
1865 Haynes, J. Russ Covington ^857 
.... Hubbell, L. 1857 
1850 Hunt, James George Covington ^869 
1856 Hunt, William H. Covington 1856 
1849 Huff, E. Louisville 

Keuffner, — Louisville 
Koehler, H. W- Louisville 
Kranenburg, F. von * Covington 
Lehr, A. x Lexington 
Logue, Dr. Louisville 
Lynd, Robert R. Covington 
Martin, George W. Maysville 
McGranaghan, Wm. H. * Maysville 
Metcalfe, Thomas x Louisville 
Meurer, T. x Louisville 
Minton, L K. x ' 

Morton, J. K. Lexington 
Murphy, Wm. M. * Maysville 
Paddock, Jonathan R. * Maysville 
Payne, E. D. x Bowling Green 
Payne, M. E. x Bowling Green 
Rosenstein, L G. Louisville 
Sands, S. x Trenton 
Swift, — X 

Stuard, E. S. Covington 
Van Beuren, L. H. Louisville 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. ' 

Dr. Moses Atwood, a Convert of Gregg's, the Pioneer of Homoeopathy in New 
Hampshire — The State Homoeopathic Medical Society — Early Practitioners in 
the Several Counties. 

Homoeopathy in New Hampshire — the " Old Granite State " — belongs to 
what is known as the second epoch in the history of the system promulgated 
by Hahnemann, and dates from the year 1840, when Dr. Moses Atwood, 
who had been a student of Dr. Gregg of Boston, located in little Frances- 
town in Hillsborough county and began practice there. His stay was short, 
however, and he afterward carried the doctrine into Nashua, then to Con- 
cord, then to Manchester, and finally to New Boston, where his life's work 
was closed in 1850. As Dr. Gallinger has said : " His name is held in sweet 
remembrance as the pioneer of homoeopathy in the state." Record and tra- 
dition both say that Closes Atwood was a capable physician, deeply interested 
in his work and especially in the welfare of the school of medicine to which 
he was the direct means of bringing several converts. He did not live, how- 
ever, to take part in the organization of the first medical society, although 
some of those whom he was instrumental in proselyting were among its 

The New Hampshire Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized at a 
meeting of homctopathic physicians held in Concord, June 3, 185 1, and on 
January 8, 1853. it was incorporated under the laws of the state. In June 
following the society completed its permanent organization and since that 
time has maintained a healthful existence. The incorporators were Alpheus 
Merrill and Hamilton J. M. Gate of Concord; Israel Herrick of Lyndebor- 
ough ; Joshua F". Whittle of Nashua ; Emil Custer of Manchester ; John Le 
Bosquet of Greenfield : James Peterson of Weare ; and A. W. Pike of Dover, 
Since its organization meetings of the society have been held with reason- 
able regularity, the fixed place of the annual assemblage being Concord, the 
capital city of the state. The present membership is about seventy-five phy- 
sicians, which represents nearly the strength of the homoeopathic profession 
in the state. 

The only other homoeopathic society of a general character is that known 
as the Northern New Hampshire Homoeopathic Medical Society, which was 
organized in 1874. These comprise the chief institutions of homoeopathy 
in New Hampshire, and other than as herein mentioned the history of the 
system is written in the lives of the exemplars who have practiced within 
the borders of "the state during the past three score years. It cannot be said 
that the state is non-progressive in homoeopathic history, for such is not the 
case; the seed sown by Atwood in 1840 became firmly rooted in the soil and 
has yielded bountifully in later years, although the profession here as else- 
where has recorded little of its own history. 




In Weare, twelve miles from Francestown, Dr. James Peterson had been 
for several years a practitioner of the old school, but was persuaded through 
the influence of Dr. Atwood to adopt the practice of Hahnemann. Of his 
conversion Dr. Peterson himself said : " Dr. Moses Atwood was the first 
practitioner of homoiopathy in New Hampshire ; myself the second. I pre- 
scribed my first globule in 1843." Dr. Peterson practiced many years at Weare 
and died there April 8, 1870. He was called into many towns of Hillsbor- 
ough county, and his name as a successful practitioner extended through all 

Joshua F. Whittle, M. D. 

that region. In the same year, 1843, Dr. Joshua F. Whittle, a nephew and 
student of Dr. Peterson, graduated from the Castleton Medical College and 
settled in Nashua, then a city, and distant from Weare about forty miles.- He 
continued in practice in Nashua until his death, August 17, 1888, at the age 
of seventy-eight years. The next convert was Dr. Israel Herrick, who was 
in practice at Lyndeborough, another small town a few miles from Frances- 
town. He began the practice of homoeopathy in 1844, and died February 
18, 1866, aged seventy-one years. 

Dr. S. A. Bard of Francestown began to practice homoeopathy about 
1844. In 1847 Dr. Willard Parkman Gambell located in that place. He had 
graduated at Pittsfield in 1845, ^"d spent a year or more in investigating the 



homoeopathic system. He remained in Francestown ten years, then went to Hav- 
erhill, Mass., and thence to Boston, where he died December i, 1887. The next 
practitioner in Francestown was Dr. Levi Pierce, who located there in 1857. 
He had graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania 
in 1854. He remained two years and then went to New London, Conn., and 
in 1864 to a town in Massachusetts. He died April 28, 1891. 

Dr. Pierce was followed by Dr. Andrew J. Moulton, who at the begin- 
ning of the war of 1861-65 enlisted as a private and was reported missing 
after the battle of the Wilderness. He now lies in an unknown grave. He 
was a graduate of the Cleveland Homoeopathic College in i860. 

The next to practice in Francestown was Dr. Thomas E. Fisher, who has 

Oliver L. Bradford, M. D. 

been there for many years. Drs. A. J. Todd and Edwin D. Stevens have also 
been located there. 

In 1850 Dr. Oliver A. Woodbury located at Nashua, remaining there 
until his death in March, 1875. In 1870 only Drs. Whittle and Woodbury 
were located in Nashua. From 1875 to 1880 there were Drs. Whittle and 
Charles Sumner Collins, the latter a graduate in 1875 of the Boston Univer- 
sity School of Medicine. In 1899 Dr. Henry H. Jewell, a graduate in 1882 
of Hahnemann College of Chicago, settled in Nashua. In 1904, Drs. Collins, 
Jewell and Rouncevel were located there. 

In 1855 Dr. Freeman Horton associated with Dr. Peterson in Weare, 


remaining there three years, when he went to Lynn. Mass., Avhere he died 
March 3, 1861. Dr. James P. Whittle also practiced in Weare. . 

Homoeopathy was introduced into Concord in 1844 by Dr. Augustus 
Frank, who came from Boston, remained two years, then he went to Man- 
chester, and later to Norwich, Conn. In 1845' Dr. At wood settled in Con- 
cord, and in 1849 Dr. Alpheus Morrill, a graduate of Dartmouth College in 
1832 and a convert to homoeopathy in 1843, settled there. He was succeeded 
by his sons, Drs. Shadrach C. and E. Morrill. In 185 1 Dr. Hamilton J. M. 
Cate, a graduate of 1849 of the Woodstock Medical College, went to Con- 
cord and practiced there until 1855, when he removed to Northampton, Mass. 
He was succeeded in 1856 by Dr. Ferdinand Gustav Oehme, who remained 
for ten years. Dr. J. C. Baker also practiced there but removed in 1857 to 
Middleboro, Mass. Dr. Jacob H. Gallinger settled in Concord in 1862, and 
still lives there. Dr. Isaac Colby began practice in Concord in 1846. In 
1857 Drs. J. C. Baker, Isaac Colby, Alpheus Morrill and F. G. Oehme were 
located in Concord; in 1875, Drs. Edward H. Foster, J. H. Gallinger. Shad- 
rach M. Morrill, and Ezekiel Morrill; in 1880, Dr. J. C. Moore; in 1887, Drs. 
Joseph Chase, Jr., J. H. Gallinger, Ezekiel Morrill, B. D. Peaslee and Moses 
Whitcomb; in 1899 Drs. J. H. Gallinger, Almond W. Hill, Maude H. Kent, 
A. B. Morrill. E. Morrill, George F. Roby and Arthur F. Sumner; in 1904, 
Drs. Alpheus E. ]\iorrill, Ezekiel Morrill, A. F. Sumner, J. H. Gallinger and 
Almon W. Hill. 

Dr. Aaron H. Atwood introduced homoeopathy into Manchester. He 
was a nephew of Moses Atwood, the pioneer, and an allopathic graduate. In 
1847 Dr. Emil Custer became his partner. A few years later Dr. Atwood 
went to Virginia and died there. In 1844 or 1845 Dr. Henry C, Parker be- 
came a convert to homoeopathy and began practice in Manchester, where he 
remained until his death, December 8, 1861. In 1853 Dr. Charles H. Walker 
graduated at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania and located 
in Manchester. He remained there several years and then went to Chelsea, 
Mass. In 1856 Dr. Israel P. Chase, a graduate of the homoeopathic college 
at Cleveland, came from Richmond, Va., practiced for a time in Manchester, 
and later removed to Henniker. 

The pioneer homoeopath in Keene was Dr. D. White, who went there 
about 1850. He seems to have been both energetic and zealous in his work, 
and in connection with his practice published for a short time the " Homoe- 
opathic Advocate and Guide to Health." Dr. William B. Chamberlain located 
at Keene in 1854. remaining there until 1863, when he went to Fitchburg, 
Mass. He was followed by Dr. Henrv H. Darling, and later by Dr. G. W. 
Flagg. In 1855 Dr. James Chester Freeland entered into partnership with 
Dr. Chamberlain in Keene. Dr. Joseph C. Baker practiced there in 1857. 
Drs. Francis Brick, J. H. Darling, Frank D. Worcester and John F. Jenni- 
son are also to be mentioned among the homoeopathic physicians of Keene. 
Dr. Richter located at Portsmouth in 1850, and Dr. J. S. Donaldson in 

In 1857 Drs. Richter, Parant and Parrv were there. Drs. F. L. Bene- 
dict, H. F. Clark, S. J. Donaldson, R. C. Grant, F. L. Snell. Tristram Rogers, 
have also practiced in Portsmouth. 

Homoeopathv was introduced into Peterboro by Mr. Seavev, a layman. 
In 1867 Dr. Oliver Leech Bradford settled there, remaining until 1875, when 
he went to Fitchburg, Mass., where he is still located. He was followed in 



Peterboro by Dr. Levi Dodge, who remained until 1873 ^ind then went to 
Fall River, Mass. Drs. Harry M. Morse, Mary T. Kimball, F. A. Hodgdon 
and Mrs. M. INIarcy have been located there. 

In 1856 Dr. David D. Moore was in practice at Lake Village, Belknap 
county. Drs. J. Clifford Moore and Thomas M. Sanborn also have practiced 

In Dover the first homoeopathic practitioner was Dr. A. W. Pike. He 
was succeeded in 1853 by Dr. E. AI. Jones, who remained until September, 
1854, and then went to Alassachusetts. His place was filled by Dr. Jerome 
Harris. Dr. Harris graduated from Bowdoin College in 1830, practiced allo- 
pathy until 1845 s"d then adopted homoeopathy. In 1856 he went to New- 
buryport, Mass., exchanging places with Dr. William E. Thompson. Dr. 
Thompson remained at Dover until 1865, when he went to Augusta, Me. He 
was succeeded by Dr. J. W. Drake. In 1854 Dr. C. H. Horsch located in 
Dover. Drs. Eugene B. Cushing, Jason W. Drake, Florelia Estes, George R. 
Smith, J. Nelson Ricardo, N. M. Payne and Mary E. Nutter have also prac- 
ticed in Dover. 

In Wilton Dr. Israel Herrick visited patients previous to 1854. In that year 
Dr. William A. Jones, a graduate of the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege, located there. Dr. A. Herrick also introduced homoeopathy into Milford. Dr. 
O. O. Roberts was the first resident physician in that town, having located 
there in 1854. A few years later removed to Northampton, Mass., and was 
succeeded in Milford by Dr. H, J. M. Cate. Other and later practitioners 
in Milford have been Drs. ^larston. L. W. Wilkins, W^ H. W. Hinds, J. W. 
Finerty, ^Irs. Marv A. Lull and W. H. W. Hinds, Jr. 

As early as 1855 Dr. L. T. Weeks settled at Canterbury. In 1856 Dr. 
Albert Lindsay settled in Laconia. Dr. Levi Judson Pierce, a graduate in 
i860 of the Homoeopathic ]\Iedical College of Pennsylvania, located in Ant- 
rim and practiced there until his death in 1863. Dr. J. Morris Christie has 
for many years been in practice in Antrim. He became a convert from the 
allopathic school in 1863. In 1868 Dr. Edwin A. Knight, a graduate of the 
New York Homoeopathic Aledical College, settled for practice in Lebanon, 
having removed there from Boston, Mass. 

Homoeopathic physicians in New Hampshire between the years 1839 and 
i860. The date preceding the name indicates the year the physician began 
the practice of homoeopathy. The character * indicates that the practitioner 
originally was of some other school ; the character x indicates that the physi- 
cian practiced medicine before the date given. 

1839 Atwood, Moses, Francestown 

1845 Atwood, Aaron H. * Manchester 

1856 Baker, Joseph C. Concord 
1851 Cate, H. J. M. Milford 

1846 Colby, Isaac * Concord 

1857 Colby, E. L. X Claremont 
1854 Chamberlain, Wm. B. Keene 
1857 Chapman, F. D. x Haverhill 
1854 Chase, Israel P. Manchester 

1857 Colcord, A. D. x Sutton 

1847 Custer, Emil Manchester 

1858 Cummings, E. P. Exeter 
1857 Flanders, T. x Durham 

1848 Freeland, James C. * Keene 

1857 Foster, P. A. x Shaker Village 

1844 Frank, Augustus Concord 

1847 Gambell, Willard P. Francestown 

i860 Gallinger, Jacob H. * Concord 

1845 Harris, Jerome * Dover 

1844 Herrick. Israel * Lyndeborough 

1854 Horsch, C. H. Dover 

1855 Horton. Freeman * Weare 
1854 Jones, William A. Wilton 
1853 Jones, E. M. Dover 

.... Jenness, E. Rochester 

1856 Lindsay, Albert Laconia 

1857 Le Bosquet, John x Greenfield 
1843 Morrill, Alpheus * Concord 



I8S5 Moore, D. R. Lake Village 1S54 

i860 Moulton, Andrew J. Francestown 1850 

1854 Oehme, F. G. * Concord 1856 

1849 Parker, Henry C. Bedford 1857 
1843 Peterson, James * Weare 1847 
1857 Perry, — x Portsmouth 1855 
1857 Parant, — x Portsmouth 1843 
1857 Patterson, D. Groton 1850 

1850 Pike, A. W. Dover 1850 
i860 Pierce, Levi Judson Antrim 

Roberts, Osmore O. Milford 
Richter, E. Portsmouth 
Thompson, William E. Dover 
Volkes, — X Claremont 
Walker, Charles H. Manchester 
Weeks, Lorain T. * Canterbury 
Whittle, Joshua F. Nashua 
Woodbury, Oliver A. Nashua 
White, D. Keene 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Dr. Isaac Coe, the Pioneer of HonKieopathy in Indiana, was Hull's Converted Allopath 
— Outspreading of the Practice in the State— The State and Other Homoeopathic 
Medical Societies — Recollections of Early Practitioners — A Table of Converts. 

Well authenticated records state that homoeopathy first found its way 
into Indiana in 1840 through the medium of one Dr. Isaac Coe, a physician 
of the allopathic school and a convert to homoeopathy through the offices of 
that noble old defender of the faith, A. Gerald Hull of New York city. Hull 
always was known by his works, and a careful analysis of homoeopathic his- 
tory in the eastern states will reveal in some manner the immediate associa- 
tion of his name with that of the earliest exemplars of the new doctrine. Hull 
treated Co» for a bodily ailment, and cured him, which so impressed the 
learned allopath that he readily listened to Hull's instructions on the sub- 
ject of homoeopathic materia medica and the basic principles of the doctrine 
of Hahnemann ; and listening, he was convinced — Hull was an able teacher 
— and freely accepted its teachings and just as freely put them to use in his 
subsequent professional career. 

Thus through Dr. Isaac Coe homoeopathy first found lodgment in In- 
diana in 1840, but a fair measure of the honor usually accorded to pioneer- 
ship in such cases, belongs to Dr. L. H. Van Buren, who practiced in partner- 
ship with Coe* for several years in Indianapolis, from which point homoeopathy 
always has radiated in this state. History gives at best a poor account of the 
life and professional career of the pioneer after his removal from Indiana, 
He is said to have settled in Kentucky, as did his partner, Van Buren, who 
was afterward a conspicuous figure in homoeopathic circles in Louisville, a 
famous seat of medical learning half a century ago, as it is even to this day. 

The development of homoeopathy in Indiana was not slow and was in 
keeping with the growth of the system in other states, but in later years the 
outspreading of the doctrine was more rapid than in many other of the states, 
while its practitioners increased and multiplied several fold within the brief 
space of half a century, and that notwithstanding the fact that Indiana never 
could lay claim to a school of homoeopathic medical instruction within her 
own borders. But in Indiana the standard of education in general is higher 
than in any other state in the union, and that fact alone in part accounts for 
the increase in homoeopathic popularity in the state during the last fifty years. 

In 1857 there were twenty-one homoeopathic practitioners in the state, 
and in 1870 the number had increased to eighty-four. Ten years later there 
were one hundred and fifty-eight; in 1890 two hundred and twenty-eight, and 
in 1904 there were three hundred and eight. A table appended to this chap- 
ter will show the names of the homoeopathic practitioners in the state between 



the years 1840 and i860, almost all of whom were converts from the allo- 
pathic school, with a few from other schools. 

As early as 1867, when the number of homoeopathic -practitioners in the 
state was less than seventy-five, a movement was made among them to organ- 
ize a state medical society. This was the result of the influence of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Homoeopathy upon and with the profession in general, for 
it always has been one of the cardinal principles of the mother institution to 
foster permanent organization as a means of attaining the best results in the 
world of homoeopathic medicine and surgery. From this it must not be in- 
ferred that the institute was directly instrumental in the creation of the state 
societv, for at least four or five years before the organization was accom- 

Oliver P. Baer, M. D. 

plished the scattered homoeopaths of the state had discussed the subject among 
themselves and were only awaiting opportunity to assemble their strength for 
that purpose. The result of their endeavors' was the ^ state medical society, 
to which a brief allusion in "this chapter is appropriate. 

On May 23, 1867, a number of homceopathic physicians met in the senate 
chamber in the state house in Indianapolis and organized the Indiana Homoe- 
opathic Institute, with officers as follows: Dr. O. V. Baer, president; G. T. 
Parker and P. M. Leonard, vice-presidents; J. T. P>oyd, recording secretary; 
N. G. Burnham. corresponding secretary; W. Eggert. J. T. Boyd, G. H. 
.Stockham, A. 1. Cnmpton. M. H. Waters, censors. On May 11, 1870, the so- 


ciety was reorganized under the name of Indiana Institute of Homceopathy, 
which it still bears, and under which it was incorporated in 1882. Its meet- 
ings are held semi-annually in Indianapolis. Proceedings were issued in 1867 
and 1870. The membership at the present time is about one hundred and 
fifty physicians. 

The .Marion County Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized at In- 
dianapolis on December 10, 1871, but was not incorporated. Its meetings 
were held semi-annually until 1881, when the society passed out of existence. 

The Northern Indiana Homoeopathic Institute, otherwise known as the 
Northwestern Indiana Society, was organized at Elkhart, February i, 1876, 
and enjoyed a brief career of varied interests until about 1882, when it was 
dissolved, not having published its transactions and leaving only a meagre 
record history. 

The Terre Haute Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized at Terre 
Haute in 1882. 

The Wayne County Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized at 
Richmond on September 16, 1884, and was discontinued in 1888. 

The Hahnemann Club of Terre Haute was organized in 1889, and was 
a social organization devoted chiefly to the interesting study of Hahnemann's 

The Indianapolis Homoeopathic Institute was organized November 25, 
1889, flourished for several years, then became decadent, without entirely 
losing its identity. 

The Homoeopathic Medical Society of Northern Indiana and Southern 
Michigan was organized at Elkhart, September 22, 1891. It meets semi-an- 
nually, is migratory in its assemblages and publishes reports, although not hav- 
ing a journal of its own. 

Having thus referred to the planting and early growth of homoeopathy 
and the organization of some of the more important of its institutions in the 
state, we mav now with" propriety turn to the record of those who were a part 
of the history of the period under consideration, leaving to subsequent chap- 
ters of the present work to record something of the lives and works of those 
who came upon the field of action at a later period. 


As has been stated the pioneer of homoeopathy in Indiana was Dr. Isaac 
Coe, whose immediate follower was Van Buren, his partner. In 1855 Dr. 
Shard, of whom little is known, settled in Indianapolis, and was followed soon 
afterward by Dr. Augustus S. Wright, a graduate in 1850 of the Homoe- 
opathic Medical College of Pennsylvania. He afterward removed to Nebras- 
ka and is said to have been the pioneer of homoeopathy in that state. In 
1874 he went to California. 

Dr. C. T. Corliss located in Indianapolis in 1856, and Dr. James Thomas 
Boyd in 1859. Dr. Boyd was a graduate of Starling Medical College in 1850, 
Tind practiced allopathy until 1857, when his attention was called to homoe- 
opathy through a newspaper controversy between physicians of the opposing 
schools. One of Boyd's articles was so pleasing to his medical friends that 
he was urged to carefully investigate homoeopathy that he might more efifect- 
ually revile and ridicule it; but his investigations were the means of his un- 
doing, and the more he studied the doctrine of Hahnemann the more con- 


vinced was he of its truth, until at last he became a convert and afterward 
one of the best exemplars of homoeopathy in the city, a practitioner, a teacher, 
lecturer, surgeon in the army during the war of 1861-1865, and afterward 
for a time a professor in one of the homceopathic medical colleges of St. Louis. 
Dr. Boyd was a native of Albany, N. Y., born April 23, 1823, but the chronol- 
ogy of later events of his life is meagre. 

Dr. N. G. Burnham located in Indianapolis in 1862 and Dr. William A. 
Eggert in 1863. Dr. Burnham was a graduate in 1855 ^^ the Western Col- 
lege of Homoeopathic Medicine in Cleveland. Dr. Eggert was a graduate 
of Berlin University, and in 1863 of the New York Homceopathic Medical 
College. He had practiced in Ottawa, Canada, and in other places as an allo- 
pathic physician, but had become a homoeopath in 1859. Drs. Burnham and 
Eggert were partners and succeeded in building up a lucrative practice. In 
1857 Drs. K. Hornberg, G. W. Shaw and A. S. Wright were located in 
Indianapolis. In 1869 Drs. J. T. Boyd, N. G. Burnham, C. T. Corliss, Will- 
iam Eggert, K. Hornburg and T. P. Tisdale were in practice there. In 1877 
there were Drs. A. A. Allen, T. E. Allen, R. S. Brigham, J. T. Boyd, J. A. 
Compton, C. T. Corliss, W. Eggert, David Haggart, J. R. Havnes, S. D. Jones, 
J. W. Mitchell, G. W. Biddle, Moses T. Runnels, O. S. Runnels, Mrs. H. J. 
Sprague, E. E. Williams and Charles S. Wymond. There were fourteen homoe- 
opathic physicians in Indianapolis in 1890, and thirty in 1904. 

, As early as 1847 homoeopathy gained a foothold in Wayne county, being 
mtroduced into Richmond by James Austin, Esq., of Philadelphia and later 
of Cincinnati. He did not claim to be a physician but made use of an adver- 
tisement after this style : " Diseases treated here according to Samuel Hahne- 

In 1848 Dr. C. W. Steemm located in Richmond, remained during the 
cholera epidemic of 1849, ^"^ afterward went to Ohio. 

The next homoeopath in Richmond was Dr. Oliver Perry Baer who set- 
tled there September 3, 1849. He was born in Frederick City, Md., August 
25, 1816, and educated in Ohio, taking the degree of doctor of medicine in 
Louisville in 1841. The following letter written by Dr. Baer in 1867 tells 
the story of early homoeopathy in Richmond : " Took the degree of A. M. in 
1838, the degree of M. D. in 1841 (Allop). Practiced allopathy ten years. 
Became a convert to homoeopathy in 1848. moved to Richmond, Ind., in 1849, 
where I found Drs. Steemm and Austin both trying to do something in the 
Hahnemannian system, but not at all to their satisfaction, or that of their em- 
ployers, as they rarely prescribed even in acute cases oftener than once in forty 
days. They advised me not to stay, stating for. reasons that the people could 
not appreciate homoeopathy, that it would not pay five dollars per annum. I 
thought these not sufficient reasons for leaving so important a point unrep- 
resented by our art. I located by purchasing property and going at once to 
work to build up a homoeopathic practice. I used the thirtieth dilutions en- 
tirely, and succeeded far beyond my most sanguine expectations. My first 
year's practice amounted to over one thousand dollars, with a steady increase 
until in four years I found it necessary to add a second physician, and accord- 
ingly Dr. Minier came, but being timid to fight his way among so many allo- 
paths, he in a few months left for Rock Island, 111., and Dr. Cuscaden took 
his place. He after some two years' commendable practice moved to Lebanon, 
Ohio, where after some three years of practice he contracted consumption and 


died. And about eleven 3'ears ago Dr. Joseph Garrettson came here from 
Richmond, Ohio, and soon acquired a good Hving practice. In 1865 he went 
to Cincinnati. Dr. T. H. Davis next came here about nine years ago, and is 
still here. Dr. S. D. Jones came here two years ago, has a good practice. He 
was formerly an eclectic and hydropath, and once had a water cure. About 
one year ago Miss Dr. Eliza Knowles, graduate of New York, came and is 
doing pretty well, is of good mind, and I believe thoroughly competent to prac- 
tice with any of our craft. About six months ago Dr. George Swan came. 
We have now five homoeopaths and homoeopathy has gradually gained in the 
community until we have a decided ascendency. Our whole county is now so 
strongly in favor of our system that the old school men are rampant with rage 

George W. Bowen, M D. 

to have laws passed to prohibit the spread of homoeopathy. Being of the old 
school though not with the old school, I last winter thought it prudent to more 
perfectly identify mvself with the true system of healing by taking anew the 
degree of M. D. in Philadelphia." 

Dr. Baer may be called the father of homoeopathy in Indiana. His death 
occurred at Richmond, August 10, 1888. In 1870 Drs. Baer, F. H. Davis, 
S. D. Jones, G. E. Swan were in Richmond. Drs. John Emmons, M. M. Hamp- 
ton, Joseph Howells, E. G. McDevitt, I. C. Teague and J. T. Teague also 
have been in practice there. At present the homoeopathic physicians there 
are Drs. Joseph M. Bulla, T. H. Davis, Frank H. Dunham, Elmer B. Gros- 


venor, Minnie E. Hervey, Donald B. Holloway and William W. Zimmerman. 

Dr. Potter located at Cambridge in 1862, remained there a short time and 
went to Terre Haute. Dr. William Carnahan succeeded him, but in 1875 went 
to Hamilton, Ohio. Dr. Jacob H. Borger, a student of Dr. Carnahan, took 
Carnahan's practice. Drs. Steddom and Wright have practiced there. 

The homoeopathic practitioners in Indiana in 1857 were as follows : 
Aurora. Dr. Schmidt ; Bristol, Dr. L. Dornbergh ; Deep River, Dr. Martin ; 
Evansville, Dr. E. J. Ehrmann; Fort Wayne, Drs. G. W. Bowen, T. H. 
Gotsch; Indianapolis, Drs. K. Hornberg, G. W. Shaw, A. S. Wright; Lafay- 
ette, Dr. J- Weaver; Laporte, Drs. G. S. Hill, Karr and Plympton; Madi- 
son, Drs. Ennis and J. B. Hutchinson ; New Albany, Dr. G. D. Stewart ; New 
Harmony, Dr. D. O. Owen; Richmond, Dr. O. P. Baer; South Bend, Dr. N. 
Miller; Terre Haute, Dr. I. Potter. 

Fort Wayne had a homoeopathic practitioner in 1847, ^^ the person of 
Dr. Collins. Dr. P. W. Leonard settled there in 185 1 and Dr. George W. 
Bowen in 1852. Dr. Leonard practiced there for many years. Dr. Bowen 
graduated from a homoeopathic college in Cleveland in 1852, having been a 
student of Dr. D. S. Smith of Chicago. He has long been a well known expo- 
nent of homoeopathy in Wayne county, and is still in practice in Fort Wayne. 

In 1857 I^rs. Bowen and Gotsch had the field. In 1869 Drs. Bowen, John 
Frietzsche and P. W. Leonard were there, and in 1877 Drs. M. F. Green, H. 
Myers and A. C. Williams had joined them. Drs. M. F. Green, Ella 
F. Harris, Christian Martz, Henry G. Merz, Arthur L. Mikesell, George A. 
Ross, John A. Stutz, A. L. Wilson, Carina B. Banning, Edmund P. Banning, 
Isaac E. Morris, George A. Ross and S. F. Sutton are also to be mentioned 
among those who have practiced at Fort Wayne. 

In 1865 Dr. Chase located in Muncie. In 1867 Dr. J, A. Compton, a 
graduate of Cleveland homoeopathic college, settled there, and removed to In- 
dianapolis in 1873. Dr. E. Beckwith located in Muncie in 1873. Drs. Casper 
L. Bacon, Harry H. Baker, William A. Egbert, Seth G. Hastings, John S. 
Martin, Arthur J. Phinney, J. Edward Wallace, Emma A. Whitney, William 
D. Whitney, A. H. Hastings and W. Owen have practiced there. 

The father of homoeopathy in Floyd county was Dr. David G. Stewart, 
who began practice in New Albany, July i, 1843. Dr. Stewart said: " I be- 
gan to practice medicine in the year 1824. I passed an examination by a legal 
medical board of the medical society at Vincennes, Knox county, Indiana, in 
1831, and received a diploma. The Western Homoeopathic College of Medicine 
conferred on me an honorary degree at Cleveland, in 185 1." 

There were several homoeopathic physicians located in New Albany be- 
tween 1843 and 1846, but none permanently. In 1856 Dr. Theodore Meurer 
settled and remained there. In 1868 Dr. William L. Breyfogle located there 
but after two vears went to Louisville, Kv. In t868 Dr. L. W. Carpenter, and 
in 1875 Dr. A. McNeill located in New Albany. Drs. W. F. LeFavre, R. S. 
Brigham, John H. Bxiklwin. G. Oscar Erni. Louis D. Levi. H. J. Needham, 
Carrie M. Reis and Edwin A. Sevringhaus also practiced there. 

In Clark county Dr. H. N. Holland introduced homoeopathy into Jeflfer- 
sonville in 1855. Dr. Holland had been practicing allopathy since 1849, but 
in 1855 investigated the claims of the new medical method and adopted it. 
He was born in Chemung, N. Y., November 10. 1807; studied at the Eclectic 
Medical Institute of Cincinnati ; commenced the practice of medicine in Scott 


county, Indiana, in 1837; removed to Jeffersonville in 1848, and the next year 
graduated from the Louisville Medical College. Drs. J. H. Holland (son of 
N. H. Holland), J. Loomis, Sarah C. Jackson, George W. Lampton, Solomon 
H. Secoy and John H. Baldwin have also been in practice in Clark county. 

Homoeopathy was introduced into Wabash county in 1859 by Dr. Thomas 
C. Hunter, formerly of Ohio, who practiced in Wabash one year and then re- 
turned to Ohio. After that for a time there was no homoeopathic physician in 
Wabash. One Dr. Jones conducted a water cure establishment a mile from 
there, in which the medication was homoeopathic. In 1865 Dr. Jeremiah W. 
Stewart, who had been a student of Dr. Hunter and who had been in practice 
in Henry county, Ohio, returned to Wabash and commenced practice. In 
1869, while there were in Wabash county about twenty-five allopaths, there 
were but two homoeopaths, Drs. Stewart and Dedrich. 

Dr. C. E. Rutherford was the pioneer in Peru. Miami county, about 1862, 
Dr. Moses H. Waters, a graduate from the New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College, commenced practice in Peru about 1865. In 1868 he located at Terre 

Dr. Freese was the first to practice homoeopathy in Warsaw, Kosciusko 
county, locating there about 1854 or 1855. Dr. Seizer practiced there about 
1866-68. Drs. Saunders and Ramsey practiced in Logansport, Cass county, 
commencing in 1861 or 1862. 

Homoeopathy was introduced into Evansville, Vanderburg county, by a 
German Methodist minister whose name was Barenburgh. He was followed 
by Dr. Ernest J. Ehrmann, who was born in Germany in 1819. His father was 
a' physician who followed the allopathic practice many years. He came to 
America in 1823, locating in York county, Pa., being the first to introduce 
homoeopathy into that county. Young Ehrmann studied with his father five 
years and in 1844 located for practice in Liverpool, York county. In 185 1 
he attended a course of lectures at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Penn- 
sylvania, in Philadelphia, and then removed to Reitzville, introducing homoe- 
opathv there. In 1852 he went to Evansville, Ind., where he established a good 
practice. In 1865 Dr. L. S. Herr located in Evansville. In 1866 Dr. Field- 
ing L. Davis located there. In 1868 Dr. R. H. McFarland went there from 
Paducah, Ky. About i860 Dr. Theodore Shultz established himself in Evans- 
ville. His practice was largely among the German population. 

The following letter written by Dr. R. H. Sears was pubHshed in the 
July, 1851, number of the Cincinnati "Journal of Homoeopathy." 

" Point Commerce, Ind., June 16, 185 1. 

" Gentlemen : I practiced medicine for four years on the old system. 
I attended lectures at St. Louis, Mo., and left college filled with prejudice, 
not only against homoeopathy, but everything liberal. I took the ipse dixit 
of the professors as law in the premises, that homoeopathy was a humbug 
and nothing else. Consequently I did not investigate it for myself but plodded 
my way amidst the mazes of allopathic darkness for four years. At length, 
becoming disgusted with the uncertainty of such means for the relief^ of 
suffering humanity, I pondered in my mind whether, after all, my sapient 
professors might not be mistaken ; whether there might not be a better sys- 
tem than the"' old,' 'regular,' 'legitimate' system; whether, indeed, homoe- 
opathv was not the system. 

"When I saw a homoeopathic chair announced in the Eclectic school I 



determined to attend and hear for myself what these two systems had to 
offer. The result was that I became a convert to homoeopathy and have 
practiced it with the most gratifying success." 

As early as 1851 Dr. James B. Hutchinson settled in Madison, Jeffer- 
son county. He had graduated from the Jefferson Medical College of Phila- 
delphia in 1837, and located in Cincinnati. In 1846 he investigated and 
adopted homoeopathy, and began its practice. Dr. Alice B. Stockham began 
the practice of homoeopathy at Lafayette, Tippecanoe county, in 1856. She 
was a graduate from the Cincinnati Eclectic Medical College in 1854. Her 
husband, Dr. G. H. Stockham, also practiced in Lafayette. In 1869 they 
removed to Leavenworth, Kansas. 

Physicians who practiced homoeopathy in Indiana between the years 
1840 and i860. The character * indicates that the practitioner was a con- 
vert to homoeopathy. The character x indicates that practice was begun be- 
fore the year noted. 

1847 Austin, James Richmond 1857 

1848 Baer, Oliver P. * Richmond 185 1 
1855 Burnham, N. G. Indianapolis 1856 

1852 Bowen, George W. Fort Wayne 1857 

1857 Bovd, James T. * Indianapolis 1854 
.... Briice, J. E. 1857 
1847 CoUms, Dr. FortWayne 1857 
1840 Coe, Isaac * Indianapolis 1857 

1858 Corliss, C. T. Indianapolis 1857 

1853 Cuscaden, Dr. Richmond 1862 
1855 Davis, T. H. Richmond 1857 
1857 Dornbergh, L. x Bristol 1850 
1857 Ennis, Dr. x Madison _ 1856 
1852 Ehrmann, Ernest J. Evansville 1857 

1859 Eggert, Wm. A. * Indianapolis 1843 
1840 Frietzsche, John Fort Wayne 1843 

1854 Freese, Dr. Warsaw 1848 
1859 Garrettson, Joseph Richmond 1850 
1857 Gotsch, T. H. X Fort Wayne 1856 

1855 Holland, H. N. * Jefifersonville 1847 
1857 Hornberg, K. Indianapolis 1850 
1857 Hill, G. S. X Laporte 1857 
1859 Hunter, Thomas C. Wabash 1857 
1846 Hutchinson, J. B. * Madison 

Karr, — x Laporte 
Leonard, P. W. Fort Wayne 
Meurer, Theodore New Albany 
Martin, Dr. x Deep River 
Minier, Dr. Richmond 
Miller, N. x South Bend 
Owen, D. O. x New Harmony 
Plympton, Dr. x Laporte 
Potter, L. X Cambridge 
Rutherford, C. E. Peru 
Schmidt, — x Aurora 
Sears, R. H. * Point Commerce 
Shard, — Indianapolis 
Shaw, G. W. X Indianapolis 
Stewart, Jeremiah W. Wabash 
Stewart, D. G. * New Albany 
Steemm, C. W. Richmond 
Stockham, G- H. * Lafayette 
Stockham, Alice B. * Lafayette 
Van Buren, Dr. Indianapolis 
Wright, A. S. Indianapolis 
Weaver, J. x Lafayette 
Weaver, Dr. x Lafayette 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Early Homoeopathy in the Pine Tree State — Characteristics of the Early Practitioners — 
The State and Other Medical Societies — Sandicky, the Itinerant Homoeopath — 
His Converts and Followers — List of Early Practitioners. 

In the year 1840 homoeopathy was introduced in three states : Indiana, 
New Hampshire and Maine, and while in New Hampshire the medical de- 
partment of Dartmouth College and in Maine the Bowdoin Medical School 
were respectively situated, in each of these states the growth of the new sys- 
tem was exceedingly rapid. In the ten years from 1840 to 1850 homoeopathy 
was planted in the towns of Bath, Portland, Belfast, Bangor, Brooks, Vas- 
salboro. Auburn, China, Augusta, Gardiner and Kennebunkport, and the men 
who became its best exemplars and most able defenders had been practitioners 
of the old school. Maine was represented at the first meeting of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Homoeopathy in 1844 by Drs. Albus Rea, Eliphalet Clark and 
John Merrill of Portland, and they were appointed to perform the duty of 
censors of one of the six boards created by the institute ^or the examination 
of candidates for membership. 

During the first ten years of life of homoeopathy in the state, the in- 
crease in the number of its practitioners was remarkable, especially when we 
consider the comparatively undeveloped condition of the homoeopathic sys- 
tem at that time, and the further fact that it had no school of medical instruc- 
tion in the country. Again, nearly all these old pioneers in the state had 
been converted from the allopathic school, and few indeed of them were in- 
duced to take up the new practice until its merits had been fully tested and 
proved. As in New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and other states, the meth- 
ods of medical treatment during the cholera epidemic of 1849 brought homoe- 
opathy into prominent view in Maine, and its practitioners there as elsewhere 
were able to report far better results in the use of attenuated medicines than 
could be shown by the allopaths with their so-called " heroic doses." This 
difference was particularly noticeable in Bangor and that vicinity, where 
the ravages of the disease were very severe. Again, during the series of 
epidemics of diphtheria which ravaged the state about i860 the homoeopathic 
physicians scored signal success over their less modest brethren of the old 
school in the treatment of those afflicted with that disease. As was the suc- 
cess then, so was it afterward, and so it is even at the present day. 

An idea of the growth of homoeopathy in the state may be obtained in 
the statement that in 1850 there were twenty of its practitioners in Maine, 
and in i860 the number had increased to thirty-five; in 1870 to forty-five; in 
1880 to seventy-five; in 1890 to one hundred; and in the year 1904 there 
were in practice in the state ninety-five homoeopathic physicians and surgeons. 




As early as 1866 the homceopathic physicians hving in the valley of the 
Kennebec river formed the Central Homoeopathic Medical Association of 
Maine, the meetings of which were held quarterly in different towns. It 
is said that this society was the result of a conversation between Drs. Bell 
and Thompson of Augusta. Soon afterward a call was issued and on Aug- 
ust 22. 1866, the society was organized in Augusta, with officers as follows: 
Dr. William E. Payne of Bath, president; Dr. Herbert C. Bradford of Lewis- 
town, vice-president; Dr. N. G. H. Pulsifer of Waterville, treasurer; Dr. 
James B. Bell of Augusta, secretary. After July 14, 1868, the society met 

Wm. E. Payne, M. D. 

semi-annually. Soon after the organization of the state society the older body 
lost its identity. 

The Maine Homoeopathic Medical Society was formed from the society 
just mentioned at a meeting held in Augusta, January 15, 1867, and was in- 
corporated May 23 following.' Its first officers were Dr. William E. Payne 
of Bath, president; Drs. C. H. Burr of Portland and Hosea B. Eaton of 
Rockport, vice-presidents; Dr. N. G. H. Pulsifer of Waterville, recording 
secretary; Dr. J. B. Bell of Augusta, corresponding secretary; Drs. Eliphalet 
Clark of Portland, George P. Jeffords of Bangor, Richmond Bradford of 
Auburn, Moses R. Pulsifer of Ellsworth and M. S. Briry of Bath, censors. 
This society is still in existence, and meets annually in June in different towns ; 
membership in 1903, sixty-six. Transactions have been published annually 


since 1887. The number for 1892 contains a complete history of homoe- 
opathy in Maine, being the president's address at the quarter-centennial cele- 
bration of the society's existence. 


The history of homoeopathy in Maine naturally belongs to what 
is conveniently termed the second epoch of homoeopathy in America. 
The first practitioner of the system in the state was Dr. D. F. 
Sandicky, a Polish physician who visited several towns, practicing in each a 
short time and not locating permanently. The honor of pioneership, however, 
is generally accorded to Dr. William E. Payne, who came to Bath in 1840 
and found Sandicky in practice there. In speaking of his intercourse with 
the itinerant, who really converted Dr. Payne to homoeopathy, the latter said : 
" I found him intelligent, and as the reserve from professional antagonism 
wore away our conversation turned to the subject of medicine. A concise 
presentation of homoeopathy showed that I had, through misrepresentation, 
misapprehended its principles ; and I felt a growing desire to know some- 
thing more of the system of which I had up to this time, entertained so mean 
an opinion. I therefore gladly accepted the doctor's proposition to loan me 
the Organon of Homoeopathic Medicine ; and well do I remember with what 
impatience I looked forward to an opportunity to read it. After the labors 
of the day were over, I retired to my sleeping apartment, locked the door, 
and sat down to its perusal. In running rapidly through the introductory 
chapter I became intensely interested ; for light was thrown upon certain in- 
cident? that had occurred in the course of my practice which I had in vain 
endeavoured to comprehend and explain. Here, I thought, is enunciated a 
principle, which, if true in practice will take the place of all the theorizings 
and speculations of the schools." Dr. Payne determined to take no man's 
word regarding the truth of Hahnemann's statements, but to test it care- 
fully, and as a result the i6th day of October, 1840, he made his first pre- 
scription in accordance with the law of similars. 

When Dr. Payne proclaimed himself a believer in homoeopathy he was 
ridiculed and m.isrepresented by his former colleagues, but he kept his pa- 
tients and afterward declared that the notoriety given the matter by his villi- 
fiers was of great benefit to the cause and to his practice. For twenty years 
after this he was the only homoeopathic practitioner in Bath. Dr. Sandicky, 
his teacher, remained but a few weeks in Bath, going from there to Port- 
land in the latter part of November, 1840. In 1856 Dr. Milton S. Briry, an 
allopath who had located in Bath the year before, became interested in homoe- 
pathy and placed himself under the instruction of Dr. Payne. After careful 
investigation he gave up his allopathic practice and became an earnest expo- 
nent of the new system in Bath, where he lived many years. 

Drs. Pavne and Briry held the field until 1868, when Dr. Payne's son, 
Dr. Fred W. Payne, a graduate from the Harvard Medical School and the 
Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania (also having spent some 
months in study abroad) entered into partnership with his father. In 1877 
the cause was strengthened in Bath by the advent of Dr. Levi S. Kimball, 
who had just graduated from the Boston University School of Medicine. 
Since that time Drs. E. P. Roche, James W. Savage, A. K. Gilmore, Percy 
W. Roberts, C. Frederick Curtis and Charles D, McDonald have also been 
practitioners in Bath. 



As has been stated, Dr. Sandicky in the latter part of 1840 removed 
from Bath to Portland. He was not long in that city before his earnest mis- 
sionary work brought forth results. Among the allopathic physicians there 
were three who had been for some time in practice and who held the esteem 
of the community, Drs. Eliphalet Clark, Albert Rea and John Merrill. They 
became interested in the medical propaganda of the wandering Sandicky and 
it was probably about the same time that they began the practice of homoe- 
opathy. This was in the year 1841. Dr. Payne says of this that he does not 
know who was the first to adopt the system, but that Dr. Merrill always 
claimed that honor. Dr. Payne writes : " In the winter of 1841 I first be- 
came cognizant of the fact that Drs. Clark and Merrill were engaged in the 

Eliphalet Clark, M. D. 

practice. In the latter part of thai winter I visited them in Portland, and 
in return was visited by Dr. Merrill at Bath. Meeting and taking by the 
hand a professional brother in these early days of homceopathy was an oc- 
casion of extreme pleasure. It was like meeting an old and long absent 

It is said that Dr. Rhea was converted by Dr. Clark, but it was the in- 
fluence of Dr. Sandicky that resulted in the introduction of the law of similia 
in the two widely separated towns of Bath and Portland. 

Another of the notable pioneers of Portland was Dr. Moses Dodge, an 
allopathic physician who while on a tour in search of a place to locate stopped 


for a few days at Portland. During this visit his son was taken sick with 
croup, and after vainly trying the regular remedies of which he knew, with- 
out any result, he was persuaded by friends to call in Dr. Clark and try 
homoeopathy. The effect was so marked that Dr. Dodge gave the matter a 
thorough investigation, and this induced him to remain in Portland and prac- 
tice under the new system. He became one of the leading physicians of that 
city and lived there the rest of his life. 

In 1848 Dr. Rufus Shackford located in Portland. He had graduated 
at Harvard Medical School in 1845, ^"<^ practiced for three years in Lowell, 

In 1850 Dr. James Merrill Cummings. who had been the preceptor of 
Dr. Shackford, after practicing in several towns in Massachusetts, was in- 
duced to settle in Portland. 

Dr. Charles Hartwell Burr opened a dental office in Portland in 1851, but 
in 1857 decided to study medicine. He graduated at the Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College of Pennsylvania in 1859, and in the same year he married the 
daughter of Dr. Rea. He became one of the notble practitioners of homoe- 
opathy in Maine. 

The following homoeopathic physicians have been at different periods prac- 
titioners in Portland : Drs. George A. Clark. R. L. Dodge, Silas E. Sylves- 
ter, Greenleaf P. Thompson, Mrs. Annie G. C. Ohler, John T. Palmer, M. 
C. Pingree, E. F. Vose, George P. Wesselhoeft, J. W. Whidden, Luther A. 
Brown, Francis D. Coleman, Rudolph L. Dodge, Leslie C. Jewell, and Samuel 

In the autumn of 1843 ^i"- Jo^i^i Payne, an allopath then residing tem- 
porarily at Northport, became interested in homoeopathy through the influence 
of Dr. William E. Payne. After making a trial of the remedies he went to 
Belfast in February, 1844, and renouncing the old practice which he had fol- 
lowed for fifteen years, devoted himself to the new method. He remained in 
Belfast until his death, October 8. 1857. His son. Dr. Lycurgus V. Payne, 
who died in 1853, was associated with him from 1846 to 1849. It was through 
the influence of Dr. John Payne that Dr. Jacob Roberts, of Brooks, another 
old school physician of many years' experience, was induced to adopt homoe- 
opathy. The successor of Dr. Payne at Belfast was Dr. David P. Flanders, 
who located there in 1858. Dr. J. A. Savage also practiced there. 

In 1843 Dr. Snell, of Bangor, sought to practice homoeopathy in that city 
with a domestic book and a box of medicines. In July, 1844, Dr. William 
Gallup removed from Concord, Mass., to Bangor, where he announced him- 
self a homoeopathic physician. While in practice in Concord in 1839 he met 
a lady who had been subject to severe attacks of enteralgia and had not been 
able to obtain relief from allopathic treatment. She told Dr. Gallup of the 
very satisfactory results experienced from the use of homoeopathic remedies 
and he was by this interview led to investigate the matter for himself. After 
some difflculty he obtained a few books, subscribed for the " Homoeopathic 
Examiner," then published in New York, secured a copy of the Organon and 
began to experiment in his treatment. He was soon converted, and after he 
located in Bangor he practiced nothing but the most rigid homoeopathy. From 
1844 to 1849 t)r. Gallup was the only practitioner of homoeopathy in Bangor, 
but in the spring of 1849 Dr. James H. Payne removed there from Mont- 
ville. Drs. Gallup and Payne remained alone in Bangor until the autumn of 
1854, when Dr. James H. P. Frost opened an office there, being followed in 


1855 by Dr. George Kellogg, who removed two years later to New York state. 

In December, i860, Dr. George P. Jefiferds took the place of Dr. Payne. 
He had previously been located at Kennebunkport, where he had been prac- 
ticing homoeopathy since 1850. His attention had been drawn to that system 
by Dr. Hoffendahl of Boston. In 1865 Dr. Frost went to Philadelphia and 
was succeeded in Bangor by Dr. John M. Blaisdell. Dr. Herbert C. Brad- 
ford also practiced in Bangor for a short time about 1857. Dr. John M. 
Prilay went there in 1885, having graduated from Hahnemann Medical Col- 
lege of Philadelphia the same year; Dr. Henry Clark Jefiferds graduated from 
the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia in 1885 and located in 
Bangor, where he remained until 1889, when he went to Oregon. Dr. Will- 
iam F. Shepard settled there in 1875. Dr. William E. Fellows went there 
in 1890. In 1899 Dr. Byron D. Spencer was located in Bangor. 

In 1844 Dr. Jacob Roberts, of Brooks, who had been engaged in allo- 
pathic practice for forty years, became a convert to homoeopathy. His grand- 
son, F. A. Roberts (then a child but afterward a homoeopathic physician), 
was suffering from whooping cough. Dr. Roberts had tried in vain to aid 
his afflicted grandson. At last he went to Dr. Payne and told him about the 
case and within twenty-four hours after Dr. Payne's homoeopathic pre- 
scription the child was better. After this Dr. Roberts investigated homoe- 
opathy and in 1846 removed to Vassalboro, introducing the system in that 
town. He remained there until liis death in March, 1856. Dr. Roberts v/as 
born in Brookfield, Maine, in 1784. 

Dr. J. H. Barrows was an early practitioner of homoeopathy in Vassal- 
boro, where he remained until 1865. Later on he went to Gardiner, a few 
miles away, and resided there until his death, June 20, 1870. Dr. Rufus R. 
Williams in 1858 introduced homoeopathy in Clinton, where he remained un- 
til 1863, and then went to North Vassalboro. Later he removed to Gardiner, 
practicing there until 1875, when illness compelled him to seek a southern 
climate. He died in Malvern, Arkansas, March 25, 1875. 

Dr. Francis A. Roberts commenced practice in China in February, 1861. 
The next year he went to Vassalboro and took up the study of homceopathy 
with Dr. Barrows. In September of the same year he returned to China, 
where he practiced until 1865 and then located in North Vassalboro, taking 
Dr. Barrows' practice while the latter went to Gardiner. In 1883 Dr. Rob- 
erts removed to Watervillc, where he remained until his death. May 26. 1892. 

Drs. J. Donnell Young, Thomas M. Dillingham, Gertrude E. Heath, 
Huldah McA. Potter and Alanson T. Schuman have practiced in Gardiner. 
Drs. Daniel C. Perkins, M. K. Dwinell and Ralph H. Pulsifer have practiced 
in Vassalboro. 

In 1845 an important addition was made to the ranks of homoeopathy by 
the conversion of Dr. Richmond Bradford of Auburn. He was a member 
of the Bowdoin " banner class " of 1825, among whose members were Long- 
fellow, Hawthorne, John S. C. Abbott, George B. Chcever and Jonathan Cil- 
ley. He graduated in medicine from the Maine Medical School in 1829. 
After practicing allopathy for fifteen years he became a convert to homoe- 
opathy, abandoning the old practice in September, 1845. He attended a 
course of lectures at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania and 
returned to Maine to practice. He influenced many to believe in homoeopathy, 
including an old allopathic medical friend. Dr. Calvin Gorham, and was a 
power for the principles (if Hahnemann in that part of the state for many 



years. He was identified with the history of homoeopathy in Auburn and 
the neighboring city of Lewiston. He died December 21, 1874, and was 
succeeded by his son, Dr. Herbert C. Bradford, who studied with his father, 
graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1856, 
and then located in Lewiston. 

Drs. David N. Skinner, Mary W. Bates Stevens, Ward J. Renwick and 
Alfred Sails have practiced in Auburn. In Lewiston Drs. Robert L. Dana, 
W. S. Howe, H. N. Parker, N. E. Parker, Aurelia Springer, Arthur D. Bow- 
man and Austin L. Harvey have been located and in practice. 

In 1847 or 1848, at the suggestion of Dr. Jonathan Roberts, Dr. Will- 
iam B. Chamberlain introduced homoeopathy to the people of China. He re- 

James H. Payne, M. D. 

mained there, however, only a short time. He was a graduate of the Western 
College of Homoeopathic Medicine in 1854. 

Dr. Green introduced homoeopathy m Augusta in 1847, but the first real 
practitioner there was Dr. Shadrach M. Cate, who located in that city in 1850. 
He had graduated from the Western College of HomcEopathic Medicine in 
Cleveland in 185 1. He remained in Augusta until i860, when he went to 
Salem, Mass. His place was taken by Dr. Danforth Whiting, who for sev- 
eral years previously had been associated with him. In 1865 Dr. William 
L. Thompson took the practice of Dr. Whiting. In 1861 Dr. James Batch- 
elder Bell located at Augusta and remained there until 1880, when he went 


to Boston. Dr. Bell made for himself in Maine a most enviable reputation 
as a surgeon and careful prescriber. 

In 1874 Dr. Thomas M. Dillingham went to Augusta, remaining there 
for five years in partnership with Dr. Bell. In 1882 Dr. Nancy T. Will- 
iams settled in Augusta. To Dr. Williams is due the honor of having been 
the largest single contributor to the Hahnemann monument in Washington, 
D. C, her gifts for that purpose amounting to $4,510. At present the homoe- 
opathic field in Augusta is occupied by Drs. W. Scott Hall and William S. 

Homoeopathy was introduced in Gardiner by Dr. W. F. Jackson in April, 
1849. Previous to that time a clergyman named Howard had practiced as 
far back as 1843. About 1853 Dr. Jackson went to Roxbury, Mass., and 
Dr. F. N. Palmer succeeded him. Dr. George P. Jefferds introduced homoe- 
opathy in Kennebunkport in 1849, ^"d Dr. B. H. Batchelder located the same 
year at Montville. 

In 1850 Dr. Greenfield P. Thompson introduced homoeopathy in Yar- 
mouth, and Dr. Moses R. Pulsifer in Ellsworth, each of these physicians hav- 
mg previously been engaged in allopathic practice. In 1872 Dr. Olin M. 
Drake located in Ellsworth. Drs. Walter M. Haines, Atwater L. Douglass, 
James T. McDonald and Harry W. Osgood have practiced in Ellsworth. Dr. 
James C. Gannett located in Yarmouth in 1878. 

A Rev. Mr. Hill introduced the system in Winthrop. He was followed 
by Dr. F. N. Palmer, who soon went to Gardiner. In 1857 Dr. Charles A. 
Cochran located in Winthrop. In 1858 Dr. Mitchell went to Calais and later 
that field was occupied by Dr. D. E. Seymour, who went there in 1862. 

In 1862 Dr. Nathan G. H. Pulsifer introduced homoeopathy in Water- 
ville. In 1883 Dr. F. A. Roberts located there, and in 1887 Dr. W. M. Pulsi- 
fer was there for a short time. In 1887 Dr. Maurice K. Dwinell went there, 
and about that time Dr. Joseph H. Knox went from Bangor to Waterville. 

In Rockland Dr. J. M. Blaisdell was the pioneer in 1862. In Damaris- 
cotta the same year Dr. J. P. Paine introduced the practice. Dr. Joseph M. 
King is in practice there at the present time. 

Richmond and Rockport (Camden) were the only new points in Maine in 
which homoeopathy was introduced in 1854. Dr. J. D. Young was the pio- 
neer in Richmond and Dr. Hosea B. Eaton in Rockport. In 1857 Dr. David 
S. Richards went to Richmond, remaining there permanently. 

In 1856 Dr. Herbert C. Bradford introduced homoeopathy in Lewiston. 
Dr. J. O. Moore in Saco, and Dr. Edward W. Morton in Kennebunk. 

Dr. T. S. Goodwin opened an office in Skowhegan in 1857, ^^^'^ the next 
year Dr. J. H. Hamilton went there, remaining two years. Dr. Goodwin re- 
mained until 1865 and was succeeded in the next year by Dr. Sumner H. 
Boynton. He left in 1867. In April, 1869, Dr. Thomas L. Bradford grad- 
uated from the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania and located 
at Skowhegan, where he remained until the spring of 1877 and then removed 
to Philadelphia, his present residence. In 1874 Dr. Winfield S. Wright prac- 
ticed in Skowhegan for a few months. Dr. Fellows continued in practice 
there until 1890, when he went to Bangor. Dr. Cora M. Johnson located at 
Skowhegan in 1883. Dr. Samuel G. Scwell went to Skowhegan in 1882 or 
1883. Drs. William M. Pulsifer and Johnson are now located there. 

Homoeopathy was introduced in Farmington in i86t by Dr. W. H. Ham- 


ilton. In 1863 Dr. O. W. True located there. Drs. F. O. Lyford, William 
Randall and Mary F. Cushman have practiced in Farmington. 

In 1862 Dr. J. W. Savage opened an office in East Wiscasset. In 1866 
Dr. S. E. Hartwell located in Strong. Dr. B. L. Dresser located at Sears- 
port about 1866. Later Dr. William R. Knowles went there. 

Dr. William E. Payne was born in Unity, Kennebec county, November 
15, 181 5. He graduated from the Maine Medical School in 1838 and located in 
Bath. In September, 1840, he embraced homoeopathy. He was prominent 
both in the councils of his professional brethren in the state and in the Ameri- 
can Institute of Homoeopathy. He was active and emeritus professor in the 
Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, Boston University, and the 

Nancy T. Williams, M. D. 

New York Homoeopathic Medical College. He was one of the editors of 
the " North American Journal of Homoeopathy," and was honorary member 
of several state societies. He was several times connected with the city gov- 
ernment in Bath, traveled extensively in Europe, and may be considered the 
father of homoeopathy in Maine. He died in Bath, May 9, 1877. 

Dr. James Batchelder Bell was born in Monson, Piscataquis county, Feb- 
ruary 21, 1838. He graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical College of 
Pennsylvania in 1859, passed the following year in the hospitals of Vienna, and 
in 1861 located in Augusta, remaining there until 1880, when he went to 
Boston, Mass., where he became associated with Dr. William P. Wesselhoeft, 
He is still in practice in Boston. 


Dr. Eliphalet Clark was born in Strong, Maine, in 1801. He attended 
medical lectures at the Bowdoin Medical School and graduated from there 
in 1824. He began practice in Wilton, but in 1830 removed to Portland, 
where he buili up a large business. He died in Portland, June 8, 1883. 

Dr. John Merrill was born in Conway, N. H., in 1782; attended Phillips 
(Exeter) Academy; graduated from Harvard College in 1804; studied medi- 
cine with Dr. John Warren, and graduated from the Harvard Medical School 
in 1807. He then located in Portland and began the practice of homoeopathy 
in 1841. He died there, June 7, 1855. 

Dr. Richmond Bradford was born in Turner, Me., in 1801 ; graduated 
from Bowdoin College in 1825 ; in medicine from the same institution in 1829, 
and located in Turner. In 1835 he went to Auburn, being the only physician 
there and the adjoining town of Lewiston. He adopted homoeopathy in 1845. 
He died in Auburn, December 21, 1874. 

Dr. George P. Jefiferds was born at Kennebunkport, May 7, 1816; grad- 
uated from the Bowdoin Medical School in 1845 ! located in his native place 
and remained there until i860. In 1849 ^^ became a homceopathist. 

Dr. Milton S. Briry was born in Bowdoin, May 17, 1825; graduated 
from the Maine Medical School in 1853, ^^^ settled in Bath ; adopted homoe- 
opathy in 1855; died in Bath, August 2, 1899. 

Dr. Albert Rea was born in Windham, Cumberland county. Me., in 1795; 
graduated from the Harvard Medical School in 1819, and in 1820 settled in 
Portland. He became a convert in 1841. He died in Portland, October 14, 

Dr. James Merrill Cummings was born in Boston, Mass., July 27, 1810; 
graduated from the Bowdoin Medical School, and located in Calais, Me. ; 
removed to Nashua, N. H., and from there to Cairo, 111. ; returned east and 
settled in Groton, Mass.; remained there until 1846, and then went to Salem; 
adopted homoeopathy in 1844; died in Portland, July 20, 1883. 

Dr. Moses Dodge was born in Sedgewick, Me., March 9, 1812; grad- 
uated from the Bowdoin Medical School in 1838, and commenced the prac- 
tice of medicine at Sedgewick. In 1846, desiring a larger field, he started 
westward and located at Portland, Oregon. He died there, October 18, 1879. 

Homoeopathic physicians in Maine previous to i860. The date preceding 
the name indicates the year the physician began the practice of homoeopathy. 
The character * indicates that the practitioner originally was of some other 
school ; the character x indicates that the physician practiced medicine be- 
fore the date given. 

1849 • Batchelder, B. H. * Montville 1845 Dodge, Moses * Portland 

1857 Barrows, J. H. x North Vassalboro 1854 Eaton, Hosea B. * Rockport 

1859 Bel], James B. Augusta 1857 Flanders, David P. Belfast 

1845 Bradford, Richmond * Auburn 1850 Frost, James H. P. Bangor 

1856 Bradford, Herbert C. Lewiston 1840 Gallup, William * Bangor 
1859 Briry, Milton H. * Bath 1857 Goodwin, T. S. Skowhegan 

1857 Brown. E. W. x Portland 1847 Green, Dr. Augusta 
1859 Burr, Charles H. Portland 1855 Hill, Rev. Mr. Winthrop 
1845 Gate, Shadrach M. Augusta 1858 Hamilton. J. H. Skowhegan 
1847 Chamberlain, William B. China 1840 Jackson, W. F. Gardiner 

1840 Clark, Eliphalet * Portland 1849 Jefferds, Geo. P. * Kennebunkport 

1856 Cochran, Charles A. Winthrop 1852 Kellogg, Edwin Merritt Bangor 
1844 Cummings, James M. * Portland 1841 Merrill, John * Portland 

1857 Currier, Dr. x Readfield 1857 Morton, E. W. x Kennebunk 



1849 Moore, James Otis Saco 1861 
1858 Mitchell, Dr. 1844 
1857 Mulvey, B. C. x Saco 1840 
1853 Palmer, F. N. Gardiner 1858 
1843 Payne, John * Belfast 1845 
1840 Payne, William E. * Bath 1843 
1846 Pavne, Lvcurgus V. Belfast 1850 
1851 Pulsifer, Nathan G. H. * Waterville 1857 

1850 Pulsifer, Moses R. * Ellsworth .... 
1857 Putnam, James T. x York 1858 
1840 Rea, Albert * Portland 1854 
1857 Richards, D. S. * Richmond 

Roberts, F. A. * China 
Roberts, Jacob * Brooks 
Sandicky, D. F. Bath— Portland 
Seymour, D. E. Calais 
Sh'ackford, Rufus Portland 
Snell, Dr. * Bangor 
Thompson, G. P. * Yarmouth 
Thompson, William L. Augusta 
Whiting, Danforth Augusta 
Williams, R. R. Qinton 
Young, J. D. Richmond 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Brief Allusion to the Hahnemann Monument — Ceremonies of the Unveiling — The Wash- 
ington Convention — Homoeopathic Societies and Hospitals — Dr. John Piper, the First 
Homoeopathic Physician in the District of Columbia — Reminiscences and List of 
Early Practitioners. 

" We give into your keeping this testimonial of our recognition of one 
of the world's most pronounced benefactors. Take it under the national pro- 
tection; guard it as the cherished object of millions of our people." 

These words were spoken by Dr. Charles Edgar Walton, of Cincinnati, 
in his official capacity as president of the American Institute of Homoeopathy 
to Col. Theodore A. Bingham, superintendent of public buildings and 
grounds in the District of Columbia, on the occasion of the national conven- 
tion of the American Institute of Homoeopathy in the city of Washington dur- 
ing the week beginning June 19, 1900. 

The annual convention of the institute in 1900 was held in the capitol city 
for the complete fulfillment of a special object, the accomplishment of which 
in all its details had engaged the attention of that body for several years, and 
now had attained fruition. The occasion was that of the formal unveiling 
and presentation of the Hahnemann monument, and its presentation t^ the 
national government through the custodian of the public properties. 

This event alone was sufficient to give the District of Columbia unusual 
prominence in the annals of homoeopathy in America ; an importance which 
overshadowed all else besides in the history of the Hahnemannian school of 
medicine in the region in question, even from the time when Dr. John Piper 
graduated from the allopathic University of Maryland, fell under the influence 
of that worthy pioneer of Baltimore — Dr. Felix McManus — and was by him 
proselyted to the teachings of Hahnemann. On this subject, however, more 
will be said in a later part of this chapter. 

The exercises at the unveiling and presentation were presided over by 
Dr. J. B. Gregg Custis, of Washington, who called the assemblage to order 
and then said : 

" We are gathered together upon an occasion which in some of its aspects is solenan, 
in some glorious, in all momentous. Solemn, because wc have assumed the responsibility 
of setting as an ideal for the twentieth century a character to whom a memorial con- 
stituting the greatest testimonial ever received by any in the walks of life followed by our 
confrere, Samuel Hahnemann, we are now about to dedicate. 

" Glorious, because it represents a completed work, conceived in Washington, nur- 
tured by the American Institute of Homoeopathy, and made possible by the liberality of 
the adherents and patrons of the school founded by him, in whose honor this grand work 
of art and architecture is erected. 

" Momentous, because it places in bold relief the fact that truth, represented simply 
by a thought, can, in so short a time, in a country whose motto is freedom, reach its 

Presentation, by Dr. Charles E. Walton. 

Ode to Hahnemann, by Dr. Wm. Tod Hchnuth. 


highest development. This monument is erected in the hope that from it, as a center, 
truth may be spread, which will result in the lessening of suffering, and the increased 
usefulness of mankind." 

Following- Dr. Custis's address, and the invocation of Rev. B. F. Bel- 
linger, the monument was formally presented to the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy by Dr. James H. McClelland of Pittsburg, chairman of the 
monument committee, who said : 

" Eight years ago at a meeting of the American Institute of Homoeopathy in this city 
this committee was charged with the extra professional duty of erecting a monument 
which should be a suitable memorial to the man whom we wish to honor and be com- 
mensurate with the dignity of the body we have the honor to represent. Your committee, 
after many failures, finally secured a design which it feels sure will meet the approval of 
our parent body and all those who love the beautiful in art as well as that which repre- 
sents a great and noble idea. We are indebted for this beautiful sculpture to an American 
— Mr. Charles Henry Nieuhaus — and for the exquisite architectural effects to Mr. Julius 
F. Harder of New York. 

" Mr. President, 1 take pleasure in transferring to your keeping, for the time, this 
monument erected to the honor and glory of Samuel Hahnemann." 

After the formal presentation of the monument to the institute an orig- 
hial ode to Hahnemann was read by Dr. William Tod Helmuth, of New York, 
city, in which the achievements of the founder of the homoeopathic school 
were treated at length. In presenting the monument to the government 
President Walton made a splendid address, and at its close turned to Col. 
Bingham and said the words quoted at the beginning of this chapter. 

The monument is in the form of the Greek exhedra and is elliptical in 
plan. Four steps in front lead up to the lesser axis, at the back of which 
rises the superstructure. The sitting statue of Hahnemann, heroic in size, 
and mounted on a granite pedestal, is placed in the central portion, which 
is composed of four columns supporting an entablature, above which is an 
attica with the inscription, " Hahnemann." On the base of the pedestal is 
the motto, " Similia Similibus Curantur." The statue itself is the culmina- 
tion of the plan of the monument. By the expression of the features and 
the pose of the figure it is designed to convey the characteristics of the philos- 
opher, philanthropist and teacher, and above all the leader of a great reforma- 
tion in the medical practice of his period. (D. M. C. Journal, Ap. 1900.) 

The Washington convention, held during the winter of 1871, was a mem- 
orable occasion in homoeopathic medical annals. It was composed of dele- 
gates from the several state medical societies, and its object was to protest 
against the open hostility to the school on the part of a certain prominent of- 
ficer of the pension department, and, if possible, to accomplish his removal 
from office. The purpose of the convention was entirely successful, the ob- 
noxious ofificial was removed, and the integrity of the homoeopathic profes- 
sion was fully vindicated. 

The Washington Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized in the 
city of Washington in the District of Columbia, May 20, 1870, in pursuance 
of an act of congress passed April 15 of that year. Its first officers were Dr. 
Tullio S. Verdi, president; Dr. C. W. Sonnenschmidt, secretary; Dr. G. W. 
Pope, treasurer; Drs. J. Brainerd, J. T. O'Connor and S. J. Grout, censors. 

The Washington Medical and Surgical Qub was organized in 1866 but 
was not incorporated. 

The National Homoeopathic Hospital of Washington is the outgrowth 
of a movement which had its beginning in 1881 in the organization of a hos- 


pital association of which Montgomery Blair was the first . president. This 
association organized the Homoeopathic Free Dispensary, which dates its his- 
tory from November, 1882. Two years later steps were taken toward the 
erection of a hospital building, and after various attempts to maintain such 
an institution without an appeal to congress for aid, such action was taken 
and an appropriation of $15,000 was voted in its behalf. A new hospital was 
built and opened February i, 1886. The officers of the hospital association 
comprise a president, a vice-president from each state, a secretary, treas- 
urer, board of trustees, and a medical staff of thirteen physicians who are 
members of the homoeopathic medical society of the district. A nurse's school 

Tullio S. Verdi, M. D. 

was opened in 1893. In 1903 preparations were made for the erection of an 
addition to the hospital establishment, to be known as the Gardner Memorial, 
for which congress appropriated $50,000. 


History accords to Dr. John Piper the honor of having first carried 
the gospel of Hahnemann into the District of Columbia, and biographers 
say that the pioneer had left the University of Maryland school of med- 
icine in 1839, bearing the diploma of that honored institution; but 
before he entered the district territory he came under the influence of Dr. 
Felix R. McManus, who made known to him the sounder philosophy of Hahne- 



mann and easily persuaded him to adopt it in his practice ; and thus con- 
verted and equipped with the necessaries for professional work he took up 
his abode in the city of Washington in 1841. He died there, March 16, 1871. 

During the fifteen years next following the advent of Dr. Piper the in- 
crease in number of practitioners in the district was small, being only five 
in 1857, and seventeen in 1870. In later years the growth of the system 
was more rapid, statistics showing thirty-seven practitioners of the school in 
the district in 1883, seventy-five in 1899, and seventy-two in 1904. 

Dr. Jonas Green, who had been a practitioner of homoeopathy in Phila- 
delphia, Avent to Washington about 1845. His name appears in the register 
of the American Institute of Homoeopathy in 1846 as located at Washington, 

Susan Ann Edson, M. D. 

although in 1844 he is mentioned as dwelling in Philadelphia. Dr. Green 
died in 1868. 

Dr. Gustavus William Pope settled in Washington in 1856. He was 
a native of Niagara, N. Y., graduated from the Albany Medical College in 
185 1, and in 1852 was assistant physician in the New York State Lunatic 
Asylum at Oneida. He remained there two years and during that time his 
attention was galled to homoeopathy. Despite all the opposition of his fam- 
ily, in which were two distinguished allopathic physicians, he continued t6 
study the subject and test it carefully for three years. Finally he avowed his 
belief in it, resigned from the Oneida County Medical Society, and in 1856 



went to Washington, where his ability soon secured for him a large practice. 
Dr. Pope for many years was one of the well known figures in Washington 
life. His death occurred in July, 1902. 

Dr. Tullio Suzzara Verdi, a native of Italy, who had been in the Sardinian 
army in 1848, and in consequence had been proscribed by the Austrians, came 
to New York in 1857, landing in that city with but five dollars in his pocket. 
He there met Garibaldi, who introduced him to George Washington Greene, 
professor of modern languages in Brown University, in Providence. He 
was soon able to support himself by teaching French and Italian, and he soon 
gained such knowledge of English that he was able to lecture in that language 
upon the Italian revolution. Two years later Professor Greene resigned his 

Jehu Brainerd, M. D. 

office and it was tendered to Verdi. He then sent for his two brothers, and 
while still holding his professorship devoted his leisure hours to the study 
of medicine under Dr. A. Howard Okie, a homoeopathic physician then lo- 
cated in Providence. In 1856 he graduated from the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania, and located in Newport, R. I., but in 1857 removed 
to Washington. In 1871 he was appointed a member of the only board of 
health of the District of Columbia created by congress, and was its secretary, 
and also was chairman of the sanitary commission. It was through his efforts 
that a charter was obtained for the Washington Homoeopathic Society, with 
all the rights and privileges of the other older societies. He also was of in- 


fluence in securing the admission of homoeopathic physicians as examining 
surgeons for pensions. Dr. Verdi lived for many years in Washington, but 
in 1895, on account of faihng heahh, decided to retire from practice and re- 
turn to Italy. 

In 1861, at the beginning of the war, Dr. Susan Ann Edson went to 
Washington to devote herself to her country's cause. She had graduated 
from the Western College of Homoeopathic Medicine in 1854, and afterward 
practiced in Cleveland and in Ashtabula, Ohio. At that time Columbia Col- 
lege on Meridian Hill was used as a hospital, and Dr. Edson acted as nurse 
there from August, 1861, to March, 1862. From there she went to the Hygeia 
Hospital at Fortress Monroe. She also occasionally acted as physician. She 
was engaged in hospital work during the entire war, after which she located 
as a practicing physician in Washington. She died there November 12, 

Dr. Caroline Brown Winslow located in Washington in 1864. She had 
graduated from tlie Western College of Homoeopathic Medicine in 1856, and 
for a time practiced in Utica, N. Y. 

Dr. Jehu Brainerd went to Washington and opened an ofifice for practice 
in 1861. He was for many years a teacher and professor in various colleges, 
holding chairs of natural sciences and of chemistry. His attention was drawn 
to homoeopathy in 1842, while living in Ohio. He was connected with the 
Western College of Homoeopathic Medicine, the Agricultural College of 
Ohio, and the Women's Homoeopathic College of Cleveland. He died in 
Washington, in March, 1878. 

Dr. Ciro Suzzara Verdi graduated from the New York Homoeopathic 
'College in 1861, and then located in Georgetown. He died in 1887. 

Homoeopathic physicians in the District of Columbia previous to 1861. 
The date preceding the name indicates the year the physician began the 
practice of homoeopathy. The character * indicates that the practitioner orig- 
inally was of some other school ; the character x indicates that the physician 
practiced medicine before the date given. 

1857 Appleton, H. D. x Washington 1840 Piper, John R. * Washington 

1842 Brainerd. Jehu Washington 1855 Pope, Gustavus W. * Washington 

1854 Edson, Susan Ann Washington 1857 Thorne, J. x Washington 

1835 Green. Jonas Washington 1856 Verdi, Tullio S. Washington 

1857 Herniss, S. x Washington 1861 Verdi, Ciro S. Georgetown 




By Thomas Lindsley Bradford, M. D. 

Beginnings of Homoeopathy in Michigan — Early Practitioners all Converted Allopaths — 
Record of Medical Societies — Hall and Lamb, the Pioneers — Reminiscences and Lists 
of Early Practitioners. 

History and tradition both accord to homoeopathy in Michigan a lodg- 
ment sometime between the years 1841 and 1843, ^nd ^t a time wlien the tide 
of emigration first set strongly toward the great northwest territory of which 
the " Wolverine " state then formed a part. Here homoeopathy was intro- 
duced soon after the region in question evolved from a territory into a state 
of the federal union. In the years following the growth of the new system 
was more rapid than in many other states farther east and south, and the 
work of the pioneers soon spread the doctrine of Hahnemann throughout the 
entire region. 

One, of the most noticeable facts in connection with early homoeopathy 
in Michigan was that almost every one of its pioneers was a converted allo- 
path, an excellent practitioner and a man of influence, well equipped in every 
respect to battle against the cholera ravages which soon came upon the coun- 
try, and also to wage battle in the war of words and argument which pre- 
ceded the absol